We study the interpretation of Grzegorczyk’s Theory of Concatenation TC in structures of decorated linear order types satisfying Grzegorczyk’s axioms. We show that TC is incomplete for this interpretation. What is more, the first order theory validated by this interpretation interprets arithmetical truth. We also show that every extension of TC has a model that is not isomorphic to a structure of decorated order types.
Henry M. Sheffer is well known to logicians for the discovery (or rather, the rediscovery) of the ?Sheffer stroke? of propositional logic. But what else did Sheffer contribute to logic? He published very little, though he is known to have been carrying on a rather mysterious research program in logic; the only substantial result of this research was the unpublished monograph The General Theory of Notational Relativity. The main aim of this paper is to explain, as far as possible (given (...) the scanty evidence), the nature of Sheffer's program, and the reasons for its failure. The paper concludes with a discussion of Sheffer's only true logical descendant, C.H. Langford, and his contributions to model theory. (shrink)
This paper investigates the depth of resolution proofs, that is to say, the length of the longest path in the proof from an input clause to the conclusion. An abstract characterization of the measure is given, as well as a discussion of its relation to other measures of space complexity for resolution proofs.
Quine has argued that modal logic began with the sin of confusing use and mention. Anderson and Belnap, on the other hand, have offered us a way out through a strategy of nominahzation. This paper reviews the history of Lewis's early work in modal logic, and then proves some results about the system in which "A is necessary" is intepreted as "A is a classical tautology.".
Around 1989, a striking letter written in March 1956 from Kurt Gödel to John von Neumann came to light. It poses some problems about the complexity of algorithms; in particular, it asks a question that can be seen as the first formulation of the P=?NP question. This paper discusses some of the background to this letter, including von Neumann's own ideas on complexity theory. Von Neumann had already raised explicit questions about the complexity of Tarski's decision procedure for elementary algebra (...) and geometry in a letter of 1949 to J. C. C. McKinsey. The paper concludes with a discussion of why theoretical computer science did not emerge as a separate discipline until the 1960s. (shrink)
The problem of enumerating the types of Boolean functions under the group of variable permutations and complementations was first stated by Jevons in the 1870s. but not solved in a satisfactory way until the work of Pólya in 1940. This paper explains the details of Pólya's solution, and also the history of the problem from the 1870s to the 1970s.
In an earlier paper entitled Synonymous Logics, the authors attempted to show that there are two modal logics so that each is exactly translatable into the other, but they are not translationally equivalent. Unfortunately, there is an error in the proof of this result. The present paper provides a new example of two such logics, and a proof of the result claimed in the earlier paper.
Hans Herzberger as a philosopher and logician has shown deep interest both in the philosophy of Gottlob Frege, and in the topic of the inexpressible and the ineffable. In the fall of 1982, he taught at the University of Toronto, together with André Gombay, a course on Frege's metaphysics, philosophy of language, and foundations of arithmetic. Again, in the fall of 1986, he taught a seminar on the philosophy of language that dealt with 'the limits of discursive symbolism in several (...) domains of human experience.' The course description continues by saying: 'Special attention will be given to the paradoxes underlying various doctrines of the inexpressible and the tensions inherent in those paradoxes. Some doctrines of .. (shrink)
The method of analytic tableaux is employed in many introductory texts and has also been used quite extensively as a basis for automated theorem proving. In this paper, we discuss the complexity of the system as a method for refuting contradictory sets of clauses, and resolve several open questions. We discuss the three forms of analytic tableaux: clausal tableaux, generalized clausal tableaux, and binary tableaux. We resolve the relative complexity of these three forms of tableaux proofs and also resolve the (...) relative complexity of analytic tableaux versus resolution. We show that there is a quasi-polynomial simulation of tree resolution by analytic tableaux; this simulation is close to optimal, since we give a matching lower bound that is tight to within a polynomial. (shrink)
We show that short bounded-depth Frege proofs of matrix identities, such as PQ=I⊃QP=I (over the field of two elements), imply short bounded-depth Frege proofs of the pigeonhole principle. Since the latter principle is known to require exponential-size bounded-depth Frege proofs, it follows that the propositional version of the matrix principle also requires bounded-depth Frege proofs of exponential size.
This paper discusses the general problem of translation functions between logics, given in axiomatic form, and in particular, the problem of determining when two such logics are "synonymous" or "translationally equivalent." We discuss a proposed formal definition of translational equivalence, show why it is reasonable, and also discuss its relation to earlier definitions in the literature. We also give a simple criterion for showing that two modal logics are not translationally equivalent, and apply this to well-known examples. Some philosophical morals (...) are drawn concerning the possibility of having two logical systems that are "empirically distinct" but are both translationally equivalent to a common logic. (shrink)
This has been a great century for logic and the foundations of mathematics. Ewald's excellent sourcebook is a welcome addition to the literature on the exciting developments of this and the past two centuries. The richness of the material on which Ewald is drawing is shown by the fact that he has assembled a broad and representative selection without once duplicating anything to be found in the famous sourcebooks of van Heijenoort and Benacerraf/Putnam.
We prove that for sufficiently large $n$ , there are tautologies of size $O(n)$ that require proofs containing $\Omega( n / \log n )$ lines in axiomatic systems of propositional logic based on the rules of substitution and detachment.
This paper defines a category of bounded distributive lattice-ordered grupoids with a left-residual operation that corresponds to a weak system in the family of relevant logics. Algebras corresponding to stronger systems are obtained by adding further postulates. A duality theoey piggy-backed on the Priestley duality theory for distributive lattices is developed for these algebras. The duality theory is then applied in providing characterizations of the dual spaces corresponding to stronger relevant logics.
This article presents a simplified proof of the result that bounded depth propositional proofs of the pigeonhole principle are exponentially large. The proof uses the new techniques for proving switching lemmas developed by Razborov and Beame. A similar result is also proved for some examples based on graphs.
Craig's interpolation theorem fails for the propositional logics E of entailment, R of relevant implication and T of ticket entailment, as well as in a large class of related logics. This result is proved by a geometrical construction, using the fact that a non-Arguesian projective plane cannot be imbedded in a three-dimensional projective space. The same construction shows failure of the amalgamation property in many varieties of distributive lattice-ordered monoids.
An Ockham lattice is defined to be a distributive lattice with 0 and 1 which is equipped with a dual homomorphic operation. In this paper we prove: (1) The lattice of all equational classes of Ockham lattices is isomorphic to a lattice of easily described first-order theories and is uncountable, (2) every such equational class is generated by its finite members. In the proof of (2) a characterization of orderings of with respect to which the successor function is decreasing is (...) given. (shrink)