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Alexander Clark [5]Alexander M. Clark [4]Alex Clark [1]
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Profile: Alex Clark (University of Montana)
  1. Alexander Clark, Computational Learning Theory and Language Acquisition.
    Computational learning theory explores the limits of learnability. Studying language acquisition from this perspective involves identifying classes of languages that are learnable from the available data, within the limits of time and computational resources available to the learner. Different models of learning can yield radically different learnability results, where these depend on the assumptions of the model about the nature of the learning process, and the data, time, and resources that learners have access to. To the extent that such assumptions (...)
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  2. Gianluca Giorgolo, Shalom Lappin & Alexander Clark, Towards a Statistical Model of Grammaticality.
    The question of whether it is possible to characterise grammatical knowledge in probabilistic terms is central to determining the relationship of linguistic representation to other cognitive domains. We present a statistical model of grammaticality which maps the probabilities of a statistical model for sentences in parts of the British National Corpus (BNC) into grammaticality scores, using various functions of the parameters of the model. We test this approach with a classifier on test sets containing different levels of syntactic infelicity. With (...)
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  3. Alex Clark & Shalom Lappin, Unsupervised Learning and Grammar Induction.
    In this chapter we consider unsupervised learning from two perspectives. First, we briefly look at its advantages and disadvantages as an engineering technique applied to large corpora in natural language processing. While supervised learning generally achieves greater accuracy with less data, unsupervised learning offers significant savings in the intensive labour required for annotating text. Second, we discuss the possible relevance of unsupervised learning to debates on the cognitive basis of human language acquisition. In this context we explore the implications of (...)
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  4. Alexander Clark & Shalom Lappin, Another Look at Indirect Negative Evidence.
    Indirect negative evidence is clearly an important way for learners to constrain overgeneralisation, and yet a good learning theoretic analysis has yet to be provided for this, whether in a PAC or a probabilistic identification in the limit framework. In this paper we suggest a theoretical analysis of indirect negative evidence that allows the presence of ungrammatical strings in the input and also accounts for the relationship between grammaticality/acceptability and probability. Given independently justified assumptions about lower bounds on the probabilities (...)
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  5. Alexandra A. Choby & Alexander M. Clark (2013). Improving Health: Structure and Agency in Health Interventions. Nursing Philosophy 15 (2):89-101.
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  6. Alexander Clark & Shalom Lappin (2013). Complexity in Language Acquisition. Topics in Cognitive Science 5 (1):89-110.
    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems—in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. (...)
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  7. Jan E. Angus & Alexander M. Clark (2012). Using Critical Realism in Nursing and Health Research: Promise and Challenges. Nursing Inquiry 19 (1):1-3.
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  8. Lori Harwood & Alexander M. Clark (2012). Understanding Health Decisions Using Critical Realism: Home-Dialysis Decision-Making During Chronic Kidney Disease. Nursing Inquiry 19 (1):29-38.
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  9. Wendy Sword, Alexander M. Clark, Kathleen Hegadoren, Sandra Brooks & Dawn Kingston (2012). The Complexity of Postpartum Mental Health and Illness: A Critical Realist Study. Nursing Inquiry 19 (1):51-62.
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  10. Alexander Clark (1981). Chesterton in Chicago. The Chesterton Review 7 (2):176-177.
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