The nosological status of the putative clinical entity of compensation neurosis and the relationship of chronic pain complaints to compensation are explored. It is concluded that, using the traditional criteria of diagnostic validity, there is no support for the view that a specific type of psychiatric disorder related to compensation or litigation can be demonstrated. Although it has been generally considered that chronic pain complaints reflect an underlying disease state, recent evidence has shown that in the medico-legal setting the nature (...) of the compensation system and the level of available benefits have a marked influence on both the rate of chronic pain complaints and the duration of pain related work incapacity. (shrink)
Originating in the Sophistic pedagogy of Protagoras and reflecting the sceptical practice of the New Academy, Quintilian's rhetorical pedagogy places a special emphasis on the juxtaposition of multiple, competing claims. This inherently dialogical approach to argumentation is referred to here as controversia and is on full display in Quintilian's own argumentative practice. More important to this paper, however, is the role of controversia as an organizing principle for Quintilian's rhetorical curriculum. In particular, Quintilian introduces the protocols of controversia through a (...) series of progressively more complex exercises in imitation, role-playing, and declamation (now referred to as situational games). All of these exercises are open for adaptation by contemporary teachers who would promote a dialogical approach to argument, i.e. argument with its methods of inquiry, invention, and judgment based on direct interaction with opposing parties. (shrink)
The author of this article maintains that there is a progression in plato's "phaedo" from argument and myth to action. In the dialogue, socrates is portrayed as a believer in immortality. How is that belief conveyed to skeptics like simmias? it is argued here that plato deliberately employs a variety of methods because men are not convinced by rational argument. Plato's depiction of socrates' own death is itself the final demonstration.
This commentary focuses on Dixon et al.'s discussion on the dangers of employing prejudice-reduction interventions that seek to promote intergroup harmony in historically unequal societies. Specifically, it illustrates these dangers by discussing my work in Israel (now mentioned in Dixon et al.'s note 6) on the processes and practices through which reconciliation-aimed encounters between Jews and Arabs mitigate sociopolitical change.
A moral geography -- Democracy, the moral psychology, and the moral individual -- Premoral and moral culture -- Two forms of antimoralism -- Love and money: the contracting role of the family -- Moral reform and pseudo-moralism -- Cool -- Vengeance and the erosion of law -- The academy -- Science and morality.
Three alternative methods are proposed to determine a normative standard concerning the fair proportion of seats a party ought to receive in a representative assembly as a function of the voters' preference orderings. The methods differ from one another in their treatment of indifference relations and the assumptions they make about the type of scale underlying voters' preferences. Common to all three methods is the basic idea that the ratio between the number of voters preferring party i over j to (...) the number of voters preferring party j over i can be tested for consistency, in a precisely defined sense, and if sufficiently consistent, can be appropriately scaled to determine the proportion of seats each party ought to receive. The proposed solutions are shown to satisfy several desiderata when the matrix of preference ratios is consistent. When there are cyclical majorities of equal size, the matrix of preference ratios is inconsistent. The main application of the proposed scheme is as a normative benchmark against which actual or proposed voting procedures can be evaluated in proportional representation systems. The theoretical implications of these solutions are briefly discussed. (shrink)