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Profile: Alan M Leslie (Rutgers University - New Brunswick)
  1.  63
    Simon Baron-Cohen, Alan M. Leslie & Uta Frith (1985). Does the Autistic Child Have a “Theory of Mind”? Cognition 21 (1):37-46.
    We use a new model of metarepresentational development to predict a cognitive deficit which could explain a crucial component of the social impairment in childhood autism. One of the manifestations of a basic metarepresentational capacity is a ‘ theory of mind ’. We have reason to believe that autistic children lack such a ‘ theory ’. If this were so, then they would be unable to impute beliefs to others and to predict their behaviour. This hypothesis was tested using Wimmer (...)
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  2. Alan M. Leslie, Ori Friedman & Tim P. German (2004). Core Mechanisms in ‘Theory of Mind’. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 8 (12):528-533.
    Our ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of other people does not initially develop as a theory but as a mechanism. The ‘ theory of mind ’ mechanism is part of the core architecture of the human brain, and is specialized for learning about mental states. Impaired development of this mechanism can have drastic effects on social learning, seen most strikingly in the autistic spectrum disorders. ToMM kick-starts belief–desire attribution but effective reasoning about belief contents depends on a process (...)
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  3.  13
    Alan M. Leslie & Laila Thaiss (1992). Domain Specificity in Conceptual Development: Neuropsychological Evidence From Autism. Cognition 43 (3):225-251.
  4. Alan M. Leslie (1994). Pretending and Believing: Issues in the Theory of ToMM. Cognition 50 (1-3):211-238.
  5.  3
    Alan M. Leslie & Stephanie Keeble (1987). Do Six-Month-Old Infants Perceive Causality? Cognition 25 (3):265-288.
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  6. Alan M. Leslie (2005). Developmental Parallels in Understanding Minds and Bodies. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (10):459-462.
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  7. Alan M. Leslie & Brian J. Scholl (1999). Modularity, Development and 'Theory of Mind'. Mind and Language 14 (1):131-153.
    Psychologists and philosophers have recently been exploring whether the mechanisms which underlie the acquisition of ‘theory of mind’ (ToM) are best charac- terized as cognitive modules or as developing theories. In this paper, we attempt to clarify what a modular account of ToM entails, and why it is an attractive type of explanation. Intuitions and arguments in this debate often turn on the role of develop- ment: traditional research on ToM focuses on various developmental sequences, whereas cognitive modules are thought (...)
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  8.  29
    Alan M. Leslie, Fei Xu, Patrice D. Tremoulet & Brian J. Scholl (1998). Indexing and the Object Concept: Developingwhat'andwhere'systems. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (1):10-18.
  9. Brian J. Scholl & Alan M. Leslie (1999). Modularity, Development and "Theory of Mind". Mind and Language 14 (1):131-153.
    Psychologists and philosophers have recently been exploring whether the mechanisms which underlie the acquisition of ‘theory of mind’ (ToM) are best charac- terized as cognitive modules or as developing theories. In this paper, we attempt to clarify what a modular account of ToM entails, and why it is an attractive type of explanation. Intuitions and arguments in this debate often turn on the role of _develop-_ _ment_: traditional research on ToM focuses on various developmental sequences, whereas cognitive modules are thought (...)
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  10.  29
    Alan M. Leslie, Rochel Gelman & C. R. Gallistel (2008). The Generative Basis of Natural Number Concepts. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (6):213-218.
    Number concepts must support arithmetic inference. Using this principle, it can be argued that the integer concept of exactly ONE is a necessary part of the psychological foundations of number, as is the notion of the exact equality - that is, perfect substitutability. The inability to support reasoning involving exact equality is a shortcoming in current theories about the development of numerical reasoning. A simple innate basis for the natural number concepts can be proposed that embodies the arithmetic principle, supports (...)
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  11.  23
    Alan M. Leslie & Ron Mallon, Transgressors, Victims, and Cry Babies: Is Basic Moral Judgment Spared in Autism?
    Human social intelligence comprises a wide range of complex cognitive and affective processes that appear to be selectively impaired in autistic spectrum disorders. The study of these neuro- developmental disorders and the study of canonical social intelligence have advanced rapidly over the last twenty years by investigating the two together. Specifically, studies of autism have provided important insights into the nature of ‘theory of mind’ abilities, their normal development and underlying neural systems. At the same time, the idea of impaired (...)
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  12.  16
    Ori Friedman & Alan M. Leslie (2007). The Conceptual Underpinnings of Pretense: Pretending is Not ‘Behaving-as-If’. Cognition 105 (1):103-124.
    The ability to engage in and recognize pretend play begins around 18 months. A major challenge for theories of pretense is explaining how children are able to engage in pretense, and how they are able to recognize pretense in others. According to one major account, the metarepresentational theory, young children possess both production and recognition abilities because they possess the mental state concept, pretend. According to a more recent rival account, the Behavioral theory, young children are behaviorists about pretense, and (...)
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  13.  4
    Ori Friedman, Karen R. Neary, Corinna L. Burnstein & Alan M. Leslie (2010). Is Young Children’s Recognition of Pretense Metarepresentational or Merely Behavioral? Evidence From 2- and 3-Year-Olds’ Understanding of Pretend Sounds and Speech. [REVIEW] Cognition 115 (2):314-319.
  14.  23
    Alan M. Leslie, Shaun Nichols, Stephen P. Stich & David B. Klein (1996). Varieties of Off-Line Simulation. In P. Carruthers & P. Smith (eds.), Theories of Theories of Mind. Cambridge University Press 39-74.
    In the last few years, off-line simulation has become an increasingly important alternative to standard explanations in cognitive science. The contemporary debate began with Gordon (1986) and Goldman's (1989) off-line simulation account of our capacity to predict behavior. On their view, in predicting people's behavior we take our own decision making system `off line' and supply it with the `pretend' beliefs and desires of the person whose behavior we are trying to predict; we then let the decision maker reach a (...)
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  15.  7
    Daniel Roth & Alan M. Leslie (1998). Solving Belief Problems: Toward a Task Analysis. Cognition 66 (1):1-31.
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  16.  8
    Zsuzsa Káldy & Alan M. Leslie (2005). A Memory Span of One? Object Identification in 6.5-Month-Old Infants. Cognition 97 (2):153-177.
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  17.  10
    Ori Friedman & Alan M. Leslie (2004). A Developmental Shift in Processes Underlying Successful Belief‐Desire Reasoning. Cognitive Science 28 (6):963-977.
    Young children’s failures in reasoning about beliefs and desires, and especially about false beliefs, have been much studied. However, there are few accounts of successful belief-desire reasoning in older children or adults. An exception to this is a model in which belief attribution is treated as a process wherein an inhibitory system selects the most likely content for the belief to be attributed from amongst several competing contents [Leslie, A. M., & Polizzi, P. (1998). Developmental Science, 1, 247–254]. We tested (...)
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  18.  11
    Alan M. Leslie (2000). How to Acquire a 'Representational Theory of Mind'. In Dan Sperber (ed.), Metarepresentations. Oxford University Press 197--223.
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  19. Tim P. German & Alan M. Leslie (2000). Attending to and Learning About Mental States. In P. Mitchell & Kevin J. Riggs (eds.), Children's Reasoning and the Mind. Psychology Press/Taylor & Francis 229--252.
     
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  20.  27
    Shaun Nichols, Stephen P. Stich, Alan M. Leslie & David B. Klein (1996). Varieties of Off-Line Simulation. In Peter Carruthers & Peter K. Smith (eds.), [Book Chapter]. Cambridge University Press 39-74.
    The debate over off-line simulation has largely focussed on the capacity to predict behavior, but the basic idea of off-line simulation can be cast in a much broader framework. The central claim of the off-line account of behavior prediction is that the practical reasoning mechanism is taken off-line and used for predicting behavior. However, there's no reason to suppose that the idea of off-line simulation can't be extended to mechanisms other than the practical reasoning system. In principle, any cognitive component (...)
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  21.  11
    Deena Skolnick Weisberg & Alan M. Leslie (2012). The Role of Victims' Emotions in Preschoolers' Moral Judgments. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (3):439-455.
    Do victims’ emotions underlie preschoolers’ moral judgment abilities? Study 1 asked preschoolers (n = 72) to judge actions directed at characters who could and could not feel hurt and who did and did not cry. These judgments took into account only the nature of the action, not the nature of the victim. To further investigate how victims’ emotions might impact children’s moral judgments, Study 2 presented preschoolers (n = 37) with stories that varied in transgression type (Moral, Conventional, or None) (...)
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  22. Alan M. Leslie (1987). Pretense and Representation: The Origins of "Theory of Mind.". Psychological Review 94 (4):412-426.
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  23.  33
    Shaun Nichols, Stephen P. Stich & Alan M. Leslie (1995). Choice Effects and the Ineffectiveness of Simulation. Mind and Language 10 (4):437-45.
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  24.  5
    Alan M. Leslie & Uta Frith (1987). Metarepresentation and Autism: How Not to Lose One's Marbles. Cognition 27 (3):291-294.
  25.  2
    Lu Wang & Alan M. Leslie (2016). Is Implicit Theory of Mind the ‘Real Deal’? The Own‐Belief/True‐Belief Default in Adults and Young Preschoolers. Mind and Language 31 (2):147-176.
    Recent studies reveal spontaneous implicit false-belief understanding in infancy. But is this early ability genuine theory-of-mind? Spontaneous tasks may allow early success by eliminating the selection-response bias thought to underlie later failure on standard tasks. However, using anticipatory eye gaze, we find the same bias in non-verbal tasks in both preschoolers and adults. We argue that the bias arises from theory-of-mind competence itself and takes the form of a rational prior to attribute one's own belief to others. Our discussion then (...)
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  26. Alan M. Leslie & T. P. German (1995). Knowledge and Ability in "Theory of Mind": A One-Eyed Overview of a Debate. In Martin Davies & Tony Stone (eds.), Mental Simulation. Blackwell 123--151.
     
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  27.  21
    Tim P. German & Alan M. Leslie (2004). No (Social) Construction Without (Meta-)Representation: Modular Mechanisms as a Basis for the Capacity to Acquire an Understanding of Mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (1):106-107.
    Theories that propose a modular basis for developing a “theory of mind” have no problem accommodating social interaction or social environment factors into either the learning process, or into the genotypes underlying the growth of the neurocognitive modules. Instead, they can offer models which constrain and hence explain the mechanisms through which variations in social interaction affect development. Cognitive models of both competence and performance are critical to evaluating the basis of correlations between variations in social interaction and performance on (...)
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  28.  47
    Ron Mallon, Alan M. Leslie & Jennifer DiCorcia, Transgressors, Victims, and Cry Babies: Is Basic Moral Judgment Spared in Autism? Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    of (from Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) forthcoming in Social Neuroscience. [nearly final draft in .pdf] An empirical investigation of moral judgment in autism.
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  29. Josep Call, Olga Kochukhova, Gustaf Gredebäck, Sorel Cahan, Yaniv Mor, Nina Kazanina, Colin Phillips, Ori Friedman, Alan M. Leslie & Susan A. Gelman (2007). Number 1 Regular Articles. Cognition 105:726-729.
     
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  30.  4
    Alan M. Leslie, Tim P. German & Francesca G. Happé (1993). Even a Theory-Theory Needs Information Processing: ToMM, an Alternative Theory-Theory of the Child's Theory of Mind. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (1):56.
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  31.  8
    Alan M. Leslie (1989). Relevance: Communication and Cognition. Mind and Language 4 (1-2):147-150.
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  32. Alan M. Leslie (1982). Discursive Representation in Infancy. In B. De Gelder (ed.), Knowledge and Representation. Routledge & Kegan Paul 80--93.
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  33. Alan M. Leslie & Uta Frith (1990). Prospects for a Cognitive Neuropsychology of Autism: Hobson's Choice. Psychological Review 97 (1):122-131.
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