Search results for 'Allocation of organs, tissues, etc Moral and ethical aspects' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Tom Koch (1998). The Limits of Principle: Deciding Who Lives and What Dies. Praeger.score: 3228.0
     
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  2. V. Moises Serrano-Delgado, Barbara Novello-Garza & Edith Valdez-Martinez (2009). Ethical Issues Relating the the Banking of Umbilical Cord Blood in Mexico. BMC Medical Ethics 10 (1):12-.score: 683.8
    BackgroundUmbilical cord banks are a central component, as umbilical cord tissue providers, in both medical treatment and scientific research with stem cells. But, whereas the creation of umbilical cord banks is seen as successful practice, it is perceived as a risky style of play by others. This article examines and discusses the ethical, medical and legal considerations that arise from the operation of umbilical cord banks in Mexico.DiscussionA number of experts have stated that the use of umbilical cord goes (...)
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  3. P. A. Ubel & M. Mahowald (forthcoming). Ethical and Legal Aspects of Live Human Tissue and Organ Donation. Encyclopedia of Bioethics.score: 630.0
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  4. Francis E. Camps & Edward Shotter (eds.) (1970). Matters of Life and Death. London,Darton, Longman & Todd.score: 585.3
     
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  5. Nancy Scheper-Hughes & Loïc J. D. Wacquant (eds.) (2002). Commodifying Bodies. Sage Publications.score: 581.0
    Increasingly the body is a possession that does not belong to us. It is bought and sold, bartered and stolen, marketed wholesale or in parts. The professions - especially reproductive medicine, transplant surgery, and bioethics but also journalism and other cultural specialists - have been pliant partners in this accelerating commodification of live and dead human organisms. Under the guise of healing or research, they have contributed to a new 'ethic of parts' for which the divisible body is severed from (...)
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  6. Bunki Kimura (2007). Shōji No Bukkyōgaku: "Ningen No Songen" to Sono Ōyō. Hōzōkan.score: 519.0
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  7. Maria Nowacka (2004). Selected Bioethical Questions: The Polish Perspective. Wydawn. Uniwersytetu W Białymstoku.score: 519.0
     
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  8. S. Eaton (1998). The Subtle Politics of Organ Donation: A Proposal. Journal of Medical Ethics 24 (3):166-170.score: 507.0
    Organs available for transplantation are scarce and valuable medical resources and decisions about who is to receive them should not be made more difficult by complicated calculations of desert. Consideration of likely clinical outcome must always take priority when allocating such a precious resource otherwise there is a danger of wasting that resource. However, desert may be a relevant concern in decision-making where the clinical risk is identical between two or more potential recipients of organs. Unlikely as this scenario is, (...)
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  9. J. Mahoney (1975). Ethical Aspects of Donor Consent in Transplantation. Journal of Medical Ethics 1 (2):67-70.score: 505.5
    Two recent events have caused renewed anxiety concerning the ethics of donor transplantation. The first is the report of the British Transplantation Society and the second is the Bill introduced by Mr Tam Dalyell MP (see page 61 of this issue) in which he seeks to establish by law that unless an individual in his life time has expressly contracted out his organs may after death be used for transplantation. Dr Mahoney in this paper therefore examines from the point of (...)
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  10. S. R. Roff (2007). Self-Interest, Self-Abnegation and Self-Esteem: Towards a New Moral Economy of Non-Directed Kidney Donation. Journal of Medical Ethics 33 (8):437-441.score: 496.0
    As of September 2006, non-directed donation of kidneys and other tissues and organs is permitted in the UK under the new Human Tissue Acts. At the same time as making provision for psychiatric and clinical assessment of so-called “altruistic” donations to complete strangers, the Acts intensify assessments required for familial, genetically related donations, which will now require the same level as genetically unrelated but “emotionally” connected donations by locally based independent assessors reporting to the newly constituted Human Tissue Authority. But (...)
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  11. Timothy Morton (2011). Objects as Temporary Autonomous Zones. Continent 1 (3):149-155.score: 466.0
    continent. 1.3 (2011): 149-155. The world is teeming. Anything can happen. John Cage, “Silence” 1 Autonomy means that although something is part of something else, or related to it in some way, it has its own “law” or “tendency” (Greek, nomos ). In their book on life sciences, Medawar and Medawar state, “Organs and tissues…are composed of cells which…have a high measure of autonomy.”2 Autonomy also has ethical and political valences. De Grazia writes, “In Kant's enormously influential moral (...)
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  12. Helena Melo, Cristina Brandao, Guilhermina Rego & Rui Nunes (2001). Ethical and Legal Issues in Xenotransplantation. Bioethics 15 (5-6):427-442.score: 450.0
    In most western countries, there is a 'human organ shortage' with waiting lists for the performance of transplantation. In a recent report of the UNOS Ethics Committee it is stated that there are approximately 31,000 potential recipients on waiting lists, but only one fourth of potential donors give their specific consent. Xenotransplantation--defined as the transplantation of animal cells, tissues or organs into human beings--is associated with particular ethical dilemmas, namely the problems of efficiency and safety of this medical procedure. (...)
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  13. H. Melo, C. Brandao, G. Rego & R. Nunes (2002). Legal and Ethical Issues in Xenotransplantation. Bioethics 15 (5-6):427-442.score: 450.0
    In most western countries, there is a 'human organ shortage' with waiting lists for the performance of transplantation. In a recent report of the UNOS Ethics Committee it is stated that there are approximately 31,000 potential recipients on waiting lists, but only one fourth of potential donors give their specific consent. Xenotransplantation-defined as the transplantation of animal cells, tissues or organs into human beings-is associated with particular ethical dilemmas, namely the problems of efficiency and safety of this medical procedure. (...)
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  14. A. J. M. Oerlemans, M. E. C. Hoek, E. Leeuwen, S. Burg & W. J. M. Dekkers (2013). Towards a Richer Debate on Tissue Engineering: A Consideration on the Basis of NEST-Ethics. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):963-981.score: 445.0
    In their 2007 paper, Swierstra and Rip identify characteristic tropes and patterns of moral argumentation in the debate about the ethics of new and emerging science and technologies (or “NEST-ethics”). Taking their NEST-ethics structure as a starting point, we considered the debate about tissue engineering (TE), and argue what aspects we think ought to be a part of a rich and high-quality debate of TE. The debate surrounding TE seems to be predominantly a debate among experts. When considering (...)
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  15. A. J. M. Oerlemans, M. E. C. van Hoek, E. van Leeuwen, S. van der Burg & W. J. M. Dekkers (2013). Towards a Richer Debate on Tissue Engineering: A Consideration on the Basis of NEST-Ethics. [REVIEW] Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):963-981.score: 445.0
    In their 2007 paper, Swierstra and Rip identify characteristic tropes and patterns of moral argumentation in the debate about the ethics of new and emerging science and technologies (or “NEST-ethics”). Taking their NEST-ethics structure as a starting point, we considered the debate about tissue engineering (TE), and argue what aspects we think ought to be a part of a rich and high-quality debate of TE. The debate surrounding TE seems to be predominantly a debate among experts. When considering (...)
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  16. J. Savulescu (1999). Should We Clone Human Beings? Cloning as a Source of Tissue for Transplantation. Journal of Medical Ethics 25 (2):87-95.score: 421.0
    The most publicly justifiable application of human cloning, if there is one at all, is to provide self-compatible cells or tissues for medical use, especially transplantation. Some have argued that this raises no new ethical issues above those raised by any form of embryo experimentation. I argue that this research is less morally problematic than other embryo research. Indeed, it is not merely morally permissible but morally required that we employ cloning to produce embryos or fetuses for the sake (...)
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  17. Claudia I. Emerson, Peter A. Singer & Ross Eg Upshur (2011). Access and Use of Human Tissues From the Developing World: Ethical Challenges and a Way Forward Using a Tissue Trust. BMC Medical Ethics 12 (1):2.score: 419.3
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  18. David W. Meyers (1990). The Human Body and the Law. Stanford University Press.score: 408.0
    Mother and Fetus: Rights in Conflict A. INTRODUCTION After fertilization of the female egg (ovum) with male sperm the resulting zygote may implant ...
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  19. Arja Halkoaho, Anna-Maija Pietilä, Mari Vesalainen & Kirsi Vähäkangas (2012). Ethical Aspects in Tissue Research: Thematic Analysis of Ethical Statements to the Research Ethics Committee. BMC Medical Ethics 13 (1):20.score: 398.0
    Many studies have been published about ethics committees and the clarifications requested about the submitted applications. In Finland, ethics committees require a separate statement on ethical aspects of the research in applications to the ethics committee. However, little is known about how researchers consider the ethical aspects of their own studies.
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  20. Dominik Gross, Brigitte Tag & Christoph Schweikardt (eds.) (2011). Who Wants to Live Forever?: Postmoderne Formen des Weiterwirkens Nach Dem Tod. Campus-Verlag.score: 396.0
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  21. Zelman Cowen (1985/1986). Reflections on Medicine, Biotechnology, and the Law. Distributed by the University of Nebraska Press.score: 396.0
     
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  22. Juliana Rangel de Alvarenga Paes (2005). Le Corps Humain Et le Droit International. Anrt, Atelier National de Reproduction des Thèses.score: 396.0
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  23. Timothy Mosteller (2005). Aristotle and Headless Clones. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 26 (4):339-350.score: 376.3
    Cloned organisms can be genetically altered so that they do not exhibit higher brain functioning. This form of therapeutic cloning allows for genetically identical organs and tissues to be harvested from the clone for the use of the organism that is cloned. “Spare parts” cloning promises many opportunities for future medical advances. What is the ontological and ethical status of spare parts, headless clones? This paper attempts to answer this question from the perspective of Aristotle’s view of the soul. (...)
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  24. Rui-Peng Lei (2008). Is the Use of Animal Organs for Transplants Morally Acceptable? Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 5:49-61.score: 361.3
    As a first step, the arguments for and against the use of animals for medical purposes in general were reviewed. These arguments are summarized briefly in the first part of the article; Secondly, even if people accept in principle the use of animals in medicine and medical research, their use in xenotransplantation mayraise particular difficulties. There are three key issues in the debate over the use of animals in xenotransplantation. The first is whether as a matter of principle, it is (...)
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  25. D. G. Kirchhoffer & K. Dierickx (2011). Human Dignity and Human Tissue: A Meaningful Ethical Relationship? Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (9):552-556.score: 344.0
    Human dignity has long been used as a foundational principle in policy documents and ethical guidelines intended to govern various forms of biomedical research. Despite the vast amount of literature concerning human dignity and embryonic tissues, the majority of biomedical research uses non-embryonic human tissue. Therefore, this contribution addresses a notable lacuna in the literature: the relationship, if any, between human dignity and human tissue. This paper first elaborates a multidimensional understanding of human dignity that overcomes many of the (...)
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  26. Søren Holm (2004). The Child as Organ and Tissue Donor: Discussions in the Danish Council of Ethics. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 13 (02):156-160.score: 336.0
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  27. Timothy F. Murphy & Robert M. Veatch (2005). Members First: The Ethics of Donating Organs and Tissues to Groups. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (01):50-59.score: 336.0
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  28. Alexander Tabarrok & David J. Undis (2006). Response to “Members First: The Ethics of Donating Organs and Tissues to Groups” by Timothy F. Murphy and Robert M. Veatch (CQ Vol 15, No 1). [REVIEW] Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 15 (04):450-456.score: 336.0
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  29. Mary Ann Gardell Cutter (1989). Moral Pluralism and the Use of Anencephalic Tissue and Organs. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (1):89-95.score: 329.0
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  30. M. A. Gardell Cutter (1989). Moral Pluralism and the Use of Anencephalic Tissue and Organs. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (1):89-95.score: 329.0
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  31. Jonathan Hughes (2007). Justice and Third Party Risk: The Ethics of Xenotransplantation. Journal of Applied Philosophy 24 (2):151–168.score: 327.0
    The question of when it is permissible to inflict risks on others without their consent is one that we all face in our everyday lives, but which is often brought to our attention in contexts of technological innovation and scientific uncertainty. Xenotransplantation, the transplantation of organs or tissues from animals to humans, has the potential to save or improve the lives of many patients but gives rise to the possibility of infectious agents being transferred from donor animals into the human (...)
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  32. H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr (1989). The Use of Fetal and Anencephalic Tissue for Transplantation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (1):25-43.score: 324.0
    Advances in transplantation have extended the life and relieved the suffering of thousands of individuals. The prospect of being able to use tissues from embryos, as well as from anencephalic newborns, offers the promise of further relief of suffering. However, these possibilities raise significant moral and public policy issues. The question arises of the extent to which those who disapprove of abortion may make use of tissues derived from abortion in order to treat serious diseases. This essay argues that, (...)
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  33. R. C. Cefalo & H. T. Engelhardt (1989). The Use of Fetal and Anencephalic Tissue for Transplantation. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (1):25-43.score: 324.0
    Advances in transplantation have extended the life and relieved the suffering of thousands of individuals. The prospect of being able to use tissues from embryos, as well as from anencephalic newborns, offers the promise of further relief of suffering. However, these possibilities raise significant moral and public policy issues. The question arises of the extent to which those who disapprove of abortion may make use of tissues derived from abortion in order to treat serious diseases. This essay argues that, (...)
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  34. Diane Perpich (2010). Vulnerability and the Ethics of Facial Tissue Transplantation. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (2):173-185.score: 316.3
    Two competing intuitions have dominated the debate over facial tissue transplantation. On one side are those who argue that relieving the suffering of those with severe facial disfigurement justifies the medical risks and possible loss of life associated with this experimental procedure. On the other are those who say that there is little evidence to show that such transplants would have longterm psychological benefits that couldn’t be achieved by other means and that without clear benefits, the risk is simply too (...)
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  35. L. Anderson-Shaw & K. Orfali (2005). Child-to-Parent Bone Marrow Donation for Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease. Journal of Clinical Ethics 17 (1):53-61.score: 295.0
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  36. Laurie Zoloth (2002). Stem Cell Research: A Target Article Collection Part I - Jordan's Banks, a View From the First Years of Human Embryonic Stem Cell Research. American Journal of Bioethics 2 (1):3 – 11.score: 267.0
    This essay will address the ethical issues that have emerged in the first considerations of the newly emerging stem cell technology. Many of us in the field of bioethics were deliberating related issues as we first learned of the new science and confronted the ethical issues it raised. In this essay, I will draw on the work of colleagues who were asked to reflect on early stages of the research (members of the IRBs, the Geron Ethicist Advisory Board, (...)
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  37. L. Wall (2011). Ethical Concerns Regarding Operations by Volunteer Surgeons on Vulnerable Patient Groups: The Case of Women with Obstetric Fistulas. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 23 (2):115-127.score: 267.0
    By their very nature, overseas medical missions (and even domestic medical charities such as free clinics ) are designed to serve vulnerable populations. If these groups were capable of protecting their own interests, they would not need the help of medical volunteers: their medical needs would be met through existing government health programs or by utilizing their own resources. Medical volunteerism thus seems like an unfettered good: a charitable activity provided by well-meaning doctors and nurses who want to give of (...)
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  38. Angela Potochnik & Brian McGill (2012). The Limitations of Hierarchical Organization. Philosophy of Science 79 (1):120-140.score: 264.0
    The concept of hierarchical organization is commonplace in science. Subatomic particles compose atoms, which compose molecules; cells compose tissues, which compose organs, which compose organisms; etc. Hierarchical organization is particularly prominent in ecology, a field of research explicitly arranged around levels of ecological organization. The concept of levels of organization is also central to a variety of debates in philosophy of science. Yet many difficulties plague the concept of discrete hierarchical levels. In this paper, we show how these difficulties undermine (...)
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  39. Jeffrey H. Barker & Lauren Polcrack (2001). Respect for Persons, Informed Consent Andthe Assessment of Infectious Disease Risks in Xenotransplantation. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 4 (1):53-70.score: 263.0
    Given the increasing need for solid organ and tissue transplants and the decreasing supply of suitable allographic organs and tissue to meet this need, it is understandable that the hope for successful xenotransplantation has resurfaced in recent years. The biomedical obstacles to xenotransplantation encountered in previous attempts could be mitigated or overcome by developments in immunosuppression and especially by genetic manipulation of organ source animals. In this essay we consider the history of xenotransplantation, discuss the biomedical obstacles to success, explore (...)
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  40. Alastair V. Campbell (2009). The Body in Bioethics. Routledge-Cavendish.score: 257.5
    Why the body matters -- My body : property, commodity, or gift? -- Body futures -- The tissue trove -- The branded body -- Gifts from the dead -- Together at last.
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  41. Richard M. Doerflinger (1999). The Ethics of Funding Embryonic Stem Cell Research: A Catholic Viewpoint. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 9 (2):137-150.score: 252.5
    : Stem cell research that requires the destruction of human embryos is incompatible with Catholic moral principles, and with any ethic that gives serious weight to the moral status of the human embryo. Moreover, because there are promising and morally acceptable alternative approaches to the repair and regeneration of human tissues, and because treatments that rely on destruction of human embryos would be morally offensive to many patients, embryonic stem cell research may play a far less significant role (...)
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  42. Laurie Zoloth, Leilah Backhus & Teresa Woodruff (2008). Waiting to Be Born: The Ethical Implications of the Generation of “Nuborn” and “Nuage” Mice From Pre-Pubertal Ovarian Tissue. American Journal of Bioethics 8 (6):21 – 29.score: 249.0
    Oncofertility is one of the 9 NIH Roadmap Initiatives, federal grants intended to explore previously intractable questions, and it describes a new field that exists in the liminal space between cancer treatment and its sequelae, IVF clinics and their yearning, and basic research in cell growth, biomaterials, and reproductive science and its tempting promises. Cancer diagnoses, which were once thought universally fatal, now often entail management of a chronic disease. Yet the therapies are rigorous, must start immediately, and in many (...)
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  43. Grant Gillett (2007). The Use of Human Tissue. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 4 (2):119-127.score: 248.0
    The use of human tissue raises ethical issues of great concern to health care professionals, biomedical researchers, ethics committees, tissue banks and policy makers because of the heightened importance given to informed consent and patient autonomy. The debate has been intensified by high profile scandals such as the “baby hearts” debacle and revelations about the retention of human brains in neuropathology laboratories worldwide. Respect for patient’s rights seems, however, to impede research and development of clinical knowledge in contemporary health (...)
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  44. Gary Harrison & William L. Gannon (forthcoming). Victor Frankenstein's Institutional Review Board Proposal, 1790. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-19.score: 244.0
    To show how the case of Mary Shelley’s Victor Frankenstein brings light to the ethical and moral issues raised in Institutional Review Board (IRB) protocols, we nest an imaginary IRB proposal dated August 1790 by Victor Frankenstein within a discussion of the importance and function of the IRB. Considering the world of science as would have appeared in 1790 when Victor was a student at Ingolstadt, we offer a schematic overview of a fecund moment when advances in comparative (...)
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  45. J. Coggon (2013). Elective Ventilation for Organ Donation: Law, Policy and Public Ethics. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (3):130-134.score: 241.3
    This paper examines questions concerning elective ventilation, contextualised within English law and policy. It presents the general debate with reference both to the Exeter Protocol on elective ventilation, and the considerable developments in legal principle since the time that that protocol was declared to be unlawful. I distinguish different aspects of what might be labelled elective ventilation policies under the following four headings: ‘basic elective ventilation’; ‘epistemically complex elective ventilation’; ‘practically complex elective ventilation’; and ‘epistemically and practically complex elective (...)
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  46. Samuel Gorovitz (1991/1993). Drawing the Line: Life, Death, and Ethical Choices in an American Hospital. Temple University Press.score: 238.5
    In 1985, philosopher Samuel Gorovitz spent seven weeks at Boston's Beth Israel, one of the nation's premier teaching hospitals, where he was given free run as "Authorized Snoop and Irritant-at-Large." In Drawing the Line, he provides an intense, disturbing, and insightful account of his observations during those seven weeks. Gorovitz guides us through an operating room and intensive care units, and takes us to meetings where surgeons discuss the mishaps of the preceding week, where internists map out their approaches to (...)
     
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  47. Shlomo Cohen & Haim Shapiro (2013). “Comparable Placebo Treatment” and the Ethics of Deception. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 38 (6):696-709.score: 238.0
    Recent research, especially with functional brain imaging, demonstrated cases where the administration of a placebo produces objective effects in tissues that are indistinguishable from those of the real therapeutic agents. This phenomenon has been shown in treatments of pain, depression, Parkinsonism, and more. The main ethical complaint against placebo treatment is that it is a kind of deception, where supposedly we substitute what works just psychologically for a real drug that actually works on the tissue level. We claim that (...)
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  48. D. Rodríguez-Arias, J. C. Tortosa, C. J. Burant, P. Aubert, M. P. Aulisio & S. J. Youngner (2013). One or Two Types of Death? Attitudes of Health Professionals Towards Brain Death and Donation After Circulatory Death in Three Countries. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):457-467.score: 231.3
    This study examined health professionals’ (HPs) experience, beliefs and attitudes towards brain death (BD) and two types of donation after circulatory death (DCD)—controlled and uncontrolled DCD. Five hundred and eighty-seven HPs likely to be involved in the process of organ procurement were interviewed in 14 hospitals with transplant programs in France, Spain and the US. Three potential donation scenarios—BD, uncontrolled DCD and controlled DCD—were presented to study subjects during individual face-to-face interviews. Our study has two main findings: (1) In the (...)
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  49. Christoph Gradmann (2001). Isolation, Contamination, and Pure Culture: Monomorphism and Polymorphism of Pathogenic Micro-Organisms as Research Problem 1860-1880. Perspectives on Science 9 (2):147-172.score: 228.0
    : This article analyzes German debates on the microbiology of infectious diseases from 1865 to 1875 and asks how and when organic pollution in tissues became noteworthy for aetiology and pathogenesis. It was with Ernst Hallier's pleomorphistic microbiology that the organic character of alien material in tissues came to be regarded as important for pathology. The process that followed saw both vigorous biological critique and a number of medical applications of Hallier's work. Around 1874 contemporaries reached the conclusion that pleomorphous (...)
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  50. W. Sinnott-Armstrong & F. G. Miller (2013). What Makes Killing Wrong? Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (1):3-7.score: 225.0
    What makes an act of killing morally wrong is not that the act causes loss of life or consciousness but rather that the act causes loss of all remaining abilities. This account implies that it is not even pro tanto morally wrong to kill patients who are universally and irreversibly disabled, because they have no abilities to lose. Applied to vital organ transplantation, this account undermines the dead donor rule and shows how current practices are compatible with morality.
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