OBJECTIVES: The level of evidence-based practice (EBP) and awareness has not been previously assessed among primary care physicians in Kuwait. The objectives of this study were to quantify the level of EBP and awareness in Kuwait and identify the factors related to EBP. METHOD: We used a cross sectional study that enrolled 332 primary care physicians in 57 primary care centres randomly chosen in Kuwait. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data with a response rate of about 93%. (...) RESULTS: Although half of the physicians self reported that they use EBP most of the time, further analysis revealed that only about 24% of this group had a reasonable understanding of EBP. Most of the clinical practice in the Kuwaiti primary care system seems to be based on the clinician's own judgment or what they learned in the medical school and traditional text books, rather than evidence-based sources. None of the physicians had an Internet connection at their work place and a vast majority of them had no access to international journals nor were confident about critical appraisal of published evidence. CONCLUSION: Overall level of awareness of evidence-based medicine (EBM) among primary care physicians in Kuwait was considerably low. Training in the areas of EBM as well as making sure the Kuwaiti primary care centres have access to evidence-based sources are critically important if primary care in Kuwait were to become evidence based. (shrink)
This paper examines the history of glass colouring. It reviews Kitna of Jayybir as a philosopher and chemist. The art of lustre-painting on glass originated in Syria during the Umayyad Caliphate in the eighth century and was soon practised in the neighbouring area. The paper reviews Arabic literature that deals with the colouring of glass until the 13th century, and with pre-Islamic and Latin books of recipes that deal with glass colouring. Recipes for cast coloured glass are very few and (...) scant in non-Arabic literature, and lustre-painting on glass was not mentioned in any treatise outside Arabic, even in the works of Theophilus and Neri. The colouring of glass gemstones by colour diffusion is not mentioned also. The paper compares the recipes of Kitzaward as cobalt oxide in glass colouring. Part two of the paper gives a representative selection of recipes from Kitāb al-Durra for the three methods of glass colouring. (shrink)
Este artículo estudia un corto tratado de polémica en contra del judaísmo escrito por el conocido erudito otomano Ahmad Mustafa Tashkubrizade (m. 968/1560). El autor utiliza los mismos argumentos que conocemos de la polémica religiosa medieval, tales como que la Torah, abrogada por el Islam, contenía referencias al Profeta Muhammad a pesar de que su texto fue corrompido por los judíos. Además de la Biblia, Tashkubrizade cita una serie de fuentes judías tardías que añaden una importante dimensión a este (...) trabajo. Después de una breve introducción en que se discute la posibilidad de la deuda del autor respecto a la obra de Ibn Abi¿Abd alDayyan, un converso del judaísmo al Islam, se presenta una edición y traducción del texto. (shrink)
Aprcrit son fameux De aspectus, al-Kind un substantiel commentaire critique de l'Optique d'Euclide: la Rectification de l'erreur et des difficult Euclide dans son livre appel, ce nouveau venu n'enrichit pas seulement notre connaissance de l'optique des gtres du milieu du IXe si tardive. Ce premier commentaire connu de l'Optique d'Euclide soul nouveau la question des traditions textuelles de ce trait, du ron d'Alexandrie; il pose aussi le proble d'al-Kind travers ses successeurs, comme Ahmad ibn '. Autant de questions que (...) nous examinons dans cet article. (shrink)
Al-Ghazālī's most detailed explanation of how signification works occurs in his treatise on The Beautiful Names of God. Al-Ghazālī builds squarely on the commentary tradition on Aristotle's Peri hermeneias : words signify things by means of concepts and correspondingly, existence is laid out on three levels, linguistic, conceptual, and particular (i.e. extramental). This framework allows al-Ghazālī to put forward what is essentially an Aristotelian reading of what happens when a name successfully picks out a being: when a quiddity is named (...) by some kind term, its referent in the mind is formally identical to the quiddity of an individual existent which belongs to that natural kind. Al-Ghazālī then proceeds to tease out the implications of this scheme for the special problem of signifying God. It turns out that the Peripatetic theory, which al-Ghazālī appropriates from Ibn Sīnā, is ill equipped for the task as al-Ghazālī envisions it. (shrink)
Al-Ghazālī's Maqāsid al-falāsifa is an intelligent reworking of Avicenna's Dānesh-name (Book of Science). It was assumed by Latin scholastics that the Maqāsid contained the views of Al-Ghazālī himself. Very well read in Latin translation, it was the basic text from which the Latin authors gained their knowledge of Arabic logic. This article examines the views on the form and matter of the syllogism given in the Maqāsid and considers how they would have been viewed by a Latin reader in the (...) thirteenth century. (shrink)
With the rapid advancements made in biotechnology, bioethical discourse has become increasingly important. Bioethics is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary field that goes beyond the realm of natural sciences, and has involved fields in the domain of the social sciences. One of the important areas in bioethical discourse is religion. In a country like Malaysia, where Muslims make up the majority of the population, Islam plays a crucial role in providing the essential guidelines on the permissibility and acceptability of biotechnological applications (...) in various fields such as medicine, agriculture, and food processing. This article looks at the framework of a complementary model of bioethics derived from the perspective of Islam. The framework is based on ‘maqasid al-shariah’ (purposes or objectives of Islamic law) which aims to protect and preserve mankind’s faith, life, intellect, progeny, and property. It is proposed that ‘maqasid al-shariah’ be used as a pragmatic checklist that can be utilized in tackling bioethical issues and dilemmas. (shrink)
Study that try to expose and to define the different types of the language as the juridical, theological, and ascetic-mystical in Miftāḥ al-sa‘āda [Key of Happiness] of Ibn al-‘Arīf. Types that are analyzed in details, to conclude with the influence of the Sufi language of Ibn al-‘Arīf in Ibn ‘Arabī’s work, supporting on considerations of semantic as well as mystical nature.
The use of digital presentation tools such as PowerPoint is ubiquitous; however we still do not know much about the persuasiveness of these programs. Examining the use of visual analogy and visual chronology, in particular, this article explores the use of visual argumentation in a Keynote presentation by Al Gore. It illustrates how images function as an integrated part of Gores reasoning.
El primer libro consagrado a la lógica escrito por un autor andalusí que se nos ha conservado es el Kitªb al-taqrÌb li-Êadd al-manðiq ("Aproximación a la definición de la lógica") del cordobés Ibn ¿azm (m.1063). En él, su autor pretende adecuar la lógica al lenguaje sencillo de los juristas. Aquí se señala cómo este importante escrito puede depender de la escuela lógica de Bagdad.
The first book consecrated to logic, written by an andalusian author is Ibn Hazm’s Kitªb al-taqrÌb li-Êadd al-manðiq (“Introduction to definition of logic”). Where, the author seeks to adapt the logic to the simple language of the jurists. Here it is pointed out how this important treatise can depend on the logical school of Bagdad.
Three main trends of Islamic thought – rational theology, philosophy and Sufism – developed on the Iberian Peninsula during its Arab domination. All three have their origins in the Islamic East and incorporated Jewish thinkers who lived in al-Andalus. The relations among these main trends were often conflictive, but also positive in the case of thinkers who wanted to harmonize philosophy and Sufism (Avempace, Ibn Tufayl) or philosophy and rational theology (Averroes, Maimonides). KEY WORDS – Ibn Masarra. Ibn Hazm. Maslama (...) al-Magritî. Avempace. Ibn Tufayl. Averroes. Maimónides. (shrink)
'Abd Allâh Ibn al-Muqaffa' (724-759) is known mainly as the translator of the Kalila wa-Dimna, a collection of tales, that he translated from Pahlavi (Middle Persian) into Arabic. Ibn al-Muqaffa’ was of Iranian ancestry and was proud of the Sassanian legacy. He was self-confident of the rational primacy of the Zoroastrian religion over the Arabic culture that at that time consisted of the Koran and poetry. In the article I point to the rational values found in the comments of Ibn (...) al-Muqaffaÿ as related to the Zoroastrian legacy. (shrink)
Las nociones de "uno" y de "múltiple" han sido, históricamente, objeto de tratamiento, a la vez, filosófico y teológico. En el contexto de la filosofía islámica oriental, y en el marco de su vertiente más específicamente neoplatónica, el "Príncipe de los Teósofos", Sadrâ ¿irâzi (ob.1050/1640), estudia ambas desde una perspectiva ontológica y distanciándose del enfoque consignado al respecto por los filósofos peripatéticos del Islam. Adaptando y continuando, de un lado, la gnosis de Ibn al-'ArabÌ, y, de otro, la sabiduría iluminativa (...) de Sohravardi, Mollâ Sadrâ discute la distinción aviceniana entre un Ser Necesario y una multiplicidad de seres posibles, así como la posibilidad de considerar accidental la realidad de la existencia. Basado en la coimplicación de tres conceptos fundamentales: iîªlat al-wuÿñd (prioridad del ser), waÊdat al-wuÿñd (unidad del ser) y ta¿kÌk (diferenciación y gradación intensiva del ser), el univocismo monadológico de Sadrâ puede, por otra parte, permitirnos reevaluar ciertas cuestiones filosóficas que pugnan por ser examinadas hoy a una nueva luz. (shrink)
This volume contains the most extensive exposition of Latin American philosophy to date. I know of no other comparable anthology on the subject in any language. The width of its scope is quite impressive. At least for this reason, and whatever its shortcomings might be (to some of them I’ll come to speak below), it is a welcome collective work.
Aristotle Middle Commentary on the Topics, comparing them, where necessary, to the testimonies collected by Boethius in his De topicis differentiis. In addition we show that the Themistian classification of loci was taken up by Abt al-Badb al-mub al-mu al-Barak thus reveals himself to be closer than Averroes to the testimony of Boethius. This suggests the idea of a double redaction by Themistius of the classification of loci: one, more concentrated, comes from an introduction to the paraphrase of the central (...) books of the Topics, which may have inspired Averroes; the other, more extensive, which will have been part of an original work, and inspired the classifications of Boethius and of Abt al-Badī. (shrink)
This paper presents an edition of al-Hasan ibn al-asan ibn al-Haytham's (d. 1040) treatise, Qawl fi samt al-qibla bi-al-isd al-K (15th century), some four centuries after the introduction of this method by Ibn al-Haytham. The present treatise represents an important juncture in the history of the development of mathematics of the qibla, and sheds more light on the contributions of one of the most important scientists of medieval Islam.
What is the function of logic in al-Kind's theory of categories as it was presented in his epistle On the Number of Aristotle's Books (F treats the Categories as a logical book, but in a manner different from that of the classical Aristotelian tradition. He ascribes a special status to the categories Quantity (kammiyya) and Quality (kayfiyya), whereas the rest of the categories are thought to be no more than different combinations of these two categories with the category Substance. The (...) discussion will pay special attention to the function of the categories of Quantity and Quality as mediators between logic and mathematics. (shrink)
The paper highlights the importance of a strategic alliance between the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community and the Al-Jazeera International Channel. Secondly, we discuss the global outlook as to how Qatar can position itself on the world map as knowledge-based nation and a land of innovative ideas. Thirdly, we analyse the new role of Islamic finance in social responsibility and why investment in social capital is vitally important in a challenging world. We select four Muslim countries that Qatar (...) should consider for human capital investment purposes—Egypt (the brain and heart of the Arab world), Syria, Turkey, and Malaysia—and justify this selection. Fourthly, we discuss a new role for the Aljazeera International Channel as a promoter of successful entrepreneurs and venture capitalists in the Muslim World, to show what real Islamic finance is. Finally, the challenges ahead are discussed and policy recommendations suggested. (shrink)
Al-Qadi al-Nu'man b. Muhammad es el más destacado y prolífico de los estudiosos fatimíes y el fundador de la jurisprudencia isma ilí. En su epístola " La clarificación elocuente para la refutación de Ibn Qutayba", todavía en manuscrito, al-Nu man se lanza a una polémica en contra de Ibn Qutayba, que había vivido un siglo antes. Es probable que la epístola fuera escrita en la época de al-Mu'izz a petición de un tutor anónimo de los hijos del califa. En ella, (...) al-Nu,man se propone refutar la afirmación de Ibn Qutayba, incluida en la introducción de su famosa obra Adab al-Katib, según la cual era suficiente para la realización de sus tareas que los kuttab, o funcionarios del estado, memorizaran una serie de fórmulas legales simples, sin tener que aprenderse las largas disertaciones de los fuqaha o doctores de la ley. Al-Qadi al-Nu'man, un faqih famoso, se dedica en la epístola a demostrar que sin estas disertaciones no se podía aplicar la ley correctamente. En su texto se refiere a cada fórmula legal mencionada por su rival en Adab al-Katib y demuestra cómo la ley se debería aplicar basándose en la autoridad de los imames del Ahl al-Bayt, la Familia del Profeta Muhammad. También refuta las distintas interpretaciones legales sunníes de estas mismas cuestiones. (shrink)
Shihàb al-Dîn al-Suhrawardfs life is obscure. Some clues regarding his studies, travels and encounters are found in short biographical notices of the 12th and 13th centuries. These notices can provide the means to sketch al-Suhrawardfs biography: his early life, his coming to Aleppo, the mounting opposition of the ulemas of Aleppo, and the final moments that led to his tragic death. The ociopolitical context of Aleppo provides a good framework for the interpretation of the data provided by the biographers. All (...) these biographical works are, however, of relative reliability. Even the most contemporary texts are in fact not devoid of erroneous elements. (c) Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. (shrink)
Con la publicación de al-�Aqida al-burhaniyya al-as,ariyya, una joya más del legado as,ari marroquí ha visto la luz. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar la importancia de esa edición científica y aportar algunas reflexiones acerca de su contenido y forma.
This paper relies on primary resources dealing with the history of Oman along with British documents, which are the most important materials that dealt with the situation in the region, in general, and in Oman in Particular, at a time when Britain had power, presence and military control over India through the Government of British India. At that time, Britain tried to open lines of communication and forge agreements with the Arabian Gulf countries in order to secure its control over (...) this vital region and secure communications with its colonies in India. This study focuses on the economic and commercial relations between the two countries including trade of spices, textile, weapons, slaves, dates and other goods, the currencies used in these commercial exchanges, and the volume of trade. It also explores the volatility of these relations in different periods. The study also examines the social and cultural relations, mutual migrations, and military and political ties. In addition, it explores various aspects of reciprocal influence between the two areas in different periods and during turbulent times for the sultanate of Oman and the region, prior to, during and after the First World War. It investigates these relations from signing of the treaty of AL-Seeb in 1920 and the stabilization phase it created up to the end of the study period. The study has reached a number of conclusions about the development of these relations and the factors influencing this development at a time when sultan Timor tried to maintain independence in running the country despite the British influence. It also focuses on how the sultan attempted to benefit from Britain’s need to secure shipping lines by enhancing the sultanate’s trade with India until India became the first economic and trade partner with the sultanate during this period. The sultan tried to maintain a friendly relationship with Britain and India, where his currency was mined and where he used to stay for recuperation. (shrink)
This article proposes an analysis of changes implemented during Malaysia's Prime Minister Abdullah Ahmad Badawi's administration (20032003), which displayed bias against changes and introduced schemes to justify the systems it upheld. Transmutations wrought during Abdullah's tenure may have been neither substantial nor totalizing, but within the conservative paradigm which had long gripped national politics, Abdullah's deviations were significant nevertheless.
Uno de los temas clásicos de la literatura árabe, casi desde sus comienzos, es la nostalgia de la tierra natal (al-hani-n ilà l-awta-n). Experiencia dolorosa de extrañamiento, que se nutre de las crisis políticas, la nostalgia ha dado lugar a obras que buscan recrear un pasado o unos lugares amados, que sólo la memoria es capaz de recuperar. En este artículo trato de mostrar cómo se articula la nostalgia de Iraq, y, más concretamente, de Bagdad, dentro del aparato crítico de (...) al-Faray^ ba,da l-�idda de al-Tanu-ji- (329-384/941-994) (con el apoyo de Ni�wa-r al-muha-dara, también de dicho autor) en la edición de, Abbu-d al-�a-ly^i-, publicada en los años setenta. La representación que hace al-Tanu-ji- de la vida cotidiana de la capital abbasí, expresada a través de un lenguaje claro y natural, en el que tienen cabida expresiones populares, suscita en al-�a-ly^i- toda una serie de remembranzas, sobre todo de sus años juveniles, que se desbordan en sus notas, e ilustran costumbres, lugares, usos lingüisticos, canciones o poemas, que perduran desde la época de al-Tanu-ji- hasta la del editor. (shrink)
Tanto la poesía de Ibn al-Mu�tazz, como su reflexión teórica sobre el nuevo estilo de poetizar que se inicia con los poetas �abbasíes, han atraído la atención de críticos e investigadores, por la serena armonía de sus versos y la potente visualidad de sus imágenes y metáforas, y, en el caso del Kitab al-badi�, por tratarse de la primera obra dedicada a las figuras y tropos que caracterizan la poesía de los poetas postomeyas. Sin embargo, su antología sobre los poetas (...) mu?da?un ha quedado relegada a la posición ancilar de repositorio de nombres de poetas, fundamentalmente menores, de la época �abbasí. En este artículo intento una lectura menos utilitaria de las ?abaqat al-�u�ara� al-mu?da?in para destacar su calidad como obra literaria y, sobre todo, su interés para la historia del humor en la literatura árabe, pues su autor refleja en ella su curiosidad por personajes excéntricos, ridículos o marginales, que sólo se salvan de la condena absoluta por su pasión por la poesía. (shrink)
El texto anónimo del 'Kitab mafajir al-barbar' y la guerra contra Hasan b. Qannun se analizan para mostrar la extensión de la autoridad de los Banu Marwan en al-Magrib. Esta se basa en la distribución de presentes de honor - jil'a - y monedas entre los jefes Imazigen y los miembros de la estirpe idrisí.
Abū Hāmid al-Ghazālī (1058–1111 c.e .) is well known, among other things, for his account, in al-Munqidh min al-ḍalāl (Deliverance from error), of a struggle with philosophical skepticism that bears a striking resemblance to that described by Descartes in the Meditations . This essay aims to give a close comparative analysis of these respective accounts, and will concentrate solely on the processes of invoking or entertaining doubt that al-Ghazālī and Descartes describe, respectively. In the process some subtle differences between them (...) in this regard will be brought to light that are relevant to the comparative issue of the respective solutions at which they arrive. The latter issue will not be touched upon here, although the present discussion is intended as a prelude to a future treatment of that topic. (shrink)
The paper discusses al-Kindi's response to doctrines held by contemporary theologians of the Mu‘tazilite school: divine attributes, creation, and freedom. In the first section it is argued that, despite his broadly negative theology, al-Kindi recognizes a special kind of “essential” positive attribute belonging to God. The second section argues that al-Kindi agreed with the Mu‘tazila in holding that something may not yet exist but still be an object of God's knowledge and power (as the Mu‘tazila put it, that “non-being” is (...) a “thing”). Also it presents a new parallel between al-Kindi and John Philoponus. The third section gives an interpretation of al-Kindi as a compatibilist, in other words as holding that humans may be free even though their actions are necessitated. In all three cases, it is argued, al-Kindi is close to the Mu‘tazilite point of view, though he departs from them in the arguments he gives for that point of view. (shrink)
: In his autobiographical account, the Munqidh min al-Dalāl, al-Ghazālī reflects on his conversion from skepticism to faith. Previous scholarship has interpreted this text as an anticipation of Cartesian positions regarding epistemic certainty. Although the existing similarities between al-Ghazālī and Descartes are striking, the focus of the present essay lies on the different philosophical aims pursued by the two thinkers. It is thus argued that al-Ghazālī operates with a broader notion of the Self than Descartes, because it is inclusive of (...) the body. And it is shown that the two philosophers use completely diverging paradigms. While Descartes models his notion of evidence after mathematical certainty, al-Ghazālī draws his famous 'ilm al-yaqīnī (certain knowledge) from a religious context. (shrink)
[RESUMEN] Este trabajo es un comentario sobre la primera traducción al español de las guías del Reino Unido “Atención después de la investigación: un marco para los comités de ética de investigación del NHS (borrador versión 8.0)”. El comentario se divide en tres partes. En la primera parte, se busca resumir la información básica necesaria para mejorar la lectura comprensiva de la traducción de las guías. En la segunda parte, se analiza una selección de la normativa argentina que trata sobre (...) atención después de la investigación. En la tercera parte, se presentan las principales limitaciones del borrador de las guías y su traducción. El propósito de este comentario es que los futuros lectores y lectoras puedan hacer un uso crítico y deliberado de las guías, en la evaluación de estudios clínicos o como base para la redacción de guías propias sobre atención después de la investigación. [ABSTRACT] This work is a commentary on the first Spanish translation of the UK guidelines “Care after research: a framework for NHS research ethics committees (draft version 8.0)”. The commentary is divided into three parts. The first part seeks to summarize the basic information needed to improve reading comprehension of the translation of the guidelines. The second part analyzes a selection of Argentinean regulations dealing with care after research. The third part presents the main limitations of the guidelines draft and its translation. The purpose of this commentary is that future readers can make a critical and deliberate use of guidelines in the assessment of clinical studies or as a basis for drafting their own guidelines on care after research. (shrink)
This paper studies the first metaphysical theory in Arabic philosophy, that of al-Kindi, as found in "On First Philosophy" and other of his works. Placing these works against the background of translations produced in al-Kindi's circle (the "Theology of Aristotle," which is the Arabic version of Plotinus, and the "Liber de Causis," the Arabic version of Proclus' "Elements of Theology"), it argues that al-Kindi has two conceptions of being: "simple" being, which excludes predication and derives from Neoplatonism, and "complex" being, (...) which is based on Aristotle's notion of substance. At the end of the paper the "simple" notion of being is seen to anticipate in some respects Avicenna's distinction between existence and essence. (shrink)
Al-Fbb al-f, is apparently the first person to maintain that existence, in one of its senses, is a second-order concept [mal th]. As he interprets Metaphysics d] has two meanings, second-order being as truth'' (including existence as well as propositional truth), and first-order being as divided into the categories.'' The paronymous form of the Arabic word mawjd] distinct from their essences: for al-Kindd of all things. Against this, al-Fburr thinks that Greek more appropriately expressed many such concepts, including being, by (...) particles rather than nouns or verbs; he takes Metaphysics r's title can mean both Book of Particles'' and Aristotle's Metaphysics.''. (shrink)
: The "major Islamic philosophers," writes Deborah Black, "produced no works dedicated to aesthetics, although their writings do address issues that contemporary philosophers might study under that heading." The emergent theme in this essay is that classical Islamic philosophy may be studied within a framework of aesthetics. To achieve this goal, the metaphysics of Abu Hamid al-Ghazālī (1058–1111) and the aesthetics of Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860) will be brought together.
This book introduces the work of an important medieval Islamic philosopher who is little known outside the Persian world. Afdal al-Din Kashani was a contemporary of a number of important Muslim thinkers, including Averroes and Ibn al-Arabi. Kashani did not write for advanced students of philosophy but rather for beginners. In the main body of his work, he offers especially clear and insightful expositions of various philosophical positions, making him an invaluable resource for those who would like to learn the (...) basic principles and arguments of this philosophical tradition but do not have a strong background in philosophy. Here, Chittick uses Kashani and his work to introduce the basic issues and arguments of Islamic philosophy to modern readers. (shrink)