Search results for 'All-inclusive Thesis' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  69
    Wei Liu (2011). An All-Inclusive Interpretation of Aristotle's Contemplative Life. Sophia 50 (1):57-71.
    The debate between ‘inclusive’ and ‘dominant’ interpretations of Aristotle's concept of happiness (eudaimonia) has become one of the thorniest problems of Aristotle interpretation. In this paper, I attempt to solve this problem by presenting a multi-step argument for an ‘all-inclusivethesis, i.e., the Aristotelian philosopher or contemplator, in the strict sense, is someone who already possesses all the intellectual virtues (except technē), all the moral virtues (by way of the possession of phronēsis), and considerable other goods. If this (...)
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  2.  18
    Stefan T. Trautmann (2010). Individual Fairness in Harsanyi's Utilitarianism: Operationalizing All-Inclusive Utility. [REVIEW] Theory and Decision 68 (4):405-415.
    Fairness can be incorporated into Harsanyi’s utilitarianism through all-inclusive utility. This retains the normative assumptions of expected utility and Pareto-efficiency, and relates fairness to individual preferences. It makes utilitarianism unfalsifiable, however, if agents’ all-inclusive utilities are not explicitly specified. This note proposes a two-stage model to make utilitarian welfare analysis falsifiable by specifying all-inclusive utilities explicitly through models of individual fairness preferences. The approach is applied to include fairness in widely discussed allocation examples.
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  3.  45
    Cheng-Chih Tsai (2011). A Token-Based Semantic Analysis of McTaggart's Paradox. Linguistic and Philosophical Investigations 10:107-124.
    In his famous argument for the unreality of time, McTaggart claims that i) being past, being present, and being future are incompatible properties of an event, yet ii) every event admits all these three properties. In this paper, I examine two key concepts involved in the formulation of i) and ii), namely that of “validity” and that of “contradiction”, and for each concept I distinguish a static version and a dynamic version of it. I then arrive at three different ways (...)
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  4.  6
    Kiyokuni Shiga (2011). Remarks on the Origin of All-Inclusive Pervasion. Journal of Indian Philosophy 39 (4-5):521-534.
    Previous studies have claimed that the term ‘all-inclusive pervasion’ ( sarvopasaṃhāravyāpti ) appeared for the first time in the Hetubindu , and that it was Dharmakīrti who created this theory. This article attempts to modify this view and to show that the prototype of this theory can already be found in Dignāga’s system of logic. Dignāga states in the third chapter of the Pramāṇasamuccayavṛtti that the co-existence of a logical reason with what is to be proved is understood by (...)
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  5.  33
    W. Julian Korab-Karpowicz (2010). Inclusive Values and the Righteousness of Life: The Foundation of Global Solidarity. [REVIEW] Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (3):305 - 313.
    Many scholars have argued that unity of humankind can be established on the basis of some basic or core human values. Instead of engaging in a comparative empirical research, compiling lists of core values derived from different cultures, discuss their relevance for human fellowship, I examine the simple values of life that during the 1980s united people in Poland and made them to form the powerful civic movement, which was Solidarity. Today we live in a world that is fundamentally different (...)
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  6.  5
    Agnes Moors (2013). Author Reply: Appraisal is Transactional, Not All-Inclusive, and Cognitive in a Broad Sense. Emotion Review 5 (2):185-186.
    I reply to the comments of Parkinson (2013), and de Sousa (2013), discussing the transactional nature of appraisal, the presumably overinclusive definition of appraisal, and the cognitive nature of appraisal.
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  7.  2
    Katerina Karoussos (2011). Homeopathy: All Inclusive. Technoetic Arts 9 (1):65-82.
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  8. D. Wadada Nabudere (2002). The Epistemological and Methodological Foundations for an All-Inclusive Research Paradigm in the Search for Global Knowledge. African Association of Political Science.
     
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  9. Jf Perry (1993). The Absolutely Transcendent and Free, Absolutely Immanent and All-Inclusive, Merciful God: Ripalda's Christed Concept of Ultimate Reality and Meaning. Ultimate Reality and Meaning 16 (3-4):185-208.
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  10.  9
    Anya Daly (2014). Does the Reversibility Thesis Deliver All That Merleau‐Ponty Claims It Can? European Journal of Philosophy 23 (4):n/a-n/a.
    Merleau-Ponty's reversibility thesis argues that self, other and world are inherently relational, interdependent at the level of ontology. What is at stake in the reversibility thesis is whether it overcomes skeptical objections in both assuring real communication and avoiding solipsism in assuring real difference; the Other must be a genuine, irreducible Other. It is objected that across the domains of reversibility, symmetry and reciprocity are not guaranteed. I argue that this is a non-problem; rather the potentialities for asymmetry (...)
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  11.  1
    Anya Daly (2016). Does the Reversibility Thesis Deliver All That Merleau‐Ponty Claims It Can? European Journal of Philosophy 24 (1):159-186.
    Merleau-Ponty's reversibility thesis argues that self, other and world are inherently relational, interdependent at the level of ontology. What is at stake in the reversibility thesis is whether it overcomes skeptical objections in both assuring real communication and avoiding solipsism in assuring real difference; the Other must be a genuine, irreducible Other. It is objected that across the domains of reversibility, symmetry and reciprocity are not guaranteed. I argue that this is a non-problem; rather the potentialities for asymmetry (...)
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  12.  26
    Kenneth Einar Himma (2001). The Instantiation Thesis and Raz's Critique of Inclusive Positivism. Law and Philosophy 20 (1):61 - 79.
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  13.  5
    David Copp (1973). Leibniz's Thesis That Not All Possibles Are Compossible. Studia Leibnitiana 5 (1):26 - 42.
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  14.  2
    Steve Taylor (2002). Where Did It All Go Wrong? James DeMeos Saharasia Thesis and the Origins of War. Journal of Consciousness Studies 9 (8):73-82.
    Why is human history a catalogue of one war after another? Physicalist and sociobiological explanations of war seem to be lacking, especially when we consider archaeological and ethnographic evidence for the absence of war amongst hunter-gatherer societies and during the early to middle Neolithic period of history. James DeMeo's book Saharasia suggests that the 'age of war' only began at around 4000 BCE, amongst particular human groups who inhabited areas of Central Asia and the Middle East. He sees it as (...)
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  15.  2
    Rudolf Carnap (1996). 'As'-(~ P--qY And'(3x) F (xY As'-(X)~ F (X)\ It is the Logicist Thesis, Then, That the Logical Concepts Just Given Suffice to Define All Mathemati-Cal Concepts, That Over and Above Them No Specifically Mathematical Con-Cepts Are Required for the Construction of Mathematics. Already Before Frege, Mathematicians in Their Investigations of The). In Moritz Schlick, Rudolf Carnap, Otto Neurath & Sahotra Sarkar (eds.), Logical Empiricism at its Peak: Schlick, Carnap, and Neurath. Garland Pub. 2--112.
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  16.  2
    Macy Satterwhite (2008). Access to Academies for All Students: Critical Approaches to Inclusive Curriculum, Instruction, and Policy. Journal of Thought 43 (1-2):172.
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  17. E. K. (2001). The Instantiation Thesis and Raz's Critique of Inclusive Positivism. Law and Philosophy 20 (1):61-79.
     
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  18.  2
    Adolf Grünbaum (1978). Poincaré's Thesis That Any and All Stellar Parallax Findings Are Compatible with the Euclideanism of the Pertinent Astronomical 3-Space. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 9 (4):313-318.
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  19. John Donne & Humphrey Moseley (1648). Biathanatos. A Declaration of That Paradoxe, or Thesis, That Self-Homicide is Not so Naturally Sin That It May Never Be Otherwise. Wherein the Nature, and the Extent of All Those Lawes, Which Seeme to Be Violated by This Act, Are Diligently Surveyed. Printed for Humphrey Moseley,.
     
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  20. Guglielmo Tamburrini (1988). Reflections on Mechanism. Dissertation, Columbia University
    For a general formulation of the undecidability and incompleteness theorems one has to characterize precisely the notion of formal system. Such a characterization is provided by the proposal to identify the intuitive concept of effectively calculable function with that of partial recursive function. A proper understanding of this identification, which is known under the name of "Church's thesis", is crucial for a philosophical assessment of these metamathematical results. The undecidability and incompleteness theorems suggest one major but certainly not the (...)
     
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  21.  9
    B. Hale (2007). Graham Priest. Towards Non-Being: The Logic and Metaphysics of Intentionality. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005. Pp. Xv + 190. ISBN 0-19-926254-3. [REVIEW] Philosophia Mathematica 15 (1):94-134.
    Graham Priest's new book is about things being about things—about what it is for things which are about things, such as beliefs, hopes and fears, and the like, and sentences which express them, to be about the things they are about, and about the range of things about which things which are about are about—in a word, intentionality. It has two principal objectives—to develop a formal semantics for intentionality, and to promote and defend a philosophical thesis about what exists (...)
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  22. Tony Smith, Correct Rosenthal Reference Communications on Rosenthal's “Escape” From Hegel.
    In a world where exploitation and uneven development condemn billions to suffering, the proper understanding of the intellectual relationship between Hegel and Marx appears a small matter indeed. Marx‟s Capital, however, remains the single most important text for comprehending the system that generates this suffering. The question of the proper reading of this work thus remains important. Sooner or later this brings us to the Hegel/Marx question. In a recent article in Science and Society John Rosenthal forcefully argues that there (...)
     
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  23.  10
    Tony Smith (2000). On Rosenthal's "Escape" From Hegel. Science and Society 64 (4):489 - 496.
    In a world where exploitation and uneven development condemn billions to suffering, the proper understanding of the intellectual relationship between Hegel and Marx appears a small matter indeed. Marx‟s Capital, however, remains the single most important text for comprehending the system that generates this suffering. The question of the proper reading of this work thus remains important. Sooner or later this brings us to the Hegel/Marx question. In a recent article in Science and Society John Rosenthal forcefully argues that there (...)
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  24.  14
    Claudina Orunesu (2007). Sobre la Inconsistencia Teórica Del Positivismo Incluyente1. Análisis Filosófico 27 (1):23-46.
    El profesor Juan Carlos Bayón ha sostenido que el positivismo incluyente resultaría inaceptable por apoyarse en la idea de una convención social de seguir criterios no convencionales: si hubiera acuerdo sobre el contenido de esos criterios, ellos resultarían convencionales, y sin acuerdo, no habría práctica social convergente y, por ende, no habría en realidad una regla convencional. Así, el positivismo incluyente quedaría enfrentado a un dilema: o bien resulta indistinguible del positivismo excluyente, o bien no es una postura convencionalista en (...)
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  25.  8
    Berit Soli-Holt & Isaac Linder (2013). The Call of The Wild: Terror Modulations. Continent 3 (2):60-65.
    This piece, included in the drift special issue of continent., was created as one step in a thread of inquiry. While each of the contributions to drift stand on their own, the project was an attempt to follow a line of theoretical inquiry as it passed through time and the postal service from October 2012 until May 2013. This issue hosts two threads: between space & place and between intention & attention. The editors recommend that to experience the drifiting thought (...)
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  26.  4
    Adriana Zaharijevic (2008). From the Rights of Man to the Human Rights: Man - Nation - Humanity. Filozofija I Društvo 19 (1):111-151.
    The insistence on the fact that human rights and the rights of man are not one and the same, which could be deduced from the notion of man common to both terms, is the key thesis of this text. By developing this motive, I try to determine the following: that the notion of man, by definition inclusive and abstractly non-discriminative term, is in fact established on tacit exclusions in the time of its inception , and it was only upon (...)
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  27. José Oscar de Almeida Marques (2009). Hobbes ea medida da desigualdade entre os homens. Cadernos de Ética E Filosofia Política 14 (1):73-101.
    Resumo: No início do capítulo XIII do Leviatã, Hobbes apresentou o princípio da igualdade original de poder entre homens como um princípio básico de seu sistema político, do qual todas as teses subseqüentes deveriam ser estritamente deduzidas como teoremas. Surpreendentemente, porém, quando Hobbes mais tarde chega à dedução da 9ª Lei de Natureza, ele parece estar tentando demonstrar o próprio princípio da igualdade a partir do qual todas as leis da natureza, inclusive a 9ª, devem ter sido supostamente derivadas. Meu (...)
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  28. Anthony Robert Booth (2012). All Things Considered Duties to Believe. Synthese 187 (2):509-517.
    To be a doxastic deontologist is to claim that there is such a thing as an ethics of belief (or of our doxastic attitudes in general). In other words, that we are subject to certain duties with respect to our doxastic attitudes, the non-compliance with which makes us blameworthy and that we should understand doxastic justification in terms of these duties. In this paper, I argue that these duties are our all things considered duties, and not our epistemic or moral (...)
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  29.  93
    Alan Hájek (2012). The Fall of “Adams' Thesis”? Journal of Logic, Language and Information 21 (2):145-161.
    The so-called ‘Adams’ Thesis’ is often understood as the claim that the assertibility of an indicative conditional equals the corresponding conditional probability—schematically: $${({\rm AT})}\qquad\qquad\quad As(A\rightarrow B)=P({B|A}),{\rm provided}\quad P(A)\neq 0.$$ The Thesis is taken by many to be a touchstone of any theorizing about indicative conditionals. Yet it is unclear exactly what the Thesis is . I suggest some precise statements of it. I then rebut a number of arguments that have been given in its favor. Finally, I (...)
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  30.  94
    Niki Pfeifer (2012). Experiments on Aristotle's Thesis: Towards an Experimental Philosophy of Conditionals. The Monist 95 (2):223-240.
    Two experiments (N1 = 141, N2 = 40) investigate two versions of Aristotle’s Thesis for the first time. Aristotle’s Thesis is a negated conditional, which consists of one propositional variable with a negation either in the antecedent (version 1) or in the consequent (version 2). This task allows to infer if people interpret indicative conditionals as material conditionals or as conditional events. In the first experiment I investigate between-participants the two versions of Aristotle’s Thesis crossed with abstract (...)
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  31. Carol E. Cleland (1993). Is the Church-Turing Thesis True? Minds and Machines 3 (3):283-312.
    The Church-Turing thesis makes a bold claim about the theoretical limits to computation. It is based upon independent analyses of the general notion of an effective procedure proposed by Alan Turing and Alonzo Church in the 1930''s. As originally construed, the thesis applied only to the number theoretic functions; it amounted to the claim that there were no number theoretic functions which couldn''t be computed by a Turing machine but could be computed by means of some other kind (...)
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  32.  35
    Marcelo Tsuji (1998). Many-Valued Logics and Suszko's Thesis Revisited. Studia Logica 60 (2):299-309.
    Suszko's Thesis maintains that many-valued logics do not exist at all. In order to support it, R. Suszko offered a method for providing any structural abstract logic with a complete set of bivaluations. G. Malinowski challenged Suszko's Thesis by constructing a new class of logics (called q-logics by him) for which Suszko's method fails. He argued that the key for logical two-valuedness was the "bivalent" partition of the Lindenbaum bundle associated with all structural abstract logics, while his q-logics (...)
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  33.  66
    Christian List (1999). Craig's Theorem and the Empirical Underdetermination Thesis Reassessed. Disputatio 7:28-39.
    This paper reassesses the question of whether Craig’s theorem poses a challenge to Quine's empirical underdetermination thesis. It will be demonstrated that Quine’s account of this issue in his paper “Empirically Equivalent Systems of the World” (1975) is flawed and that Quine makes too strong a concession to the Craigian challenge. It will further be pointed out that Craig’s theorem would threaten the empirical underdetermination thesis only if the set of all relevant observation conditionals could be shown to (...)
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  34.  35
    Dina Goldin & Peter Wegner (2008). The Interactive Nature of Computing: Refuting the Strong Church–Turing Thesis. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 18 (1):17-38.
    The classical view of computing positions computation as a closed-box transformation of inputs (rational numbers or finite strings) to outputs. According to the interactive view of computing, computation is an ongoing interactive process rather than a function-based transformation of an input to an output. Specifically, communication with the outside world happens during the computation, not before or after it. This approach radically changes our understanding of what is computation and how it is modeled. The acceptance of interaction as a new (...)
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  35.  66
    John F. Kilner (2009). An Inclusive Ethics for the Twenty-First Century: Implications for Stem Cell Research. Journal of Religious Ethics 37 (4):683-722.
    An important contribution of Christian ethics in the pluralistic world of the twenty-first century is to emphasize inclusivity. Rather than promoting the interests of certain groups at the expense of the most vulnerable, society does well to prioritize ways forward that benefit all. For stem cell research, inclusivity entails benefiting or at least protecting the beneficiaries of treatment, the sources of materials, and the subjects of research. Adult stem cells are already benefiting many ill patients without causing harm, and select (...)
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  36.  4
    Kenneth Einar Himma (2014). The Logic of Showing Possibility Claims. A Positive Argument for Inclusive Legal Positivism and Moral Grounds of Law. Revus 23.
    In this essay, I argue for a view that inclusive positivists share with Ronald Dworkin. According to the Moral Incorporation Thesis (MIT), it is logically possible for a legal system to incorporate moral criteria of legality (or “grounds of law,” as Dworkin puts it). Up to this point, the debate has taken the shape of attacks on the coherence of MIT with the defender of MIT merely attempting to refute the attacking argument. I give a positive argument for MIT. (...)
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  37.  3
    George Bowles (1999). The Asymmetry Thesis and the Diversity of "Invalid" Argument-Forms. Informal Logic 19 (1).
    According to the Asymmetry Thesis, whereas there are many kinds of argument-forms that make at least some of their instances valid, there is none that makes any of its instances invalid. To refute this thesis, a counterexample has been produced in the form of an argument-form whose premise-form's instances are all logically true and whose conclusion form's instances are all logically false. The purpose of this paper is to show that there are many more kinds of argument-forms that (...)
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  38. Naomi Reshotko (1990). Dretske and Socrates: The Development of the Socratic Theme That "All Desire is for the Good" in a Contemporary Analysis of Desire. Dissertation, The University of Wisconsin - Madison
    I compare two theories of motivation: The Socratic Theory of Motivation and Fred Dretske's attempt to vindicate the use of desires in folk-psychological explanations. I find that, although Socrates ' theory is, at first glance, counterintuitive, while Dretske's provides persuasive analyses of beliefs and desires, there is a way of developing Dretske's theory which produces a theory that is parallel to the Socratic Theory of Motivation. In fact, if we substitute "all desire is for homeostasis" for the thesis that (...)
     
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  39. Daniel Kolak (1986). I Am You: A Philosophical Explanation of the Possibility That We Are All the Same Person. Dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park
    I show why all current theories of personal identity, including the relativist/dissolutionist alternatives proposed recently by Robert Nozick and Derek Parfit, are subject to criticisms that collectively point in the direction of the thesis that there exists only one person in the universe. By my analysis, we are each a different human being. But the barriers between human beings--such as our each having a different physical body, different memories, a different stream of consciousness, different spatiotemporal positions, and so on--are (...)
     
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  40. Duncan Pritchard (2010). Cognitive Ability and the Extended Cognition Thesis. Synthese 175 (1):133 - 151.
    This paper explores the ramifications of the extended cognition thesis in the philosophy of mind for contemporary epistemology. In particular, it argues that all theories of knowledge need to accommodate the ability intuition that knowledge involves cognitive ability, but that once this requirement is understood correctly there is no reason why one could not have a conception of cognitive ability that was consistent with the extended cognition thesis. There is thus, surprisingly, a straightforward way of developing our current (...)
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  41. Joakim Sandberg (2008). Understanding the Separation Thesis. Business Ethics Quarterly 18 (2):213-232.
    Many writers in the field of business ethics seem to have accepted R. Edward Freeman’s argument to the effect that what he calls “the separation thesis,” or the idea that business and morality can be separated in certain ways, should be rejected. In this paper, I discuss how this argument should be understood more exactly, and what position “the separation thesis” refers to. I suggest that there are actually many interpretations (or versions) of the separation thesis going (...)
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  42. David Plunkett (2013). Legal Positivism and the Moral Aim Thesis. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 33 (3):563-605.
    According to Scott Shapiro’s Moral Aim Thesis, it is an essential feature of the law that it has a moral aim. In short, for Shapiro, this means that the law has the constitutive aim of providing morally good solutions to morally significant social problems in cases where other, less formal ways of guiding the activity of agents won’t work. In this article, I argue that legal positivists should reject the Moral Aim Thesis. In short, I argue that although (...)
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  43.  31
    Philip Ehrlich (2012). The Absolute Arithmetic Continuum and the Unification of All Numbers Great and Small. Bulletin of Symbolic Logic 18 (1):1-45.
    In his monograph On Numbers and Games, J. H. Conway introduced a real-closed field containing the reals and the ordinals as well as a great many less familiar numbers including $-\omega, \,\omega/2, \,1/\omega, \sqrt{\omega}$ and $\omega-\pi$ to name only a few. Indeed, this particular real-closed field, which Conway calls No, is so remarkably inclusive that, subject to the proviso that numbers—construed here as members of ordered fields—be individually definable in terms of sets of NBG, it may be said to contain (...)
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  44. Justin Tiehen (2014). A Priori Scrutability and That’s All. Journal of Philosophy 111 (12):649-666.
    In his recent book Constructing the World, David Chalmers defends A Priori Scrutability, the thesis that there is a compact class of truths such that for any truth p, a Laplacian intellect could know a priori that if the truths in that class hold, then p. In this paper, I develop an objection to Chalmers’ thesis that focuses on his treatment of a so-called that’s-all truth. My objection draws on Theodore Sider’s discussion of border-sensitive properties, and also on (...)
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  45.  52
    Christina H. Dietz (2016). Are All Reasons Causes? Philosophical Studies 173 (5):1179-1190.
    In this paper, I revisit the Davidsonian thesis that all reasons are causes. Drawing on a better taxonomy of reasons than the one Davidson provides, I argue that this thesis is either indefensible or uninteresting.
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  46. Jan Westerhoff (2009). The No-Thesis View: Making Sense of Verse 29 of Nagarjuna's Vigrahavyavartani. In Mario D'Amato, Jay L. Garfield & Tom J. F. Tillemans (eds.), Pointing at the Moon: Buddhism, Logic, Analytic Philosophy. Oxford University Press
    The so-called `no-thesis' view is without a doubt one of the most immediately puzzling philosophical features of Nāgārjuna's thought and also largely responsible for ascribing to him either sceptical or mystical leanings (or indeed both). The locus classicus for this view is found in verse 29 of the Vigrahavyāvartanī: “If I had some thesis the defect [just mentioned] would as a consequence attach to me. But I have no thesis, so this defect is not applicable to me.” (...)
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  47. Richard Menary (2009). Intentionality, Cognitive Integration and the Continuity Thesis. Topoi 28 (1):31-43.
    Naturalistic philosophers ought to think that the mind is continuous with the rest of the world and should not, therefore, be surprised by the findings of the extended mind, cognitive integration and enactivism. Not everyone is convinced that all mental phenomena are continuous with the rest of the world. For example, intentionality is often formulated in a way that makes the mind discontinuous with the rest of the world. This is a consequence of Brentano’s formulation of intentionality, I suggest, and (...)
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  48.  37
    Tobias Hahn & Frank Figge (2011). Beyond the Bounded Instrumentality in Current Corporate Sustainability Research: Toward an Inclusive Notion of Profitability. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 104 (3):325-345.
    We argue that the majority of the current approaches in research on corporate sustainability are inconsistent with the notion of sustainable development. By defining the notion of instrumentality in the context of corporate sustainability through three conceptual principles we show that current approaches are rooted in a bounded notion of instrumentality which establishes a systematic a priori predominance of economic organizational outcomes over environmental and social aspects. We propose an inclusive notion of profitability that reflects the return on all forms (...)
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  49.  19
    Hannes Leitgeb (2015). I—The Humean Thesis on Belief. Aristotelian Society Supplementary Volume 89 (1):143-185.
    This paper suggests a bridge principle for all-or-nothing belief and degrees of belief to the effect that belief corresponds to stably high degree of belief. Different ways of making this Humean thesis on belief precise are discussed, and one of them is shown to stand out by unifying the others. The resulting version of the thesis proves to be fruitful in entailing the logical closure of belief, the Lockean thesis on belief, and coherence between decision-making based on (...)
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  50.  4
    Uygar Abaci (2016). The Coextensiveness Thesis and Kant's Modal Agnosticism in the ‘Postulates’. European Journal of Philosophy 24 (1):129-158.
    In the Critique of Pure Reason, following his elucidation of the ‘postulates’ of possibility, actuality, and necessity, Kant makes a series of puzzling remarks. He seems to deny the somewhat metaphysically intuitive contention that the extension of possibility is greater than that of actuality, which, in turn, is greater than that of necessity. Further, he states that the actual adds nothing to the possible. This leads to the view, fairly common in the literature, that Kant holds that all modal categories, (...)
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