Search results for 'Agents' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Mark Jago (2009). Epistemic Logic for Rule-Based Agents. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 18 (1):131-158.score: 24.0
    The logical omniscience problem, whereby standard models of epistemic logic treat an agent as believing all consequences of its beliefs and knowing whatever follows from what else it knows, has received plenty of attention in the literature. But many attempted solutions focus on a fairly narrow specification of the problem: avoiding the closure of belief or knowledge, rather than showing how the proposed logic is of philosophical interest or of use in computer science or artificial intelligence. Sentential epistemic logics, as (...)
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  2. Franck Varenne (2010). Framework for M&S with Agents in Regard to Agent Simulations in Social Sciences: Emulation and Simulation. In Alexandre Muzy, David R. C. Hill & Bernard P. Zeigler (eds.), Activity-Based Modeling and Simulation. Presses Universitaires Blaise-Pascal.score: 24.0
    The aim of this paper is to discuss the “Framework for M&S with Agents” (FMSA) proposed by Zeigler et al. [2000, 2009] in regard to the diverse epistemological aims of agent simulations in social sciences. We first show that there surely are great similitudes, hence that the aim to emulate a universal “automated modeler agent” opens new ways of interactions between these two domains of M&S with agents. E.g., it can be shown that the multi-level conception at the (...)
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  3. Luciano Floridi & J. W. Sanders (2004). On the Morality of Artificial Agents. Minds and Machines 14 (3):349-379.score: 24.0
    Artificial agents (AAs), particularly but not only those in Cyberspace, extend the class of entities that can be involved in moral situations. For they can be conceived of as moral patients (as entities that can be acted upon for good or evil) and also as moral agents (as entities that can perform actions, again for good or evil). In this paper, we clarify the concept of agent and go on to separate the concerns of morality and responsibility of (...)
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  4. Natasha Alechina, Mark Jago & Brian Logan (2008). Preference-Based Belief Revision for Rule-Based Agents. Synthese 165 (2):159-177.score: 24.0
    Agents which perform inferences on the basis of unreliable information need an ability to revise their beliefs if they discover an inconsistency. Such a belief revision algorithm ideally should be rational, should respect any preference ordering over the agent’s beliefs (removing less preferred beliefs where possible) and should be fast. However, while standard approaches to rational belief revision for classical reasoners allow preferences to be taken into account, they typically have quite high complexity. In this paper, we consider belief (...)
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  5. Deborah G. Johnson & Keith W. Miller (2008). Un-Making Artificial Moral Agents. Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):123-133.score: 24.0
    Floridi and Sanders, seminal work, “On the morality of artificial agents” has catalyzed attention around the moral status of computer systems that perform tasks for humans, effectively acting as “artificial agents.” Floridi and Sanders argue that the class of entities considered moral agents can be expanded to include computers if we adopt the appropriate level of abstraction. In this paper we argue that the move to distinguish levels of abstraction is far from decisive on this issue. We (...)
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  6. Frances S. Grodzinsky, Keith W. Miller & Marty J. Wolf (2008). The Ethics of Designing Artificial Agents. Ethics and Information Technology 10 (2-3):115-121.score: 24.0
    In their important paper “Autonomous Agents”, Floridi and Sanders use “levels of abstraction” to argue that computers are or may soon be moral agents. In this paper we use the same levels of abstraction to illuminate differences between human moral agents and computers. In their paper, Floridi and Sanders contributed definitions of autonomy, moral accountability and responsibility, but they have not explored deeply some essential questions that need to be answered by computer scientists who design artificial (...). One such question is, “Can an artificial agent that changes its own programming become so autonomous that the original designer is no longer responsible for the behavior of the artificial agent?” To explore this question, we distinguish between LoA1 (the user view) and LoA2 (the designer view) by exploring the concepts of unmodifiable, modifiable and fully modifiable tables that control artificial agents. We demonstrate that an agent with an unmodifiable table, when viewed at LoA2, distinguishes an artificial agent from a human one. This distinction supports our first counter-claim to Floridi and Sanders, namely, that such an agent is not a moral agent, and the designer bears full responsibility for its behavior. We also demonstrate that even if there is an artificial agent with a fully modifiable table capable of learning* and intentionality* that meets the conditions set by Floridi and Sanders for ascribing moral agency to an artificial agent, the designer retains strong moral responsibility. (shrink)
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  7. Giovanni Sartor (2009). Cognitive Automata and the Law: Electronic Contracting and the Intentionality of Software Agents. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 17 (4):253-290.score: 24.0
    I shall argue that software agents can be attributed cognitive states, since their behaviour can be best understood by adopting the intentional stance. These cognitive states are legally relevant when agents are delegated by their users to engage, without users’ review, in choices based on their the agents’ own knowledge. Consequently, both with regard to torts and to contracts, legal rules designed for humans can also be applied to software agents, even though the latter do not (...)
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  8. John P. Sullins (2005). Ethics and Artificial Life: From Modeling to Moral Agents. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 7 (3):139-148.score: 24.0
    Artificial Life (ALife) has two goals. One attempts to describe fundamental qualities of living systems through agent based computer models. And the second studies whether or not we can artificially create living things in computational mediums that can be realized either, virtually in software, or through biotechnology. The study of ALife has recently branched into two further subdivisions, one is “dry” ALife, which is the study of living systems “in silico” through the use of computer simulations, and the other is (...)
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  9. David Blumenfeld (2011). Lucky Agents, Big and Little: Should Size Really Matter? Philosophical Studies 156 (3):311-319.score: 24.0
    This essay critically examines Alfred R. Mele’s attempt to solve a problem for libertarianism that he calls the problem of present luck. Many have thought that the traditional libertarian belief in basically free acts (where the latter are any free A-ings that occur at times at which the past up to that time and the laws of nature are consistent with the agent’s not A-ing at that time) entail that the acts are due to luck at the time of the (...)
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  10. Jiahong Guo (2009). The Incorporation of Moorean Type Information by Introspective Agents. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (3):470-482.score: 24.0
    The main task is to discuss the issue in belief dynamics in which philosophical beliefs and rational introspective agents incorporate Moorean type new information. First, a brief survey is conducted on Moore’s Paradox, and one of its solutions is introduced with the help of Update Semantics. Then, we present a Dynamic Doxastic Logic (DDL) which revises the belief of introspective agents put forward by Lindström & Rabinowicz. Next, we attempt to incorporate Moorean type new information within the DEL (...)
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  11. Benjamin G. Purzycki, Daniel N. Finkel, John Shaver, Nathan Wales, Adam B. Cohen & Richard Sosis (2012). What Does God Know? Supernatural Agents' Access to Socially Strategic and Non-Strategic Information. Cognitive Science 36 (5):846-869.score: 24.0
    Current evolutionary and cognitive theories of religion posit that supernatural agent concepts emerge from cognitive systems such as theory of mind and social cognition. Some argue that these concepts evolved to maintain social order by minimizing antisocial behavior. If these theories are correct, then people should process information about supernatural agents’ socially strategic knowledge more quickly than non-strategic knowledge. Furthermore, agents’ knowledge of immoral and uncooperative social behaviors should be especially accessible to people. To examine these hypotheses, we (...)
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  12. Rafael Capurro (2012). Toward a Comparative Theory of Agents. AI and Society 27 (4):479-488.score: 24.0
    The purpose of this paper is to address some of the questions on the notion of agent and agency in relation to property and personhood. I argue that following the Kantian criticism of Aristotelian metaphysics, contemporary biotechnology and information and communication technologies bring about a new challenge—this time, with regard to the Kantian moral subject understood in the subject’s unique metaphysical qualities of dignity and autonomy. The concept of human dignity underlies the foundation of many democratic systems, particularly in Europe (...)
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  13. Johannes Brinkmann (2009). Putting Ethics on the Agenda for Real Estate Agents. Journal of Business Ethics 88 (1):65 - 82.score: 24.0
    This article uses sociological role theory to help understand ethical challenges faced by Norwegian real estate agents. The article begins with an introductory case, and then briefly examines the strengths and limitations of using legal definitions and rules for understanding real estate agency and real estate agent ethics. It goes on to argue that the ethical challenges of real estate agency can be described and understood as a system of conflicting roles with associated rights and duties, in particular sales (...)
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  14. Peter McBurney & Simon Parsons (2002). Games That Agents Play: A Formal Framework for Dialogues Between Autonomous Agents. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 11 (3):315-334.score: 24.0
    We present a logic-based formalism for modeling ofdialogues between intelligent and autonomous software agents,building on a theory of abstract dialogue games which we present.The formalism enables representation of complex dialogues assequences of moves in a combination of dialogue games, and allowsdialogues to be embedded inside one another. The formalism iscomputational and its modular nature enables different types ofdialogues to be represented.
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  15. Christopher Wareham (2011). On the Moral Equality of Artificial Agents. International Journal of Technoethics 2 (1):35-42.score: 24.0
    Artificial agents such as robots are performing increasingly significant ethical roles in society. As a result, there is a growing literature regarding their moral status with many suggesting it is justified to regard manufactured entities as having intrinsic moral worth. However, the question of whether artificial agents could have the high degree of moral status that is attributed to human persons has largely been neglected. To address this question, the author developed a respect-based account of the ethical criteria (...)
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  16. Bas R. Steunebrink, Mehdi Dastani & John-Jules Ch Meyer (2012). A Formal Model of Emotion Triggers: An Approach for BDI Agents. Synthese 185 (S1):83-129.score: 24.0
    This paper formalizes part of a well-known psychological model of emotions. In particular, the logical structure underlying the conditions that trigger emotions are studied and then hierarchically organized. The insights gained therefrom are used to guide a formalization of emotion triggers, which proceeds in three stages. The first stage captures the conditions that trigger emotions in a semiformal way, i.e., without committing to an underlying formalism and semantics. The second stage captures the main psychological notions used in the emotion model (...)
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  17. V. Wiegel, M. J. Van den Hoven & G. J. C. Lokhorst (2005). Privacy, Deontic Epistemic Action Logic and Software Agents. Ethics and Information Technology 7 (4):251-264.score: 24.0
    In this paper we present an executable approach to model interactions between agents that involve sensitive, privacy-related information. The approach is formal and based on deontic, epistemic and action logic. It is conceptually related to the Belief-Desire-Intention model of Bratman. Our approach uses the concept of sphere as developed by Waltzer to capture the notion that information is provided mostly with restrictions regarding its application. We use software agent technology to create an executable approach. Our agents hold beliefs (...)
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  18. Frances Brazier, Anja Oskamp, Corien Prins, Maurice Schellekens & Niek Wijngaards (2004). Anonymity and Software Agents: An Interdisciplinary Challenge. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (1-2):137-157.score: 24.0
    Software agents that play a role in E-commerce and E-government applications involving the Internet often contain information about the identity of their human user such as credit cards and bank accounts. This paper discusses whether this is necessary: whether human users and software agents are allowed to be anonymous under the relevant legal regimes and whether an adequate interaction and balance between law and anonymity can be realised from both the perspective of Computer Systems and the perspective of (...)
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  19. Frances Brazier, Anja Oskamp, Corien Prins, Maurice Schellekens & Niek Wijngaards (2004). Law-Abiding and Integrity on the Internet: A Case for Agents. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (1-2):5-37.score: 24.0
    Software agents extend the current, information-based Internet to include autonomous mobile processing. In most countries such processes, i.e., software agents are, however, without an explicit legal status. Many of the legal implications of their actions (e.g., gathering information, negotiating terms, performing transactions) are not well understood. One important characteristic of mobile software agents is that they roam the Internet: they often run on agent platforms of others. There often is no pre-existing relation between the owner of a (...)
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  20. Michael Fisher & Chiara Ghidini (2009). Exploring the Future with Resource-Bounded Agents. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 18 (1):3-21.score: 24.0
    We here describe research into the formal specification and implementation of resource-bounded agents. In particular, we provide an overview of our work on incorporating resource limitations into executable agent specifications. In addition, we outline future directions, highlighting both their promise and their problems.
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  21. Suraiya Ishak & Mohd Hussain (2013). Moral Awareness Among Future Development Agents: An Action Study. [REVIEW] Asian Journal of Business Ethics 2 (1):79 - 89.score: 24.0
    Abstract The aim of this article is to describe the moral awareness of future development agents in Malaysia. This study involved a group of senior students from the Developmental Studies program of the Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, National University of Malaysia. The underpinning theories for this study have been based on the Rest's model on moral decision-making and Kohlberg's moral on cognitive development theory. The moral awareness of the students is considerably at high level scores. However, there (...)
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  22. Emily M. Weitzenböck (2004). Good Faith and Fair Dealing in Contracts Formed and Performed by Electronic Agents. Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (1-2):83-110.score: 24.0
    The development of electronic agents that increasingly play an active role in the contract formation and execution process has highlighted the need for the creation of law-abiding autonomous agent systems. The principle of good faith is an important guideline for contractual behaviour which permeates civil law systems. This paper examines how this principle is applied both during the negotiation of a contract and during its performance. Selected examples from civil law literature of precontractual duties of good faith, and of (...)
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  23. Steffen Wettig & Eberhard Zehender (2004). A Legal Analysis of Human and Electronic Agents. Artificial Intelligence and Law 12 (1-2):111-135.score: 24.0
    Currently, electronic agents are being designed and implemented that, unprecedentedly, will be capable of performing legally binding actions. These advances necessitate a thorough treatment of their legal consequences. In our paper, we first demonstrate that electronic agents behave structurally similar to human agents. Then we study how declarations of intention stated by an electronic agent are related to ordinary declarations of intention given by natural persons or legal entities, and also how the actions of electronic agents (...)
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  24. Alexander Serenko, Umar Ruhi & Mihail Cocosila (2006). Unplanned Effects of Intelligent Agents on Internet Use: A Social Informatics Approach. [REVIEW] AI and Society 21 (1-2):141-166.score: 24.0
    This paper instigates a discourse on the unplanned effects of intelligent agents in the context of their use on the Internet. By utilizing a social informatics framework as a lens of analysis, the study identifies several unanticipated consequences of using intelligent agents for information- and commerce-based tasks on the Internet. The effects include those that transpire over time at the organizational level, such as e-commerce transformation, operational encumbrance and security overload, as well as those that emerge on a (...)
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  25. Tangming Yuan, David Moore & Alec Grierson (2003). Computational Agents as a Test-Bed to Study the Philosophical Dialogue Model "DE": A Development of Mackenzie's DC. Informal Logic 23 (3).score: 24.0
    This paper reports research concerning a suitable dialogue model for human computer debate. In particular, we consider the adoption of Moore's (1993) utilization of Mackenzie's (1979) game DC, means of using computational agents as the test-bed to facilitate evaluation of the proposed model, and means of using the evaluation results as motivation to further develop a dialogue model, which can prevent fallacious argument and common errors. It is anticipated that this work will contribute toward the development of human computer (...)
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  26. Jeff Buechner & Herman T. Tavani (2011). Trust and Multi-Agent Systems: Applying the Diffuse, Default Model of Trust to Experiments Involving Artificial Agents. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 13 (1):39-51.score: 24.0
    We argue that the notion of trust, as it figures in an ethical context, can be illuminated by examining research in artificial intelligence on multi-agent systems in which commitment and trust are modeled. We begin with an analysis of a philosophical model of trust based on Richard Holton’s interpretation of P. F. Strawson’s writings on freedom and resentment, and we show why this account of trust is difficult to extend to artificial agents (AAs) as well as to other non-human (...)
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  27. Behrouz Homayoun Far & Romi Satria Wahono (2003). Cognitive-Decision-Making Issues for Software Agents. Brain and Mind 4 (2):239-252.score: 24.0
    Rational decision making depends on what one believes, what one desires, and what one knows. In conventional decision models, beliefs are represented by probabilities and desires are represented by utilities. Software agents are knowledgeable entities capable of managing their own set of beliefs and desires, and they can decide upon the next operation to execute autonomously. They are also interactive entities capable of filtering communications and managing dialogues. Knowledgeability includes representing knowledge about the external world, reasoning with it, and (...)
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  28. F. S. Grodzinsky, K. W. Miller & M. J. Wolf (2011). Developing Artificial Agents Worthy of Trust: Would You Buy a Used Car From This Artificial Agent? [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 13 (1):17-27.score: 24.0
    There is a growing literature on the concept of e-trust and on the feasibility and advisability of “trusting” artificial agents. In this paper we present an object-oriented model for thinking about trust in both face-to-face and digitally mediated environments. We review important recent contributions to this literature regarding e-trust in conjunction with presenting our model. We identify three important types of trust interactions and examine trust from the perspective of a software developer. Too often, the primary focus of research (...)
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  29. Mark Lee & Nick Lacey, The Influence of Epistemology on the Design of Artificial Agents.score: 24.0
    Unlike natural agents, artificial agents are, to varying extent, designed according to sets of principles or assumptions. We argue that the designers philosophical position on truth, belief and knowledge has far reaching implications for the design and performance of the resulting agents. Of the many sources of design information and background we believe philosophical theories are under-rated as valuable influences on the design process. To explore this idea we have implemented some computer-based agents with their control (...)
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  30. M. H. Lee & N. J. Lacey (2003). The Influence of Epistemology on the Design of Artificial Agents. Minds and Machines 13 (3):367-395.score: 24.0
    Unlike natural agents, artificial agents are, to varying extent, designed according to sets of principles or assumptions. We argue that the designers philosophical position on truth, belief and knowledge has far reaching implications for the design and performance of the resulting agents. Of the many sources of design information and background we believe philosophical theories are under-rated as valuable influences on the design process. To explore this idea we have implemented some computer-based agents with their control (...)
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  31. Natasha Alechina & Brian Logan (2009). A Logic of Situated Resource-Bounded Agents. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 18 (1):79-95.score: 24.0
    We propose a framework for modelling situated resource-bounded agents. The framework is based on an objective ascription of intentional modalities and can be easily tailored to the system we want to model and the properties we wish to specify. As an elaboration of the framework, we introduce a logic, OBA, for describing the observations, beliefs, goals and actions of simple agents, and show that OBA is complete, decidable and has an efficient model checking procedure, allowing properties of (...) specified in OBA to be verified using standard theorem proving or model checking techniques. (shrink)
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  32. Alexander Serenko & Brian Detlor (2004). Intelligent Agents as Innovations. AI and Society 18 (4):364-381.score: 24.0
    This paper explores the treatment of intelligent agents as innovations. Past writings in the area of intelligent agents focus on the technical merits and internal workings of agent-based solutions. By adopting a perspective on agents from an innovations point of view, a new and novel description of agents is put forth in terms of their degrees of innovativeness, competitive implications, and perceived characteristics. To facilitate this description, a series of innovation-based theoretical models are utilized as a (...)
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  33. Giacomo Cabri, Luca Ferrari & Rossella Rubino (2008). Building Computational Institutions for Agents with Rolex. Artificial Intelligence and Law 16 (1):129-145.score: 24.0
    While the sociality of software agents drives toward the definition of institutions for multi agent systems, their autonomy requires that such institutions are ruled by appropriate norm mechanisms. Computational institutions represent useful abstractions. In this paper we show how computational institutions can be built on top of the RoleX infrastructure, a role-based system with interesting features for our aim. We achieve a twofold goal: on the one hand, we give concreteness to the institution abstractions; on the other hand, we (...)
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  34. Lijana Štarienė (2009). The Limits of the Use of Undercover Agents and the Right to a Fair Trial Under Article 6(1) of the European Convention on Human Rights. [REVIEW] Jurisprudence 117 (3):263-284.score: 24.0
    Various special investigative methods are more often applied nowadays; their use is unavoidably induced by today’s reality in combating organised crime in the spheres such as corruption, prostitution, drug trafficking, trafficking in persons, money counterfeit and etc. Therefore, special secret investigative methods are more often used and they are very effective in gathering evidence for the purpose of detecting and investigating very well-organised or latent crimes. Both the Convention on the Protection on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms itself, i.e. its (...)
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  35. Fernando Soler-Toscano & Fernando R. Velázquez-Quesada (2014). Generation and Selection of Abductive Explanations for Non-Omniscient Agents. Journal of Logic, Language and Information 23 (2):141-168.score: 24.0
    Among the non-monotonic reasoning processes, abduction is one of the most important. Usually described as the process of looking for explanations, it has been recognized as one of the most commonly used in our daily activities. Still, the traditional definitions of an abductive problem and an abductive solution mention only theories and formulas, leaving agency out of the picture. Our work proposes a study of abductive reasoning from an epistemic and dynamic perspective. In the first part we explore syntactic definitions (...)
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  36. Régis Riveret, Antonino Rotolo & Giovanni Sartor (2012). Probabilistic Rule-Based Argumentation for Norm-Governed Learning Agents. Artificial Intelligence and Law 20 (4):383-420.score: 24.0
    This paper proposes an approach to investigate norm-governed learning agents which combines a logic-based formalism with an equation-based counterpart. This dual formalism enables us to describe the reasoning of such agents and their interactions using argumentation, and, at the same time, to capture systemic features using equations. The approach is applied to norm emergence and internalisation in systems of learning agents. The logical formalism is rooted into a probabilistic defeasible logic instantiating Dung’s argumentation framework. Rules of this (...)
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  37. Alfred R. Mele (2009). Moral Responsibility and Agents' Histories. Philosophical Studies 142 (2):161 - 181.score: 22.0
    To what extent should an analysis of an agent’s being morally responsible for an action that he performed—especially a compatibilist analysis of this—be sensitive to the agent’s history? In this article, I give the issue a clearer focus than it tends to have in the literature, I lay some groundwork for an attempt to answer the question, and I motivate a partial but detailed answer.
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  38. Alec Walen & David Wasserman (2012). Agents, Impartiality, and the Priority of Claims Over Duties: Diagnosing Why Thomson Still Gets the Trolley Problem Wrong by Appeal to the “Mechanics of Claims”. [REVIEW] Journal of Moral Philosophy 9 (4):545-571.score: 22.0
    Judith Jarvis Thomson recently argued that it is impermissible for a bystander to turn a runaway trolley from five onto one. But she also argues that a trolley driver is required to do just that. We believe that her argument is flawed in three important ways. She fails to give proper weight to (a) an agent¹s claims not to be required to act in ways he does not want to, (b) impartiality in the weighing of competing patient-claims, and (c) the (...)
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  39. Donald S. Borrett, Saad Khan, Cynthia Lam, Danni Li, Hoa B. Nguyen & Hon C. Kwan (2006). Evolutionary Autonomous Agents and the Naturalization of Phenomenology. Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 5 (3-4):351-363.score: 22.0
    The phenomenological goal of grounding the content of conceptual thought in the background understanding of everyday, skillful coping was approached using evolutionary autonomous agent (EAA) methodology. The behavior of an EAA evolved to perform a specified motor task was identified with skillful coping. Changes in the dynamics of the EAA controller occurred when the EAA encountered an unexpected obstacle with loss of longer time scale components in its hierarchical temporal organization. These temporal (...)
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  40. Koji Yamashita, Hidekazu Kubota & Toyoaki Nishida (2005). Designing Conversational Agents: Effect of Conversational Form on Our Comprehension. [REVIEW] AI and Society 20 (2):125-137.score: 22.0
    We have developed a broadcasting agent system, public opinion channel (POC) caster, which generates understandable conversational form from text-based documents. The POC caster circulates the opinions of community members by using conversational form in a broadcasting system on the Internet. We evaluated its transformation rules in two experiments. In experiment 1, we examined our transformation rules for conversational form in relation to sentence length. Twenty-four participants listened to two types of sentence (long sentences and short sentences) with conversational form or (...)
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  41. Vuko Andrić (2014). Can Groups Be Autonomous Rational Agents? A Challenge to the List-Pettit Theory. In Anita Konzelmann Ziv & Hans Bernhard Schmid (eds.), Institutions, Emotions, and Group Agents - Contributions to Social Ontology. Springer. 343-353.score: 21.0
    Christian List and Philip Pettit argue that some groups qualify as rational agents over and above their members. Examples include churches, commercial corporations, and political parties. According to the theory developed by List and Pettit, these groups qualify as agents because they have beliefs and desires and the capacity to process them and to act on their basis. Moreover, the alleged group agents are said to be rational to a high degree and even to be fit to (...)
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  42. Manuel de Pinedo-Garcia & Jason Noble (2008). Beyond Persons: Extending the Personal/Subpersonal Distinction to Non-Rational Animals and Artificial Agents. Biology and Philosophy 23 (1):87-100.score: 21.0
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  43. Richard S. Woodward (1995). Ethical Considerations in the Testing of Biopharmaceuticals for Adventitious Agents. Science and Engineering Ethics 1 (3):273-282.score: 21.0
    Safety testing of biological pharmaceuticals is often carried out by contract testing laboratories which perform these tests on behalf of the drug’s developer. These laboratories are confronted with a number of ethical issues related to selling their services, maintaining confidentiality, and the handling of results. This paper outlines these issues, and, by way of illustration, discusses how one such laboratory addresses them.
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  44. Melanie Ramdarshan Bold (2013). Can Literary Agents Be Based Outside London and Still Be Successful? Logos 24 (1):7-18.score: 21.0
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  45. Daniel von Wachter (2003). Free Agents as Cause. In K. Petrus (ed.), On Human Persons. Heusenstamm Nr Frankfurt: Ontos Verlag.score: 20.0
    This article argues that agents can initiate causal processes.
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  46. Nuel D. Belnap (2001). Facing the Future: Agents and Choices in Our Indeterminist World. Oxford University Press on Demand.score: 20.0
    Here is an important new theory of human action, a theory that assumes actions are founded on choices made by agents who face an open future.
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  47. Christian List (2011). Group Agency: The Possibility, Design, and Status of Corporate Agents. Oxford University Press.score: 20.0
    Are companies, churches, and states genuine agents? Or are they just collections of individuals that give a misleading impression of unity? This question is important, since the answer dictates how we should explain the behaviour of these entities and whether we should treat them as responsible and accountable on the model of individual agents. Group Agency offers a new approach to that question and is relevant, therefore, to a range of fields from philosophy to law, politics, and the (...)
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  48. Aleksey Martynov (2009). Agents or Stewards? Linking Managerial Behavior and Moral Development. Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):239 - 249.score: 20.0
    The goal of this paper is to connect managerial behavior on the “agent-steward” scale to managerial moral development and motivation. I introduce agent- and steward-like behavior: the former is self-serving while the latter is others-serving. I suggest that managerial moral development and motivation may be two of the factors that may predict the tendency of managers to behave in a self-serving way (like agents) or to serve the interests of the organization (like stewards). Managers at low levels of moral (...)
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  49. Lucy O'Brien (2007). Self-Knowing Agents. Oxford University Press.score: 20.0
    * Fascinating topic in the philosophy of mind and action * Changes the focus of, and gives fresh momentum to, current discussions of self-identification and self-reference * Rigorous discussion of rival views Lucy OBrien argues that a satisfactory account of first-person reference and self-knowledge needs to concentrate on our nature as agents. She considers two main questions. First, what account of first-person reference can we give that respects the guaranteed nature of such reference? Second, what account can we give (...)
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  50. Barteld Kooi & Allard Tamminga (2008). Moral Conflicts Between Groups of Agents. Journal of Philosophical Logic 37 (1):1-21.score: 20.0
    Two groups of agents, G1 and G2, face a *moral conflict* if G1 has a moral obligation and G2 has a moral obligation, such that these obligations cannot both be fulfilled. We study moral conflicts using a multi-agent deontic logic devised to represent reasoning about sentences like "In the interest of group F of agents, group G of agents ought to see to it that phi". We provide a formal language and a consequentialist semantics. An illustration of (...)
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