Work values and the loyalty (commitment to hard work, profession, and principles) of 762 managers in Kuwait were investigated. The results indicated that managers scored high on work values and loyalty. Furthermore, there was a high positive correlation between the two measures. Demographic and organizational variables had significant influence on managerial orientations. Specifically, expatriates and female managers showed a high commitment to work values and loyalty.
: The "major Islamic philosophers," writes Deborah Black, "produced no works dedicated to aesthetics, although their writings do address issues that contemporary philosophers might study under that heading." The emergent theme in this essay is that classical Islamic philosophy may be studied within a framework of aesthetics. To achieve this goal, the metaphysics of Abu Hamid al-Ghazālī (1058–1111) and the aesthetics of Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860) will be brought together.
With the rapid advancements made in biotechnology, bioethical discourse has become increasingly important. Bioethics is a multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary field that goes beyond the realm of natural sciences, and has involved fields in the domain of the social sciences. One of the important areas in bioethical discourse is religion. In a country like Malaysia, where Muslims make up the majority of the population, Islam plays a crucial role in providing the essential guidelines on the permissibility and acceptability of biotechnological applications (...) in various fields such as medicine, agriculture, and food processing. This article looks at the framework of a complementary model of bioethics derived from the perspective of Islam. The framework is based on ‘maqasid al-shariah’ (purposes or objectives of Islamic law) which aims to protect and preserve mankind’s faith, life, intellect, progeny, and property. It is proposed that ‘maqasid al-shariah’ be used as a pragmatic checklist that can be utilized in tackling bioethical issues and dilemmas. (shrink)
Este artigo apresenta uma comparação conceitual entre a obra De anima, de Aristóteles, e a concepção das faculdades da alma no Kitáb al-Nafs – edição árabe – (Livro da Alma, De anima), de Ibn Sina (Avicena), com o intuito de mostrar similitudes e in#uências de Aristóteles sobre o pensamento de Ibn Sina, nessa temática. Destaca, ainda, como e a época em que o estagirita foi recebido em terras do Islã, indicando o seu primeiro receptor, o &lósofo Al-Kindi, assim como, de (...) modo pormenorizado, uma comparação sobre a de&nição de alma dada pelos dois &lósofos, e as três espécies de alma, com ênfase para o conceito de alma racional. Apresenta, também, a estrutura de cada uma das obras. (shrink)
This article explores the ethics sensitivity and awareness of a sample of employees in six organizations in Kuwait. We identify which sorts of questionable organizational behaviors are believed to be most unethical by these employees, as well as which behaviors are reported to occur most often within the organizations. On the whole, the employees evidence a high level of ethical sensitivity, perceiving the moral hazards of all of the behaviors presented to them. At the same time, the reported occurrence of (...) these behaviors within the sampled organizations is relatively high. We produce conclusions about the correspondence between moral theory and moral practice within the Kuwaiti workplace. We find a basic correspondence between what is believed to be wrong within these organizations, and the types of unethical behavior reported within them. In general, behaviors thought to be most unethical occur less frequently within the organizations. (shrink)
The classic Arabic bibliographies ascribe to al-Farabi a treatise entitled Fi mahiyyat al-nafs (“On the Essence of the Soul”), of which no Arabic manuscript is known to exist. There is however a Hebrew text, translated from the Arabic by Zera[hudot]iah ben She'altiel [Hudot]en of Rome in 1284, which is ascribed to al-Farabi in all the manuscripts and which carries the title Ma'amar be-mahut ha-nefesh (“Treatise on the Essence of the Soul”). Since Steinschneider, this text is taken to be the translation (...) of al-Farabi's treatise lost in the original. In this paper I argue that the Ma'amar be-mahut ha-nefesh is not by al-Farabi: it is in vain that one looks in it for ideas characteristic to the Second Master, while the ideas expressed therein are incompatible with those of al-Farabi. I offer a study of Ma'amar be-mahut ha-nefesh, followed by an annotated translation into French. This is a “popular” Neoplatonic text, whose ideas are mostly very ordinary, but in part uncommon. It notably explains the emergence of forms in matter by positing the existence of a pneuma that by circulating around the body “brings forth” the vegetative and animal souls. The author also draws on an unusual notion called hemshel in Hebrew (a term probably translating the Arabic mithal, rendered as exemplum in Latin): the exemplum is said to become visible as a result of the pneuma's circular motion. The paper is followed by a short Note by Rémi Brague looking into the sources of the treatise. Brague concludes that the text cannot be assigned to any specific tradition. (shrink)
Hackl et al. (2012) argue that processing evidence specifically supports a theory of Antecedent Contained Deletion (ACD) that involves the threat of type-mismatch and infinite regress, with Quantifier Raising (QR) coming to the rescue. This squib argues that the processing evidence does not specifically support that theory. Very similar predictions can be made by the variable-free, or combinatory, theory that Hackl et al. dismiss, if we add the assumption that ACD is resolved by binding, not by simple anaphora.
The paper highlights the importance of a strategic alliance between the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community and the Al-Jazeera International Channel. Secondly, we discuss the global outlook as to how Qatar can position itself on the world map as knowledge-based nation and a land of innovative ideas. Thirdly, we analyse the new role of Islamic finance in social responsibility and why investment in social capital is vitally important in a challenging world. We select four Muslim countries that Qatar (...) should consider for human capital investment purposes—Egypt (the brain and heart of the Arab world), Syria, Turkey, and Malaysia—and justify this selection. Fourthly, we discuss a new role for the Aljazeera International Channel as a promoter of successful entrepreneurs and venture capitalists in the Muslim World, to show what real Islamic finance is. Finally, the challenges ahead are discussed and policy recommendations suggested. (shrink)
Nanoscale multilayered Al?TiN composites were deposited using the dc magnetron sputtering technique in two different layer thickness ratios, Al : TiN = 1 : 1 and Al : TiN = 9 : 1. The Al layer thickness varied from 2 nm to 450 nm. The hardness of the samples was tested by nanoindentation using a Berkovich tip. Cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was carried out on samples extracted with focused ion beam from below the nanoindents. The results of the hardness (...) tests on the Al?TiN multilayers with two different thickness ratios are presented, together with observations from the cross-sectional TEM studies of the regions underneath the indents. These studies revealed remarkable strength in the multilayers, as well as some very interesting deformation behavior in the TiN layers at extremely small length scales, where the hard TiN layers undergo co-deformation with the Al layers. (shrink)
This paper reviews recent progress in the study of rare gas films on quasicrystalline surfaces. The adsorption of Xe on the 10-fold surface of decagonal Al?Ni?Co was studied using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED). The results of these studies prompted the development of a theoretical model, which successfully reproduced the thermodynamic parameters found in the experiment. Grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations for Xe-produced structures that agreed with the experimental observations of the adsorption structures and provided a deeper insight into the (...) nature of the ordering. A first-order commensurate?incommensurate transition, which involves a transition from a quasicrystalline five-fold structure to a periodic hexagonal structure, was discovered and characterized for the Xe monolayer. The five rotational domains of the hexagonal structure observed in the LEED study were shown in the GCMC study to be mediated by pentagonal defects, which are entropic in nature, and not by substrate defects. The GCMC study found an absence of any such transition for Kr, Ar and Ne on the same surface. A detailed analysis of this transition led to the conclusion that the formation of the hexagonal layer depends on matching the gas and substrate characteristic lengths. (shrink)
Electrical resistivity measurements and three-dimensional atom probe (3DAP) analysis were employed to investigate early-stage decomposition of the Al alloy AA6111 in the temperature range 60?180°C where electrical resistivity initially increased with ageing time. 3DAP measurements provided information on the shape, number density and solute content of the precipitates, as well as the solute concentration of the matrix, for the ageing conditions corresponding to the resistivity maxima. Using the 3DAP results, the precipitate size distributions for these ageing conditions were determined in (...) terms of the measured number of solute atoms per precipitate. The number density and the Cu content of the precipitates decreased with increasing temperature, whereas the Mg/Si ratio increased. The size distribution of precipitates at the higher ageing temperatures showed the addition of larger size precipitates to the precipitate population. A modification to Matthiessen's law was employed to describe the anomalous resistivity increase by considering the effect of solutes and precipitates on the resistivity evolution. Using the 3DAP results in analysing the resistivity anomaly, it was found that the decrease in the resistivity maxima with increasing temperature was associated with the decrease in the number density of precipitates and not the scattering power of precipitates. The 3DAP results were further used to provide information on the mechanisms of early-stage decomposition and the temperature dependence of the nucleation rate. From this, the nucleation rate appeared to be controlled by the migration of solute atoms, which was assisted by quenched-in vacancies. (shrink)
The Sulwan al-Muta' is an 800 year-old handbook for statesmen written by a Sicilian Arab who addressed this advice for a "just prince" based on Islamic morality, European realism and a broad-ranging knowledge of different cultures. The work is explicated using straight philosophical discourse as well as the narrative whirl of fables-within-fables so beloved of ancient and mediaeval Oriental literature. This is a work of practical political philosophy that combines penetrating contemporary analysis, the entertainment value of The Thousand and One (...) Nights , and the deep insight of Sun Tzu. (shrink)
The addition of small amounts (microalloying) of Ti was previously shown to improve glass formation and stability in rapidly quenched Al?Y?Fe alloys. Here, microalloying with V is demonstrated to have an even more dramatic effect on glass stability. Al85.35Y8Fe6V0.65 exhibits a crystallization-onset temperature (Tx ) of 365°C and a supercooled liquid region (?Tx ) of 80°C, the largest currently known for Al-rich metallic glasses. The rapidly quenched oxygenated alloys Al85Y8Fe6V0.65O0.35 and Al84.35Y8Fe6V0.65O1 are also glasses, establishing that the glasses with V (...) have a higher tolerance to oxygen contamination than the alloys prepared with Ti. The partial devitrification of Al85.35Y8Fe6V0.65 produces an unusual, non-uniform microstructure that suggests an autocatalytic nucleation mechanism. (shrink)
El texto anónimo del 'Kitab mafajir al-barbar' y la guerra contra Hasan b. Qannun se analizan para mostrar la extensión de la autoridad de los Banu Marwan en al-Magrib. Esta se basa en la distribución de presentes de honor - jil'a - y monedas entre los jefes Imazigen y los miembros de la estirpe idrisí.
The microstructural evolution during low temperature ageing of two commercial purity alloys (Al?1.2Cu?1.2Mg?0.2Mn and Al?1.9Cu?1.6Mg?0.2Mn?at.%) was investigated. The initial stage of hardening in these alloys is very rapid, with the alloys nearly doubling in hardness during 20?h ageing at room temperature. The microstructural evolution during this stage of hardening was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), isothermal calorimetry and three?dimensional atom probe analysis (3DAP). It is found that, during the hardening, a substantial exothermic heat evolution occurs and that the only (...) microstructural change involves the formation of Cu?Mg co?clusters. The kinetics of cluster formation is analysed and the magnitude of the hardening is discussed on the basis of a model incorporating solid solution hardening and modulus hardening originating from the difference in modulus between Al and clusters. (shrink)
Creep experiments were conducted on Zn-22%?Al in which SiC particulates were introduced by variable co-deposition of multi-phase materials (VCM). The objective of the investigation is to determine the effect of SiC particulates on the creep behaviour in region I (the low-stress region) and region II (the intermediate-stress or superplastic region) of the sigmoidal plot between stress and strain rate, which was previously reported for the reinforcement-free Zn-22%?Al. The creep data show that the presence of SiC particulates has no effect on (...) the sigmoidal trend between stress and strain rate; and that in region II, the stress exponent, n, and the activation energy for creep, Q, agree well with those reported for SiC-free grades of Zn-22%?Al; n?=?2.5 and Q???Q gb, where Q gb is energy for grain boundary diffusion in the alloy. However, the data indicate that the presence of the particulates results in narrowing region II and reducing maximum ductility. An analysis of the creep data reveals the presence of a threshold stress that depends strongly on temperature. The microstructural data inferred from an examination of the crept specimens by the means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) suggest that the origin of τ 0 may be related to the interaction between moving dislocations and dispersion particles. These particles are introduced in the material as a result of processing the material by thermal spray and deposition. (shrink)
Strong magnetization was observed in a cyclically deformed Fe-35 at.% Al alloy by introduction of a high density of antiphase-boundary (APB) tubes. In order to introduce a large plastic deformation without changing the specimen dimension, compressive deformation was given repeatedly along mutually orthogonal stress axes under a constraint imposed across the stress axes. Clear evidence was obtained in attributing the major origin of the large magnetization to the production of a high density of APB tubes. The contribution of the APB (...) tubes to the strong magnetization and to the work hardening is discussed on the basis of quantitative analyses of the microstructures introduced by cyclic deformation. (shrink)
We have employed X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to characterise the growth and thermal stability of a Bi thin film on the five-fold icosahedral Al-Pd-Mn surface. The growth can be characterised as Stranski?Krastanov, in agreement with previous STM studies. As a function of annealing temperature, the multilayer desorbs first and thereafter coverages of 1 ML and 0.5 ML are stable for significant temperature ranges.
The Hippocratic Aphorisms is a well-known treatise which was very popular throughout the ages. This paper studies the Arabic translation of [Hdotu]unayn ibn Ishaq, the renowned Arab translator, of the first book of the Aphorisms as well as the commentary of Ibn al-Nafis, the thirteenth-century Arab doctor, on the same book. This study highlights the difficulties that occasionally confronted the Arab commentator while commenting. The obscurity of a few Hippocratic sentences as well as [Hdotu]unayn's interpretation and alteration in meaning were (...) probable sources for those difficulties. Ibn al-Nafis, however, was unaware of the role played by [Hdotu]unayn in shaping the Arabic text. Ibn al-Nafis reflected a deep trust in the Arabic text to the degree of commenting on every single word. He used both his intellect and his knowledge of other commentaries to solve those problematic phrases. He did not exhibit an interest in philological matters to help explain the text. His commentaries reflect his respect and appreciation for both Hippocrates and Galen, the latter of whom exercised some influence on [Hdotu]unayn and Ibn al-Nafis in their understanding of the work. Nonetheless both [Hdotu]unayn and Ibn al-Nafis showed traces of independence from Galen's influence. (shrink)
Naive speakers find some logical contradictions acceptable, specifically borderline contradictions involving vague predicates such as Joe is and isn’t tall. In a recent paper, Cobreros et al. (J Philos Logic, 2012) suggest a pragmatic account of the acceptability of borderline contradictions. We show, however, that the pragmatic account predicts the wrong truth conditions for some examples with disjunction. As a remedy, we propose a semantic analysis instead. The analysis is close to a variant of fuzzy logic, but conjunction and disjunction (...) are interpreted as intensional operators. (shrink)
This article proposes a reconstitution of the philosophical tenor of al-Fb al-Mawdayyira). It is shown that this work is not only a response to book VI of John Philoponus' Contra Aristotelem, but that its real issues can only be grasped in the context of the author's metaphysical system. Although, for al-Fbī, genuine demonstrations proceed from the cause to the caused, thus following the order of being, it will be explained how he also admits a strictly physical proof of the simple (...) fact, independently of its cause, and that the physical demonstration of the eternity of the world pertains to this type of proof. This physical proof is specifically directed against the Kindian doctrine of creation. (shrink)
In 2004 Emanuel et al. published an influential account of exploitation in international research, which has become known as the 'fair benefits account'. In this paper I argue that the thin definition of fairness presented by Emanuel et al, and subsequently endorsed by Gbadegesin and Wendler, does not provide a notion of fairness that is adequately robust to support a fair benefits account of exploitation. The authors present a procedural notion of fairness – the fair distribution of the benefits of (...) research is to be determined on a case-by-case basis by the parties involved in each study. The fairness of the distribution of benefits is not assessed against an independent normative standard. Emanuel et al.'s account of fairness provides a framework for objecting only to transactions that occur without the fully informed consent of the weaker party. As a result, a debate about exploitation collapses into a debate about consent. This is problematic because, as the proponents of the fair benefits framework acknowledge, neither the trial participants' consent nor the host community's consent preclude exploitation. Attempts to stipulate normative standards of fairness to protect research subjects in developing countries have been controversial and divisive, and it is therefore understandable that bioethicists would be tempted to develop accounts of exploitation that are independent of such prescriptive principles. I conclude, however, that the utility of the fair benefits model of exploitation as a policy tool will ultimately depend on whether a substantive principle of fairness can be developed to underpin it. (shrink)
Tomasello et al.'s two prerequisites, we argue, are not sufficient to explain the emergence of Joint Collaboration. An adequate account must include the human-specific capacity to communicate relevant information (that may have initially evolved to ensure efficient cultural learning). This, together with understanding intentional actions, does provide sufficient preconditions for Joint Collaboration without the need to postulate a primary human motive to share others' psychological states.
Textual evidence preserved in two still unpublished manuscripts strongly suggests that there once existed an alternative version of Miskawayhghar, the Minor Book of Triumph. The article discusses possible explanations for why Miskawayh may have composed two recensions of his Fawz and compares structure and content of the alternative version with the edited standard version. The one passage which is contained in the alternative Fawz only is presented in Arabic with an English translation. Part of this additional material is parallel to (...) al-Fbs I al-m, namely its division of natural sciences, and may ultimately derive from a no longer extant treatise by Paul the Persian. An appendix provides the Arabic text and English translation of a hitherto unknown fragment of al-Balkhs saying that the world has a causative, but no temporal beginning. (shrink)
Between 9th and 11th centuries, the geometrical transformations gave to the mathematicians a method more and more fertile, leading them to modify their modes of apprehension of the geometrical figures. This article aims to highlight al-Sijzs contribution to this change by setting two tasks: first, to precisely understand what al-Sijzī means by transformation (he is one of the first to recognize explicitly a method in their use); and secondly, to give an account of his research on geometrical invariants, obtained by (...) a variation of some elements of a figure. The use of transformations and the search for invariants seem to be the two faces of the same tendency, that to break with an Euclidean manner to consider the figures in a way isolated and static for better exploiting the common properties which can link them. The article is completed by the edition and the translation of a small treatise devoted to invariants. (shrink)
The modern physiological optics introduces the notions related to the conditions of fusion of binocular images by the concept of correspondence, due to Christiaan Huygens (1704), and by an experiment attributed to Christoph Scheiner (1619). The conceptualization of this experiment dates, in fact, back to Ptolemy (90-168) and Ibn al-Haytham (d. after 1040). The present paper surveys Ibn al-Haytham's knowledge about the mechanisms of binocular vision. The article subsequently explains why Ibn al-Haytham, a mathematician, but here an experimenter, did not (...) give the circular figure of the theoretical horopter, construction due to Gerhard Vieth (1818) and Johannes Müller (1826). But, on the other hand, it is clear that Ibn al-Haytham's experimental study puts in place the notion of corresponding points, the cases of homonymous and cross diplopia, and even prepares the discovery of Panum area. (shrink)
The aim of this paper is to identify the position the ru'yat Alln al-afa'. Their concept of knowledge is first clarified. The Ihwan use the terminology of rational knowledge to describe items of faith too. But faith is only an introduction to a greater knowledge. Now: is the supreme knowledge to be considered as speculative and theoretical, or are the awci, the only ones entitled to the vision of God, eventually obliged to rely on a kind of divine or ? (...) If the appears beyond any possible connotation of knowledge in terms, it is unclear, however, whether the Ihwan use the concepts of and as a way of explaining in a theological terminology the utmost degree of human knowledge (perhaps according to the same analogical function way and ilhnFriends of Godmite theories could be re-opened: the Iwscience of the transcendentvision of God.”. (shrink)
Carlos Pereda califica mi concepción de la moral de realismo particularista y objeta a mi defensa tanto del realismo como del particularismo. En mi respuesta trato de mostrar cómo nuestras discrepancias en torno al papel de los principios en la deliberación moral es, excepto en un punto crucial, cuestión de énfasis. No ocurre lo mismo, sin embargo, con mi reivindicación del realismo moral, pues parte de lo que intento mostrar en el libro es que los programas constructivistas de los que (...) habla Pereda no pueden pensarse coherentemente. \\\ Carlos Pereda presents my view about morality as a sort of particularist realism and objects both to my defence of realism and that of particularism. In my reply, I argue that our discrepancies about the role of principies in moral deliberation is, except in a crucial respect, a matter of emphasis. Something quite different happens, however, with my vindication of moral realism. For part of what I try to show in my book is that constructivist programs like the one suggested by Pereda cannot be coherently thought. (shrink)
The development of geometrical analysis in the 10th century was partly inspired by the reception of the works of Apollonius, which Arab mathematicians translated as early as the preceding century. Al-Quhi contributed to this development by writing several collections of problems dealing with Apollonian themes and solved by the method of analysis; however, it seems that they do not all occupy the same place in his work. The author gives here the edition, translation, and mathematical commentary of a short work, (...) entitled The determination of two straight lines from a point along a known angle, which presents the particularity of providing problems as geometrical lemmas to other studies. Indeed, al-Quhi uses two of these lemmas in more complex constructions which belong to his Treatise on the art of the astrolabe. In this same treatise on the astrolabe, as well as in his Treatise on the perfect compass, this scholar also uses as lemmas several problems solved in another of his works, entitled The generation of points on straight lines according to ratios of which the terms are surfaces. This work is unfortunately lost, and all that remains of it are the traces which subsist in other treatises in which it has been used. This study seems to be necessary if one wishes to understand the organization of the work of al-Quhi, a mathematician of the first rank who was representative of his time. (shrink)
Després del centre de El polític, dedicat a la justa mesura, el diàleg imposa el «retorn al polític» i ja no se separarà més d’aquesta comesa. Es procedirà, en primer lloc a depurar les arts concausants; després se separaran les diferents menes de servidors de la ciutat, per tal d’arribar a veure que els rivals del polític conformen un conjunt de difícil separació. Caldrà, abans de prosseguir amb la divisió, atendre als tipus de règim polític per veure quin paper hi (...) juga el saber polític. El resultat d’aquest primer moment del retorn al polític pren la figura de la descoberta dels fonaments de la ciutat. (shrink)
The aim of this article is to present a new witness of Averroes' reception in the Muslim world, in the years that immediately followed his death. Indeed Aba al-Mikl (d. 1237) is an Aarite theologian, who was born in Fez. He is the author of a Quintessence of the Intellects in Response to Philosophers on the Science of Principles in which he aims at refuting the Peripatetic philosophers in their own field, using their own weapons. This article will first attempt (...) to draw the portrait of this atypical theologian. It will then focus on showing that al-Mikl is a reader of Averroes and in particular, of his Tahfut, of which he makes various and unexpected uses. A close look at these uses will enable us to better define the nature of al-Mikl's work. More importantly, this article will try to prove that al-Mikl provides us with a key passage of Averroes' lost treatise On the Prime Mover. At the heart of the Rushdian criticism of Avicenna's proof, this passage should throw new light on Averroes' precise understanding of this proof. (shrink)
It has long been considered that Arabic algebra scarcely left any traces in mathematical literature of Hebrew expression. Thanks to the unpublished sources we have discovered, and to an attentive examination of already-known texts, one can no longer subscribe to such a judgement. The evidence we examine in this first article sheds light on the circulation, in erudite Jewish circles, of Arabic algebraic knowledge in Spain, Italy, Provence, and Sicily, between the 12th and the 14th centuries. The Epistle on number (...) by the Castillian astronomer Isaac ben Salomon al-A[hudot]dab was written in Sicily at the end of the 14th century, and based on the Talkhi[sudot] a'mal al-[hudot]isab of Ibn al-Banna' (1256-1321). That part of the Epistle that is devoted to algebra follows the tradition of al-Karaji. It offers, for the first time in Hebrew, a rational presentation of arithmetical operations extended to algebraic expressions. (shrink)
A novel method is proposed for fracture toughness determination of graded microstructurally complex (Pt,Ni)Al bond coats using edge-notched doubly clamped beams subjected to bending. Micron-scale beams are machined using the focused ion beam and loaded in bending under a nanoindenter. Failure loads gathered from the pop-ins in the load?displacement curves combined with XFEM analysis are used to calculate K c at individual zones, free from substrate effects. The testing technique and sources of errors in measurement are described and possible micromechanisms (...) of fracture in such heterogeneous coatings discussed. (shrink)
Se presenta en este trabajo la traducción comentada del primer capítulo del Kitâb al-Zahra de Ibn Dâwûd de Ispahán (m. 909), recopilación poética y teoría sobre la concepción amatoria del pensamiento neoplatónico bagdadí. El texto supone una adecuación a la tradición islámica de las teorías de origen aristotélico y platónico sobre el amor, aunque fundamentada en la tradición poética de los árabes y en la preceptiva moral atribuida a Mahoma. En él se aborda, desde un punto de vista ontológico, la (...) contemplación de la belleza como objeto de afectación sensual, que es el origen de la dolencia de amor. (shrink)
El presente artículo se enmarca dentro de la polémica desatada por la postmodernidad, y persigue tres objetivos muy precisos: 1) Tantear los condicionantes subyacentes al giro postmoderno de la emancipación: 2) Determinar, a partir de las críticas elaboradas por Rorty y Zizek, las carencias de las políticas que inspira: 3) Invocar, con los ojos puestos en la actual crisis del capitalismo, el regreso de la teoría y la práctica política reivindicativas al paradigma de la igualdad económica.
A partir de un caso presentado en el Eutifrón (2a-5d), se analiza la contraposición, latente ya en la época de Platón, entre, de un lado, un orden de justicia ideal y universal, válido para todo hombre en cuanto hombre, y, de otro lado, las leyes positivas propias de una determinada comunidad o las acciones particulares de sus miembros. Esta contraposición es concebida en una perspectiva que se orienta tanto al futuro como al pasado: en el primer caso, se reconoce en (...) ella un estadío muy antiguo de la reflexión filosófica y jurídica, que lleva hasta la definición de los “derechos humanos”; en el segundo caso, se analizan los modos en que Platón sugiere, particularmente en algunos pasajes de las Leyes, la posibilidad de efectuar una mediación entre lo “justo en sí” y la justicia de las leyes positivas particulares o de las acciones de los individuos. --- “Is it just to accuse one’s own father of homicide for having let a dependant die? Ref lect ions on human r ights in Plato” . From a case presented in Euthyphro (2a-5d), the paper analyzes the contraposition, already latent in Plato’s time, between, on the one hand, an ideal and universal order of justice, valid for any human as such and, on the other, the positive laws of a specific community or the particular actions of its members. This contraposition is conceived from a perspective oriented as much towards the future as towards the past: in the first case, a very old stage of philosophical and juridical reflections is recognized in it that leads to the definition of “human rights”; in the second case, the paper analyzes the ways in which Plato suggests the possibility, particularly in some passages of the Laws, of performing a mediation between “the just in itself” and the justice of particular positive laws or the actions of individuals. (shrink)
En el presente artículo se estudia la crítica que Charles Taylor ha formulado al modelo del liberalismo procedimental y a la concepción de racionalidad práctica moderna. El punto de partida es que la crítica de Taylor se sustenta en los aportes de la tradición filosófica sustantiva, la cual posibili..
The approximants ?, ?? and of the Al?Mn?Pd quasi-crystal display interesting plastic properties, such as, for example, phason-induced deformation processes and metadislocations. Here we demonstrate that the phases and their deformed or defect states can be described by a simple projection formalism in three-dimensional space?not, as usual, in four to six dimensions. Using this method we can interpret the microstructures observed with electron microscopy as phasonic phase boundaries. Furthermore, we determine the metadislocations of lowest energy and relate them uniquely to (...) experimentally observed ones. Since moving metadislocations in the ?? phase can create new phason planes, we suggest a dislocation-induced phase transition from ?? to . The methods developed in this paper can also be applied for various other complex metallic alloys. (shrink)
Contra algunas tesis que han minusvalorado el rol de la corporeidad en vistas al logro de la plenitud humana, Tomás de Aquino afirma decididamente que "el alma unida al cuerpo es más semejante a Dios2 que separada de él. Con sólidas bases bíblicas, el teólogo dominico rechaza la comprensión del cuer..
The effect of transition metal solutes on the lattice parameters of ?-TiAl and α2-Ti3Al were studied by first principles calculations to find suitable elements for controlling the α2/? interfacial misfit in lamellar Ti?Al alloys. Better agreement was found between the calculated and experimental phase and site preferences of impurity atoms than in a previous first principles study. The calculated lattice parameters suggest that elements in groups 6?11 of the 4th period (Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni and Cu) are effective for (...) increasing the misfit, leading to increasing density of misfit dislocation and, in turn, higher yield strength and ductility. This effect is caused by the change in the lattice parameter of the ?-TiAl phase rather than those of α2-Ti3Al phase. This prediction agrees qualitatively with experimental data from a previous study although the effects of temperature are not taken into account. Further improvements should be possible by considering those effects. Nevertheless, the results highlight the effects of impurity addition on interfacial misfit at a level which cannot be achieved by classical concepts such as atomic size in a hard sphere model. The results will also be valuable in further more quantitative predictions and in understanding the effects of temperature, including off-stoichiometry, thermal expansion and vibration entropy. (shrink)
The stability of Co-rich decagonal Al?Co?Ni and its closely related approximant phase, W-Al?Co?Ni, was studied in situ using powder diffraction and synchrotron radiation at high pressures up to 61.4(1) GPa (d-Al?Co?Ni) and 50.6(2) GPa (W-Al?Co?Ni), respectively. Within the experimental errors, both compounds show comparable values of the bulk modulus, i.e. K 0=120(11) GPa for the quasicrystal and K 0=138(11) GPa for its approximant phase, respectively. Both phases were found to be stable within the framework of the experiment. The results indicate (...) that the local structure dominates the bulk property and the type of long-range order has only a minor influence. (shrink)
An Al-7.6 at.% Mg alloy was ball milled in liquid N2 for 8 h and its microstructures were investigated using transmission electron microscopy. Electron diffraction confirmed that the resulting powder is a supersaturated Al-Mg solid solution with an fcc structure. Three typical nanostructures with different grain-size ranges and shapes were observed and the deformation mechanisms in these structures were found to be different. High densities of dislocations were found in large crystallites, implying that dislocation slip is the dominant deformation mechanism. (...) The dislocations rearranged to form small-angle subboundaries upon further deformation, resulting in the formation of medium-sized crystallites with diameters of 10-30 nm. In very small crystallites with dimensions less than 10 nm, twinning becomes an important deformation mechanism. The reasons for the different deformation mechanisms were discussed. Some defects, such as twin boundaries, and small- and large-angle grain boundaries were investigated in detail. (shrink)
Conforme al antropocentrismo moral, está justificado tratar de forma desfavorable a los animales no humanos frente a los seres humanos. Esta idea se mantiene a menudo indicando que hay ciertas capacidades o relaciones, defendidas como moralmente relevantes, que solo tendrían estos últimos. El argumento de la superposición de especies apunta, sin embargo, que esta asunción se encuentra equivocada. Toda una serie de seres humanos incumplen también tal criterio. De este modo, si continuamos defendiendo su relevancia, estaremos aceptando que se dé (...) a estos seres humanos un trato coincidente con el que se proporciona hoy en día a los animales no humanos. Si, en cambio, se quiere dar una plena consideración y un consiguiente trato ecuánime a todos los seres humanos, ello implicará el rechazo de tal criterio, y la extensión de tal consideración y trato a los demás animales sintientes. Se ha intentado responder a este argumento asumiendo que sus premisas son equivocadas, o sosteniendo que hay otras razones por las cuales todos los seres humanos deben ser moralmente considerables. En este artículo se examinan estas respuestas y se concluye que ninguna de ellas tiene éxito. (shrink)
The present work is devoted to the determination of the effective electrons per atom ratio e/a by means of first-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave-Fourier method for elements from Rb to Ag in Period 5 and from Cs to Au in Period 6 of the periodic table and is regarded as a continuation of the preceding work done for elements from K to Cu in Period 4. The value of e/a was determined by reading off the square of the Fermi (...) diameter, from the dispersion relation for electrons outside the Muffin-Tin spheres. A straightforward reading of the ordinate at the Fermi level, i.e. local reading method was validated for Rb and Cs in Group 1, Sr in Group 2, Y in Group 3, Pd and Pt in Group 10 and Ag and Au in Group 11. Instead, the nearly free electron (NFE) method was found to be indispensable for TM elements from Zr to Rh in Period 5 and those from Ba to Ir in Period 6. The composition dependence of e/a values for intermetallic compounds in X?TM (X?=?Mg, Al, Zn, Cd and In) alloy systems was also studied. The new Hume?Rothery electron concentration rule was established by constructing e/uc, the number of electrons per unit cell, vs. square of critical reciprocal lattice vector, , diagram for structurally complex metallic alloys having a pseudogap at the Fermi level. A proper use of either the local reading- or the NFE-e/a for the elements as indicated above is found to be essential. (shrink)
The aim of the present work is to examine if the Hume-Rothery stabilisation mechanism holds across whole solid solution ranges in a series of gamma-brasses with especial attention to the role of vacancies introduced into the large unit cell. The concentration dependence of the number of atoms in the unit cell, N, for gamma-brasses in the Cu?Zn, Cu?Cd, Cu?Al, Cu?Ga, Ni?Zn and Co?Zn alloy systems was determined by measuring the density and lattice constants at room temperature. The number of itinerant (...) electrons in the unit cell, e/uc, is evaluated by taking a product of N and the number of itinerant electrons per atom, e/a, for the transition metal element deduced earlier from the full-potential linearised augmented plane wave (FLAPW)-Fourier analysis. The results are discussed within the rigid-band model using as a host the density of states (DOS) derived earlier from the FLAPW band calculations for the stoichiometric gamma-brasses Cu5Zn8, Cu9Al4 and TM2Zn11 (TM = Co and Ni). A solid solution range of gamma-brasses in Cu?Zn, Cu?Cd, Cu?Al, Cu?Ga and Ni?Zn alloy systems is found to fall inside the existing pseudogap at the Fermi level. This is taken as confirmation of the validity of the Hume-Rothery stability mechanism for a whole solute concentration range of these gamma-brasses. An exception to this behaviour was found in the Co?Zn gamma-brasses, where orbital hybridisation effects are claimed to play a crucial role in stabilisation. (shrink)
Full-potential linearized augmented plane wave (FLAPW) band calculations with subsequent FLAPW-Fourier analyses have been performed for five MI-type Al?TM (transition metal)-based 1/1-1/1-1/1 approximants in order to elucidate the origin of a pseudogap from the point of view of the Fermi surface?Brillouin zone (FsBz) interactions. The square of the Fermi diameter is determined from the Hume-Rothery plot to be close to 50 without exception in units of , where is the lattice constant. The FsBz interactions involving several reciprocal lattice vectors are (...) claimed to be responsible for constituting the pseudogap structure across E F. This is referred to as the multi-zone effect. Among them, the wave, in which the Fourier coefficients are most evenly and densely distributed across E F, is selected as the critical one satisfying the matching condition . The d-states-mediated-splitting appears to be absent in spite of substantial occupations of TM-d states in the valence band. All MI-type approximants studied are found to obey the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism. A new Hume-Rothery electron concentration rule linking the number of atoms per unit cell, e/uc, with a critical reciprocal lattice vector is found to hold well for structurally complex intermetallic compounds obeying the Hume-Rothery stabilization mechanism. (shrink)
The precipitation sequence of metastable phases such as GP(1) and GP(2) in an Al-4 wt.% Cu alloy has been studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (N.M.R.). In this paper it is shown that N.M.R. serves as a useful tool for determining the change in the copper concentration of the matrix during ageing, through which not only the precipitation kinetics of the metastable phases is clarified but also the solvus for these phases is determined.