Reverse Inference ( RI ) is an imaging-based type of inference from brain states to mental states, which has become highly widespread in neuroscience, most especially in neuroeconomics. Recent critical studies of RI may be taken to show that, if cautiously used, RI can help achieve research goals that may be difficult to achieve by way of behavior-based procedures alone. But can RI exceed the limits of these procedures and achieve research goals that are impossible for them to achieve alone? (...) By way of answering this question we show that a conception of the mind—type identity—under which the answer is in the positive, is untenable for reasons that strongly support another conception of the mind—functionalism—under which the answer must be in the negative. On this basis we then conclude that RI cannot exceed the limits of behavior-based procedures in cognitive psychology. (shrink)
The “problem” of dreaming in NREM sleep continues to challenge models that propose a causal relationship between REM mechanisms and the psychological features of dreaming. I suggest that, ultimately, efforts to identify correspondences among multiple levels of analysis will be more productive for dream theory than attempts to reduce dreaming to any one level of analysis. [Hobson et al. ; Nielsen].
In the twentieth century one interpretative perspective is curiously and strikingly absent: spatiality of narrative. Philosophical thought saw fundamental ontology as founded on temporality with space as decoration. Johannine inquiry has tended to follow in philosophy's temporal footsteps. However, it is plausible to assume that New Testament writers were spatially oriented while modern interpreters have been ensconced in temporal consciousness. Furthermore, as anthropology has long recognized, conceptions of space and place are central to any culture's sense of self. The undue (...) hermeneutic privileging of linearity and causality may have forced biblical texts into a temporal mode of reading that their original authors may not have intended.In understanding biblical worlds it is necessary to again explore spatiality. This essay will introduce textured spatiality as it applies to John 9. It will briefly review temporal thought and consciousness and explain how visual imagery is an essential component to the transmission and preservation of tradition. Textuality will also be used to tell the tale of the man born blind. Using the nature of Shabbat as a pivot, and a narrative juxtaposition of two contrasting Sabbath spaces, the paper will point to a possible Urcarnivalesque element in the chapter. (shrink)
The advent of democracy in nineteenth-century Europe was resisted by a set of thinkers who shared an 'aristocratic vision'. These aristocratic thinkers rejected the view that the greater good of the majority was of greater value than some higher good of a smaller number. It was the noble minority that was the more valuable part of society. This view corresponds in part to the philosophical tradition known as perfectionism. Matthew Arnold and Friedrich Nietzsche, thinkers rarely considered together, represent significant exemplars (...) of the liberal and radical versions of the aristocratic vision, and their similarities and differences are representative of the broad spectrum of aristocratic thought. Their common rejection of philistinism was part of an aristocratic vision of cultural perfection which was, Alexis de Tocqueville suggested, the natural reaction of a minority against the overwhelming materialism of democratic society. (shrink)
Two coalition formation experiments were performed in which subjects played twenty 3-person games in characteristic function form. The experiments were identical except for whether or not the grand coalition of all three players was permitted to form. Within each experiment, two variations of the experimental games were played in which the 1-person coalition values varied either directly or inversely with the power of the players as reflected by the values of the 2-person coalitions. Results were tested against a bargaining set (...) solution and a value solution. The variation in which the power relationships were congruent supported the bargaining set model; the inverse variation did not support either model. A new model is suggested which takes into account interpersonal comparisons of outcomes and accounts for the allocation of payoffs in both variations. (shrink)
Kahan and Rapoport (1977) investigated the effects of guaranteed payoffs on bargaining in three-person cooperative games by systematically varying different sources of power: the power arising from the 1-person values, the power emerging from the pair coalitions as reflected by the quotas of the non-normalized game, and the grand coalition value. In the present paper it is suggested that one additionally take into account the assumption of strategic equivalence and that one analyze games with v(i)>0 in terms of the quotas (...) of the zero-normalized game. Ostmann's (1984) rather sophisticated game theoretic framework, permitting the standardization of all three-person games, is introduced. A reanalysis of Kahan and Rapoport's data employing this perspective yields results which can be interpreted more easily than those of the original study. Moreover, they are consistent with the findings of almost all studies on 3-person characteristic-function games. It is argued that one could use the introduced analytical framework to investigate the range of empirical validity of the mathematical assumption of invariance under strategic equivalence. (shrink)