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Profile: Alan Garnham (University of Sussex)
  1.  3
    Jane Oakhill, P. N. Johnson-Laird & Alan Garnham (1989). Believability and Syllogistic Reasoning. Cognition 31 (2):117-140.
    In this paper we investigate the locus of believability effects in syllogistic reasoning. We identify three points in the reasoning process at which such effects could occur: the initial interpretation of premises, the examination of alternative representations of them (in all of which any valid conclusion must be true), and the “filtering” of putative conclusions. The effect of beliefs at the first of these loci is well established. In this paper we report three experiments that examine whether beliefs have an (...)
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  2.  36
    Josef Perner, Bibiane Rendl & Alan Garnham (2007). Objects of Desire, Thought, and Reality: Problems of Anchoring Discourse Referents in Development. Mind and Language 22 (5):475–513.
    Our objectives in this article are to bring some theoretical order into developmental sequences and simultaneities in children’s ability to appreciate multiple labels for single objects, to reason with identity statements, to reason hypothetically, counterfactually, and with beliefs and desires, and to explain why an ‘implicit’ understanding of belief occurs before an ‘explicit’ understanding. The central idea behind our explanation is the emerging grasp of how objects of thought and desire relate to real objects and to each other. To capture (...)
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  3.  3
    Alan Garnham, Jane Oakhill & P. N. Johnson-Laird (1982). Referential Continuity and the Coherence of Discourse. Cognition 11 (1):29-46.
    Two experiments were carried out to investigate the role of referential continuity in understanding discourse. In experiment 1, a group of university students listened to stories and descriptive passages presented in three different versions: the original passages, versions in which the sentences occured in a random order, and randomised versions in which referential continuity had been restored primarily by replacing pronouns and other terms with fuller and more appropriate noun phrases. The original stories were remembered better, and rated as more (...)
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  4.  18
    Pascal Gygax, Jane Oakhill & Alan Garnham (2003). The Representation of Characters' Emotional Responses: Do Readers Infer Specific Emotions? Cognition and Emotion 17 (3):413-428.
    This paper argues that emotional inferences about characters in a text are not as specific as previously assumed (Gernsbacher et al., 1992; Gernsbacher and Robertson, 1992; Gernsbacher et al., 1998; DeVega et al., 1996; DeVega et al., 1997). The emotional information inferred by readers does not differentiate between emotions that are similar, though not identical. In both Experiments 1 and 2, participants read the stories used by Gernsbacher et al. (1992). Results from Experiment 1 (off-line) show that participants judged several (...)
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  5. Josef Perner, Johannes L. Brandl & Alan Garnham (2003). What is a Perspective Problem? Developmental Issues in Belief Ascription and Dual Identity. Facta Philosophica 5:355-378.
    We develop a criterion for telling when integrating two pieces of information, e.g. two pictures or statements requires an understanding of perspective. Problems that require such an understanding are perspective problems. With this criterion we can show that understanding false beliefs vis-à-vis reality pose a perspective problem, so does understanding spatial descriptions given from different viewing points (a classical example of what is commonly seen as a problem of perspective) and individuating objects with different sortals (naming objects). We use the (...)
     
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  6.  1
    Alan Garnham (1989). A Unified Theory of the Meaning of Some Spatial Relational Terms. Cognition 31 (1):45-60.
    This paper presents a unified account of the meaning of the spatial relational terms right, left, in front of, behind, above and below. It claims that each term has three types of meanings, basic, deictic and intrinsic, and that the definitions of each type of meaning are identical in form for all six terms. Restrictions on the use of the terms, which are different for above and below than for the rest, are explained by a general constraint on all uses (...)
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  7.  11
    Alan Garnham (1993). Is Logicist Cognitive Science Possible? Mind and Language 8 (1):49-71.
  8.  4
    Alan Garnham (2001). Rational Thinking? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (6):280.
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  9.  1
    Jane Oakhill & Alan Garnham (1993). On Theories of Belief Bias in Syllogistic Reasoning. Cognition 46 (1):87-92.
  10.  1
    Alan Garnham (1983). What's Wrong with Story Grammars. Cognition 15 (1-3):145-154.
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  11.  3
    Alan Garnham (1991). Did Two Farmers Leave or Three? Comment on Starkey, Spelke, and Gelman: Numerical Abstraction by Human Infants. Cognition 39 (2):167-170.
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  12. Alan Garnham & Jane V. Oakhill (2005). Accounting for Belief Bias in a Mental Model Framework: Comment on Klauer, Musch, and Naumer. Psychological Review 112 (2):509-517.
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  13. Alan Garnham (1993). A Number of Questions About a Question of Number. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (2):350.
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  14.  4
    Alan Garnham (1994). Art for Art's Sake. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 17 (3):543-544.
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  15.  5
    Josef Perner & Alan Garnham (1988). Conditions for Mutuality. Journal of Semantics 6 (1):369-385.
    We present a finite psychological decision procedure for determining whether a situation 5 provides a participant a in that situation with grounds G for assuming that a and b, the other participant, mutually know some proposition p indicated by S. Our criterion derives from analytic criteria proposed by Lewis (1969) and Schiffer (1972). We discuss how our criterion applies in a series of test examples, and compare it with Clark and Marshall's (1981) triple copresence heuristic. We argue that triple copresence (...)
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  16.  10
    Alan Garnham & Jane Oakhill (1990). Mental Models as Contexts for Interpreting Texts: Implications From Studies of Anaphora. Journal of Semantics 7 (4):379-393.
    One of the major tenets of the mental models theory of text comprehension is that the model of the text so far provides (part of) the context for understanding the current sentence. Using two sets of findings on the comprehension of anaphoric expressions, we attempt to provide a more specific interpretation for this statement. We first consider the linguistic distinction between deep and surface anaphors, and the proposal that they are interpreted with reference to mental models and to representations of (...)
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  17. Alan Garnham (1983). Why Psycholinguists Don't Care About DTC: A Reply to Berwick and Weinberg. Cognition 15 (1-3):263-269.
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  18.  2
    H. Wind Cowles & Alan Garnham (2011). Noun-Phrase Anaphor Resolution: Antecedent Focus, Semantic Overlap, and the Informational Load Hypothesis. In Edward Gibson & Neal J. Pearlmutter (eds.), The Processing and Acquisition of Reference. The MIT Press 297.
    One area of language research that has received a great deal of attention, both theoretical and empirical, is the use of anaphoric expressions. Such expressions can be thought of as serving two functions: the primary function is to refer back to a referent from previous discourse, and the secondary, but no less important, function is to help provide discourse coherence and structure. Third person pronouns such as he or she are anaphoric expressions par excellence, but fuller anaphoric expressions, including demonstrative (...)
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  19.  1
    Alan Garnham & Josef Perner (1990). Does Manifestness Solve Problems of Mutuality? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 13 (1):178-179.
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  20.  1
    Alan Garnham (1987). Thomas G. Bever, John M. Carroll, and Lance A. Miller (Eds.), Talking Minds: The Study of Language in the Cognitive Sciences. [REVIEW] Cognitive Science 11 (3):389-390.
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  21.  2
    Alan Garnham (1994). March of the Models. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 8 (1):37 – 39.
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  22. William F. Brewer, Laura A. Carlson-Radvansky, G. Cossu, Catharine H. Echols, Karen Emmorey, Jonathan St B. T. Evans, Alan Garnham, David E. Irwin, John J. Kim & Stephen M. Kosslyn (1993). Bellugi, Ursula, 139 Berent, Iris, 203. Cognition 46:299.
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  23. Paolo Canal, Alan Garnham & Jane Oakhill (2015). Beyond Gender Stereotypes in Language Comprehension: Self Sex-Role Descriptions Affect the Brain’s Potentials Associated with Agreement Processing. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  24. Eimear Finnegan, Jane Oakhill & Alan Garnham (2015). Counter-Stereotypical Pictures as a Strategy for Overcoming Spontaneous Gender Stereotypes. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  25. Alan Garnham (1986). A Theory of Stories? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 9 (4):739.
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  26. Alan Garnham (1980). Default Values, Criteria and Constructivism. Cognitive Science 4 (4):427-433.
    Wittgenstein, in his later writings, gave an account of the meaning of expressions in terms of criteria for their application. As with many of Wittgenstein's later ideas the notion of a criterion have proved difficult to explicate. A recent account, which ties criteria to the philosophical doctrine of constructivism, provides a link between the concept of a criterion and a series of ideas about language understanding which have emerged in the past few years. It is shown that these ideas can (...)
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  27. Alan Garnham, Jane Oakhill, Lisa Von Stockhausen & Sabine Sczesny (2016). Editorial: Language, Cognition, and Gender. Frontiers in Psychology 7.
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  28. Alan Garnham & H. Wind Cowles (2008). Looking Both Ways: The JANUS Model of Noun Phrase Anaphor Processing. In Jeanette K. Gundel & Nancy Ann Hedberg (eds.), Reference: Interdisciplinary Perspectives. Oxford University Press 246--272.
    This chapter presents a new model of coreferential NP anaphora processing, JANUS, within the mental models framework. It summarises previous research on NP anaphora that is most pertinent to JANUS, and outlines two previous attempts to provide an integrated theory of NP anaphora: Centering Theory and Almor’s Informational Load Hypothesis. Each has it problems, but the Informational Load Hypothesis is more firmly rooted in psychology, and closer to our own approach. JANUS incorporates many ideas from the Informational Load Hypothesis, but (...)
     
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  29. Alan Garnham & Jane V. Oakhill (2005). Postscript: Accounting for Belief Bias in a Mental Model Framework--No Problem for Whom? Psychological Review 112 (2):517-518.
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  30. Alan Garnham, Sam Doehren & Pascal Gygax (2015). True Gender Ratios and Stereotype Rating Norms. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  31. Alan Garnham & Yuri Yakovlev (2015). The Interaction of Morphological and Stereotypical Gender Information in Russian. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  32. Lea A. Hald, Ian Hocking, David Vernon, Julie-Ann Marshall & Alan Garnham (2013). Exploring Modality Switching Effects in Negated Sentences: Further Evidence for Grounded Representations. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
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  33. Gary F. Marcus, Jane Oakhill, Alan Garnham, Stephen E. Newstead, Jonathan St Bt Evans, Kimj Vicente, William F. Brewer, Jc Marshall, Karen Emmorey & Stephen M. Kosslyn (1993). Janet Cohen Sherman (Massachusetts General Hospital) and Barbara Lust (Cornell University) Children Are in Control. Cognition 46:297.
     
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