Search results for 'Alexandra Newton' (try it on Scholar)

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Profile: Alexandra Newton (Universität Leipzig)
  1. Alexandra Newton (2012). Kant on the Logical Origin of Concepts. European Journal of Philosophy 21 (2):n/a-n/a.score: 240.0
    In his lectures on general logic Kant maintains that the generality of a representation (the form of a concept) arises from the logical acts of comparison, reflection and abstraction. These acts are commonly understood to be identical with the acts that generate reflected schemata. I argue that this is mistaken, and that the generality of concepts, as products of the understanding, should be distinguished from the classificatory generality of schemata, which are products of the imagination. A Kantian concept does not (...)
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  2. Isaac Newton (1953/2005). Newton's Philosophy of Nature: Selections From His Writings. Dover Publications.score: 210.0
    Aside from the Principia and occasional appearances of the Opticks , Newton' writings have remained largely inaccessible to students of philosophy, science, and literature as well as to other readers. This book provides a remedy with wide representation of the interests, problems, and diverse philosophic issues that preoccupied the greatest scientific mind of the seventeenth century. Grouped in sections corresponding to methods, principles, and theological considerations, these selections feature explanatory notes and cross-references to related essays.
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  3. Einstein Y. La Noción De Newton (2001). I NTRODUCCIÓN M ucha gente tiende a pensar que con la teoría de la relatividad de Einstein, el concepto de tiempo absoluto de Isaac Newton quedó totalmente refutado. 1 En este trabajo nos proponemos explorar la idea de que, al. Signos Filosóficos 5:65-81.score: 180.0
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  4. Isaac Newton (1704/1952). Opticks. Dover Press.score: 60.0
    Reproduces the text of Newton's dissertation on the nature and properties of light.
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  5. Richard A. Burgess, Michael Davis, Marilyn A. Dyrud, Joseph R. Herkert, Rachelle D. Hollander, Lisa Newton, Michael S. Pritchard & P. Aarne Vesilind (2013). Engineering Ethics: Looking Back, Looking Forward. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1395-1404.score: 60.0
    The eight pieces constituting this Meeting Report are summaries of presentations made during a panel session at the 2011 Association for Practical and Professional Ethics (APPE) annual meeting held between March 3rd and 6th in Cincinnati. Lisa Newton organized the session and served as chair. The panel of eight consisted both of pioneers in the field and more recent arrivals. It covered a range of topics from how the field has developed to where it should be going, from identification (...)
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  6. Isaac Newton (2004). Philosophical Writings. Cambridge, Uk ;Cambridge University Press.score: 60.0
    Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) left a voluminous legacy of writings. Despite his influence on the early modern period, his correspondence, manuscripts, and publications in natural philosophy remain scattered throughout many disparate editions. In this volume, Newton's principal philosophical writings are for the first time collected in a single place. They include excerpts from the Principia and the Opticks, his famous correspondence with Boyle and with Bentley, and his equally significant correspondence with Leibniz, which is often ignored in favor (...)
     
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  7. Ralph D. Ellis & Natika Newton (2005). Consciousness and Emotion: Agency, Conscious Choice, and Selective Perception. John Benjamins.score: 30.0
    The papers in this volume of Consciousness & Emotion Book Series are organized around the theme of "enaction.
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  8. Natika Newton (1989). On Viewing Pain as a Secondary Quality. Noûs 23 (5):569-98.score: 30.0
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  9. Natika Newton (1986). Churchland on Direct Introspection of Brain States. Analysis 46 (March):97-102.score: 30.0
  10. Natika Newton (1992). Dennett on Intrinsic Intentionality. Analysis 52 (1):18-23.score: 30.0
  11. Ralph D. Ellis & Natika Newton (1998). Three Paradoxes of Phenomenal Consciousness: Bridging the Explanatory Gap. Journal of Consciousness Studies 5 (4):419-42.score: 30.0
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  12. Ralph D. Ellis & Natika Newton (2000). The Interdependence of Consciousness and Emotion. Consciousness and Emotion 1 (1):1-10.score: 30.0
  13. Natika Newton (1988). Introspection and Perception. Topoi 7 (March):25-30.score: 30.0
    Sydney Shoemaker argues that introspection, unlike perception, provides no identification information about the self, and that knowledge of one''s mental states should be conceived as arising in a direct and unmediated fashion from one''s being in those states. I argue that while one does not identify aself as the subject of one''s states, one does frequently identify and misidentify thestates, in ways analogous to the identification of objects in perception, and that in discourse about one''s mental states the self plays (...)
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  14. Thomas H. Bivins & Julianne H. Newton (2003). The Real, the Virtual, and the Moral: Ethics at the Intersection of Consciousness. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 18 (3 & 4):213 – 229.score: 30.0
    The promise of virtual reality is that it may eventually lead us to a "third state of consciousness" transcending the objective reality of our embodied beings and opening up to us a world of expanded realization. However, the recurring themes of our hero myths, both religious and secular, remind us of the importance of remaining grounded in the real world of embodied people and phenomenal perception. Advances in neuroscience even suggest that unconscious processing of perceptual stimuli may guide our behaviors. (...)
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  15. Natika Newton (2001). Emergence and the Uniqueness of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (9-10):47-59.score: 30.0
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  16. Natika Newton (1996). Foundations of Understanding. John Benjamins.score: 30.0
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  17. Louis W. Hodges, Lisa H. Newton, Jerry Dunklee, Eugene L. Roberts, Andrew Sikula & Chris Roberts (2004). Cases and Commentaries. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 19 (3 & 4):293 – 306.score: 30.0
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  18. Andrew Alexandra (2002). Academic Personality and the Commodification of Academic Texts. Ethics and Information Technology 4 (4):279-286.score: 30.0
    This paper explores the nature of, and justification for, copyright in academic texts in the light of recent developments in information technology, in particular the growth of electronic publication on the internet. Copyright, like other forms of property, is best thought of as a cluster of rights. A distinction is drawn within this cluster between first order `control rights' and higher order `commodity rights'. It is argued that copyright in academic texts is founded on its role as a means to (...)
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  19. Andrew Alexandra & Seumas Miller (1999). Copyright in Teaching Materials. Educational Philosophy and Theory 31 (1):87–96.score: 30.0
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  20. Natika Newton (1989). Machine Understanding and the Chinese Room. Philosophical Psychology 2 (2):207-15.score: 30.0
    John Searle has argued that one can imagine embodying a machine running any computer program without understanding the symbols, and hence that purely computational processes do not yield understanding. The disagreement this argument has generated stems, I hold, from ambiguity in talk of 'understanding'. The concept is analysed as a relation between subjects and symbols having two components: a formal and an intentional. The central question, then becomes whether a machine could possess the intentional component with or without the formal (...)
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  21. Michael Davis, Christopher Meyers, Lisa H. Newton & Elliot D. Cohen (2004). Report Cards. Journal of Mass Media Ethics 19 (3 & 4):161 – 165.score: 30.0
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  22. Natika Newton (1989). Visualizing is Imagining Seeing: A Reply to White. Analysis 49 (March):77-81.score: 30.0
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  23. Natika Newton (1991). Consciousness, Qualia, and Re-Entrant Signaling. Behavior and Philosophy 19 (1):21-41.score: 30.0
    There is a distinction between phenomenal properties and the "phenomenality" of those properties: e.g. between what red is like and what it is like to experience red. To date, reductive accounts explain the former, but not the latter: Nagel is right that they leave something out. This paper attempts a reductive account of what it is like to have a perceptual experience. Four features of such experience are distinguished: the externality, unity, and self-awareness belonging to the content of conscious experience, (...)
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  24. Natika Newton (1982). Experience and Imagery. Southern Journal of Philosophy 21 (4):475-87.score: 30.0
  25. Natika Newton (1985). Acting and Perceiving in Body and Mind. Philosophy Research Archives 11:407-429.score: 30.0
    In this paper I sketch an account of (a) the origin of the terms and concepts of folk psychology, and (b) the true nature of mental states. I argue that folk psychology is built on metaphors for the functioning physical body, and that mental states are neurological traces which serve as schematic ‘mental images’ of those same functions. Special attention is paid to the folk psychology of self-consciousness. In particular, I argue that the notion of introspection is mistaken, and I (...)
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  26. Willard Downs & Kelley Ann Newton (1989). Legal Implications in Development and Use of Expert Systems in Agriculture. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 2 (1):53-58.score: 30.0
    Applications of Artificial Intelligence, particularly Expert Systems, are rapidly increasing. This science promises to give computer-based systems the capability of reasoning and decision making in near human-like fashion. Whether used for farm management or intelligent machine control, Expert Systems will find many agricultural applications. Much of the development and distribution of such systems will probably take place in the public sector, particularly the Cooperative Extension Service. A major nontechnical factor affecting the development and extensive use of Expert Systems is the (...)
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  27. Ralph D. Ellis & Natika Newton (2005). The Unity of Consciousness: An Enactivist Approach. Journal of Mind and Behavior 26 (4):225-280.score: 30.0
     
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  28. Natika Newton (2000). Conscious Emotion in a Dynamic System: How I Can Know How I Feel. In Ralph D. Ellis & Natika Newton (eds.), The Caldron of Consciousness: Motivation, Affect and Self-Organization - an Anthology. John Benjamins.score: 30.0
     
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  29. Natika Newton (2001). The Function of the Cerebellum in Cognition, Affect and Consciousness: Empirical Support for the Embodied Mind--Introduction. Consciousness and Emotion 2 (2):273-276.score: 30.0
  30. Quayshawn Spencer (2004). Do Newton's Rules of Reasoning Guarantee Truth ... Must They? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 35 (4):759-782.score: 24.0
    Newton’s Principia introduces four rules of reasoning for natural philosophy. Although useful, there is a concern about whether Newton’s rules guarantee truth. After redirecting the discussion from truth to validity, I show that these rules are valid insofar as they fulfill Goodman’s criteria for inductive rules and Newton’s own methodological program of experimental philosophy; provided that cross-checks are used prior to applications of rule 4 and immediately after applications of rule 2 the following activities are pursued: (1) (...)
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  31. Hylarie Kochiras (2009). Gravity and Newton's Substance Counting Problem. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science 40 (3):267-280.score: 24.0
    A striking feature of Newton’s thought is the very broad reach of his empiricism, potentially extending even to immaterial substances, including God, minds, and should one exist, a non-perceiving immaterial medium. Yet Newton is also drawn to certain metaphysical principles—most notably the principle that matter cannot act where it is not—and this second, rationalist feature of his thought is most pronounced in his struggle to discover ‘gravity’s cause’. The causal problem remains vexing, for he neither invokes primary causation, (...)
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  32. Edward Slowik (2013). Newton's Neo-Platonic Ontology of Space. Foundations of Science 18 (3):419-448.score: 24.0
    This paper investigates Newton’s ontology of space in order to determine its commitment, if any, to both Cambridge neo-Platonism, which posits an incorporeal basis for space, and substantivalism, which regards space as a form of substance or entity. A non-substantivalist interpretation of Newton’s theory has been famously championed by Howard Stein and Robert DiSalle, among others, while both Stein and the early work of J. E. McGuire have downplayed the influence of Cambridge neo-Platonism on various aspects of (...)’s own spatial hypotheses. Both of these assertions will be shown to be problematic on various grounds, with special emphasis placed on Stein’s influential case for a non-substantivalist reading. Our analysis will strive, nonetheless, to reveal the unique or forward-looking aspects of Newton’s approach, most notably, his critical assessment of substance ontologies, that help to distinguish his theory of space from his neo-Platonic contemporaries and predecessors. (shrink)
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  33. Ori Belkind (2013). Leibniz and Newton on Space. Foundations of Science 18 (3):467-497.score: 24.0
    This paper reexamines the historical debate between Leibniz and Newton on the nature of space. According to the traditional reading, Leibniz (in his correspondence with Clarke) produced metaphysical arguments (relying on the Principle of Sufficient Reason and the Principle of Identity of Indiscernibles) in favor of a relational account of space. Newton, according to the traditional account, refuted the metaphysical arguments with the help of an empirical argument based on the bucket experiment. The paper claims that Leibniz’s and (...)
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  34. Nicholas Maxwell (2014). Three Criticisms of Newton’s Inductive Argument in the Principia. Advances in Historical Studies 3 (1):2-11.score: 24.0
    In this paper, I discuss how Newton’s inductive argument of the Principia can be defended against criticisms levelled against it by Duhem, Popper and myself. I argue that Duhem’s and Popper’s criticisms can be countered, but mine cannot. It requires that we reconsider, not just Newton’s inductive argument in the Principia, but also the nature of science more generally. The methods of science, whether conceived along inductivist or hypothetico-deductivist lines, make implicit metaphysical presuppositions which rigour requires we make (...)
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  35. Steffen Ducheyne (2009). Understanding (in) Newton's Argument for Universal Gravitation. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 40 (2):227 - 258.score: 24.0
    In this essay, I attempt to assess Henk de Regt and Dennis Dieks recent pragmatic and contextual account of scientific understanding on the basis of an important historical case-study: understanding in Newton’s theory of universal gravitation and Huygens’ reception of universal gravitation. It will be shown that de Regt and Dieks’ Criterion for the Intelligibility of a Theory (CIT), which stipulates that the appropriate combination of scientists’ skills and intelligibility-enhancing theoretical virtues is a condition for scientific understanding, is too (...)
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  36. Liam P. Dempsey (2011). 'A Compound Wholly Mortal' : Locke and Newton on the Metaphysics of (Personal) Immortality. British Journal for the History of Philosophy 19 (2):241-264.score: 24.0
    In this paper I consider a cluster of positions which depart from the immortalist and dualist anthropologies of Rene Descartes and Henry More. In particular, I argue that John Locke and Isaac Newton are attracted to a monistic mind-body metaphysics, which while resisting neat characterization, occupies a conceptual space distinct from the dualism of the immortalists, on the one hand, and thoroughgoing materialism of Thomas Hobbes, on the other. They propound a sort of property monism: mind and body are (...)
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  37. Andrew Janiak (2013). Metaphysics and Natural Philosophy in Descartes and Newton. Foundations of Science 18 (3):403-417.score: 24.0
    This paper compares Newton’s and Descartes’s conceptions of the complex relationship between physics and metaphysics.
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  38. Chunghyoung Lee (2011). Infinity and Newton's Three Laws of Motion. Foundations of Physics 41 (12):1810-1828.score: 24.0
    It is shown that the following three common understandings of Newton’s laws of motion do not hold for systems of infinitely many components. First, Newton’s third law, or the law of action and reaction, is universally believed to imply that the total sum of internal forces in a system is always zero. Several examples are presented to show that this belief fails to hold for infinite systems. Second, two of these examples are of an infinitely divisible continuous body (...)
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  39. Marius Stan (2012). Newton and Wolff: The Leibnizian Reaction to the Principia, 1716–1763. Southern Journal of Philosophy 50 (3):459-481.score: 24.0
    Newton rested his theory of mechanics on distinct metaphysical and epistemological foundations. After Leibniz's death in 1716, the Principia ran into sharp philosophical opposition from Christian Wolff and his disciples, who sought to subvert Newton's foundations or replace them with Leibnizian ideas. In what follows, I chronicle some of the Wolffians' reactions to Newton's notion of absolute space, his dynamical laws of motion, and his general theory of gravitation. I also touch on arguments advanced by Newton's (...)
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  40. Liam P. Dempsey (2006). Written in the Flesh: Isaac Newton on the Mind–Body Relation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (3):420-441.score: 24.0
    Isaac Newton’s views on the mind–body relation are of interest not only because of their somewhat unique departure from popular early modern conceptions of mind and its relation to body, but also because of their connections with other aspects of Newton’s thought. In this paper I argue that (1) Newton accepted an interesting sort of mind–body monism, one which defies neat categorization, but which clearly departs from Cartesian substance dualism, and (2) Newton took the power by (...)
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  41. Décio Krause (2009). Newton da Costa e a Filosofia de Quase-verdade. Principia 13 (2):105-128.score: 24.0
    Este artigo pretende introduzir os três volumes de Principia que aparecerão em sequência homenageando os 80 anos do professor Newton da Costa. Ao invés de apresentar os artigos um a um, como se faz usualmente em uma introdução como esta, preferimos deixar os artigos falarem por si, e oforoecer aos leitores brasileiros, especialmente nossos estudantes, alguns aspectos da concepção de ciência e da atividade científica de Newton da Costa, fundamentadas no conceito de quase-verdade, que ele contribuiu para desenvolver (...)
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  42. Gustavo Caponi (2012). ¿Fue Darwin el Newton de la brizna de hierba? Principia 16 (1):53-79.score: 24.0
    http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2012v16n1p53 Ratifying Haeckel and contradicting Kant’s negative prophesy, in this paper I try to show that Darwin was, really, the Newton of the blade of grass . Darwin showed how the configurations according to goals of the living beings, could be explained from a naturalistic point of view, without having to postulate the existence of an intentional agent that had arranged or prearranged then. This achievement, nevertheless, was obtained by a way that Kant could not foresee and that Haeckel (...)
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  43. Verônica Calazans (2013). A negação do vazio por parte de Descartes: as críticas de Newton e Voltaire. Doispontos 9 (3).score: 24.0
    As críticas de Newton e Voltaire endereçadas à negação do vazio por parte de Descartes compartilham uma estrutura básica: ambos parecem concordar que tal tese cartesiana conduz a implicações indesejáveis tanto no campo da mecânica, quanto no que diz respeito à teologia. Entretanto, embora Newton admita as implicações teológicas da negação do vazio, elas não constituem o fim último de sua crítica, o que parece ocorrer na crítica de Voltaire. Ao contrário, os argumentos newtonianos para assumir o vazioencontram (...)
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  44. Steffen Ducheyne & Erik Weber (2007). The Concept of Causation in Newton's Mechanical and Optical Work. Logic and Logical Philosophy 16 (4):265-288.score: 24.0
    In this essay the authors explore the nature of efficient causal explanation in Newton’s "Principia and The Opticks". It is argued that: (1) In the dynamical explanations of the Principia, Newton treats the phenomena under study as cases of Hall’s second kind of atypical causation. The underlying concept of causation is therefore a purely interventionist one. (2) In the descriptions of his optical experiments, Newton treats the phenomena under study as cases of Hall’s typical causation. The underlying (...)
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  45. Marius Stan (forthcoming). Absolute Space and the Riddle of Rotation: Kant’s Response to Newton. Oxford Studies in Early Modern Philosophy 7.score: 24.0
    Besides theological grounds, Newton also has a fivefold kinematico-dynamical argument for absolute space, from “the properties, causes, and effects” of true motion. Like Newton, Kant holds that bodies have true motions. Unlike him, though, Kant declares all motion to be relative to matter, not absolute space. In consequence, he must respond to Newton’s argument above. In this paper, I reconstruct in detail Kant’s answer, from his “Metaphysical Foundations of Phenomenology.” It turns out that Kant addresses just one (...)
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  46. Maged El Setouhy, Tsiri Agbenyega, Francis Anto, Christine Alexandra Clerk, Kwadwo A. Koram, Michael English, Rashid Juma, Catherine Molyneux, Norbert Peshu & Newton Kumwenda (forthcoming). Moral Standards for Research in Developing Countries From" Reasonable Availability" to" Fair Benefits". Hastings Center Report.score: 24.0
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  47. Kenneth R. Westphal (2014). ‘Hegel’s Semantics of Singular Cognitive Reference, Newton’s Methodological Rule 4 and Scientific Realism Today’. Philosophical Inquiries 2 (1):9-67.score: 24.0
    Empirical investigations use empirical methods, data and evidence. This banal observation appears to favour empiricism, especially in philosophy of science, though no rationalist ever denied their importance. Natural sciences often provide what appear to be, and are taken by scientists as, realist, causal explanations of natural phenomena. Empiricism has never been congenial to scientific realism. Bas van Fraassen’s ‘Constructive Empiricism’ purports that realist interpretations of any scientific theory in principle always transcend whatever can be justified by that theory’s empirical adequacy, (...)
     
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  48. Kenneth R. Westphal (2011). ‘Kant’s Cognitive Semantics, Newton’s Rule Four of Philosophy and Scientific Realism’. Bulletin of the Hegel Society of Great Britain 63:27-49.score: 24.0
    Kant’s Critique of Pure Reason contains an original and powerful semantics of singular cognitive reference which has important implications for epistemology and for philosophy of science. Here I argue that Kant’s semantics directly and strongly supports Newton’s Rule 4 of Philosophy in ways which support Newton’s realism about gravitational force. I begin with Newton’s Rule 4 of Philosophy and its role in Newton’s justification of realism about gravitational force (§2). Next I briefly summarize Kant’s semantics of (...)
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  49. Graham Nerlich (2005). Can Parts of Space Move? On Paragraph Six of Newton's Scholium. Erkenntnis 62 (1):119--135.score: 22.0
    Paragraph 6 of Newtons Scholium argues that the parts of space cannot move. A premise of the argument – that parts have individuality only through an order of position – has drawn distinguished modern support yet little agreement among interpretations of the paragraph. I argue that the paragraph offers an a priori, metaphysical argument for absolute motion, an argument which is invalid. That order of position is powerless to distinguish one part of Euclidean space from any other has gone virtually (...)
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  50. Eric Schliesser (2013). On Reading Newton as an Epicurean: Kant, Spinozism and the Changes to the Principia. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 44 (3):416-428.score: 21.0
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