Search results for 'Alpert NM Retrieval of Relational Information: A. Role for the Left Inferior Prefrontal cortexNeuroimage' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Maarten A. S. Boksem Mattie Tops (2011). A Potential Role of the Inferior Frontal Gyrus and Anterior Insula in Cognitive Control, Brain Rhythms, and Event-Related Potentials. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 2530.0
    In the present paper, we review evidence for of a model in which the inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula area (IFG/AI) is involved in elaborate attentional and working memory processing and we present the hypothesis that this processing may take different forms and may have different effects, depending on the task at hand: 1. it may facilitate fast and accurate responding, or 2. it may cause slow responding when prolonged elaborate processing is required to increase accuracy of responding, or 3. (...)
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  2. Angela H. Gutchess Brittany S. Cassidy (2012). Structural Variation Within the Amygdala and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Predicts Memory for Impressions in Older Adults. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 2478.0
    Research has shown that lesions to regions involved in social and emotional cognition disrupt socioemotional processing and memory. We investigated how structural variation of regions involved in socioemotional memory (ventromedial prefrontal cortex [vmPFC], amygdala), as opposed to a region implicated in explicit memory (hippocampus), affected memory for impressions in young and older adults. Anatomical MRI scans for fifteen young and fifteen older adults were obtained and reconstructed to gather information about cortical thickness and subcortical volume. Young adults had greater (...)
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  3. Patrick De Pelsmacker & Wim Janssens (2007). A Model for Fair Trade Buying Behaviour: The Role of Perceived Quantity and Quality of Information and of Product-Specific Attitudes. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 75 (4):361-380.score: 2459.6
    In a sample of 615 Belgians a model for fair trade buying behaviour was developed. The impact of fair trade knowledge, general attitudes towards fair trade, attitudes towards fair trade products, and the perception of the quality and quantity of fair trade information on the reported amount of money spent on fair trade products were assessed. Fair trade knowledge, overall concern and scepticism towards fair trade, and the perception of the perceived quantity and quality of fair trade information, influence buying (...)
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  4. Satoshi Tanaka, Keiko Seki, Takashi Hanakawa, Madoka Harada, Sho K. Sugawara, Norihiro Sadato, Katsumi Watanabe & Manabu Honda (2012). Abacus in the Brain: A Longitudinal Functional MRI Study of a Skilled Abacus User with a Right Hemispheric Lesion. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 2433.4
    The abacus, a traditional physical calculation device, is still widely used in Asian countries. Previous behavioral work has shown that skilled abacus users perform rapid and precise mental arithmetic by manipulating a mental representation of an abacus, which is based on visual imagery. However, its neurophysiological basis remains unclear. Here, we report the case of a patient who was a good abacus user, but transiently lost her “mental abacus” and superior arithmetic performance after a stroke owing to a right hemispheric (...)
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  5. Jack G. Conrad (2010). E-Discovery Revisited: The Need for Artificial Intelligence Beyond Information Retrieval. [REVIEW] Artificial Intelligence and Law 18 (4):321-345.score: 2433.1
    In this work, we provide a broad overview of the distinct stages of E-Discovery. We portray them as an interconnected, often complex workflow process, while relating them to the general Electronic Discovery Reference Model (EDRM). We start with the definition of E-Discovery. We then describe the very positive role that NIST’s Text REtrieval Conference (TREC) has added to the science of E-Discovery, in terms of the tasks involved and the evaluation of the legal discovery work performed. Given the (...)
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  6. Yang Xu, Christopher D'Lauro, John A. Pyles, Robert E. Kass & Michael J. Tarr (2013). Fine-Grained Temporal Coding of Visually-Similar Categories in the Ventral Visual Pathway and Prefrontal Cortex. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 2403.4
    Humans are remarkably proficient at categorizing visually-similar objects. To better understand the cortical basis of this categorization process, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to record neural activity while participants learned--with feedback--to discriminate two highly-similar, novel visual categories. We hypothesized that although prefrontal regions would mediate early category learning, this role would diminish with increasing category familiarity and that regions within the ventral visual pathway would come to play a more prominent role in encoding category-relevant information as learning progressed. (...)
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  7. Axel Cleeremans, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Maud Boyer (1998). Implicit Learning: News From the Front. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (10):406-416.score: 2273.8
    69 Thompson-Schill, S.L. _et al. _(1997) Role of left inferior prefrontal cortex 59 Buckner, R.L. _et al. _(1996) Functional anatomic studies of memory in retrieval of semantic knowledge: a re-evaluation _Proc. Natl. Acad._ retrieval for auditory words and pictures _J. Neurosci. _16, 6219–6235 _Sci. U. S. A. _94, 14792–14797 60 Buckner, R.L. _et al. _(1995) Functional anatomical studies of explicit and 70 Baddeley, A. (1992) Working memory: the interface between memory implicit memory retrieval (...)
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  8. Clare Beghtol (2008). From the Universe of Knowledge to the Universe of Concepts: The Structural Revolution in Classification for Information Retrieval. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 18 (2):131-144.score: 2271.0
    During the twentieth century, bibliographic classification theory underwent a structural revolution. The first modern bibliographic classifications were top-down systems that started at the universe of knowledge and subdivided that universe downward to minute subclasses. After the invention of faceted classification by S.R. Ranganathan, the ideal was to build bottom-up classifications that started with the universe of concepts and built upward to larger and larger faceted classes. This ideal has not been achieved, and the two kinds of classification systems are not (...)
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  9. Diana PhD Deacon, John F. Shelley-Tremblay, Walter Ritter & Anna Dynowska (2013). Electrophysiological Evidence for the Action of a Center-Surround Mechanism on Semantic Processing in the Left Hemisphere. Frontiers in Psychology 4:936.score: 2224.9
    Physiological evidence was sought for a center-surround attentional mechanism (CSM), which has been proposed to assist in the retrieval of weakly activated items from semantic memory. The CSM operates by facilitating strongly related items in the “center” of the weakly activated area of semantic memory, and inhibiting less strongly related items in its “surround”. In this study weak activation was created by having subjects acquire the meanings of new words to a recall criterion of only 50%. Subjects who attained (...)
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  10. Peter Indefrey (2011). The Spatial and Temporal Signatures of Word Production Components: A Critical Update. Frontiers in Psychology 2:255.score: 2189.1
    In the first decade of neurocognitive word production research the predominant approach was brain mapping, i.e. investigating the regional cerebral brain activation patterns correlated with word production tasks, such as picture naming and word generation. Indefrey and Levelt (2004) conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of word production studies that used this approach and combined the resulting spatial information on neural correlates of component processes of word production with information on the time course of word production provided by behavioral and electromagnetic studies. (...)
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  11. Emmanuelle Volle Gil Gonen-Yaacovi, Leonardo Cruz de Souza, Richard Levy, Marika Urbanski, Goulven Josse (2013). Rostral and Caudal Prefrontal Contribution to Creativity: A Meta-Analysis of Functional Imaging Data. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 2189.1
    Creativity is of central importance for human civilization, yet its neurocognitive bases are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to integrate existing functional imaging data by using the meta-analysis approach. We reviewed 34 functional imaging studies that reported activation foci during tasks assumed to engage creative thinking in healthy adults. A coordinate-based meta-analysis using Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) first showed a set of predominantly left-hemispheric regions shared by the various creativity tasks examined. These regions included the (...)
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  12. Natasha Postle, Roderick Ashton, Ken McFarland & Greig I. De Zubicaray (2013). No Specific Role for the Manual Motor System in Processing the Meanings of Words Related to the Hand. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:11-11.score: 2183.3
    The present study explored whether semantic and motor systems are functionally interwoven via the use of a dual-task paradigm. According to embodied language accounts that propose an automatic and necessary involvement of the motor system in conceptual processing, concurrent processing of hand-related information should interfere more with hand movements than processing of unrelated body-part (i.e., foot, mouth) information. Across three experiments, 100 right-handed participants performed left- or right-hand tapping movements while repeatedly reading action words related to different body-parts, or (...)
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  13. Professor Fank W. Connolly (1996). A Call for a Statement of Expectations for the Global Information Infrastructure. Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (2):167-176.score: 2152.3
    This paper considers the relationship between ethics, technology and law, and the roles and limitations each has in this relationship. It argues that ethics has the key role in establishing a resilient, comprehensive and sensitive information infrastructure. It puts forward a Bill of Rights and Responsibilities for the electronic community. … the most important use of the internet, and indeed the NII, will be to allow individuals to communicate with each other and to rapidly access the information they require (...)
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  14. Danilo Bzdok, Robert Langner, Leonhard Schilbach, Denis A. Engemann, Angela R. Laird, Peter T. Fox & Simon Eickhoff (2013). Segregation of the Human Medial Prefrontal Cortex in Social Cognition. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 2118.1
    While the human medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is widely believed to be a key node of neural networks relevant for socio-emotional processing, its functional subspecialization is still poorly understood. We thus revisited the often assumed differentiation of the mPFC in social cognition along its ventral-dorsal axis. Our neuroinformatic analysis was based on a neuroimaging meta-analysis of perspective-taking that yielded two separate clusters in the ventral and dorsal mPFC, respectively. We determined each seed region’s brain-wide interaction pattern by two complementary (...)
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  15. Isabelle Vadeboncoeur & Henry Markovits (1999). The Effect of Instructions and Information Retrieval on Accepting the Premises in a Conditional Reasoning Task. Thinking and Reasoning 5 (2):97 – 113.score: 2072.1
    Some studies have reported that, under some circumstances, participants sometimes reject the truth of conditional premises and give incorrect uncertain conclusions to MP and MT, despite the standard instructions to assume the truth of the premises. Instructions that emphasise the logical nature of the task, on the other hand, increase the number of valid conclusions to these two inferences. In this paper, we examine two possible explanations for the influence of instructions on the production of valid conclusions: (1) instructions trigger (...)
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  16. Stefan Heim, Katrin Amunts, Tanja Hensel, Marion Grande, Walter Huber, Ferdinand Binkofski & Simon B. Eickhoff (2012). The Role of Human Parietal Area 7A as a Link Between Sequencing in Hand Actions and in Overt Speech Production. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 2041.5
    Research on the evolutionary basis of the human language faculty has proposed the mirror neuron system as a link between motor processing and speech development. Consequently, most work has focussed on the left inferior frontal cortex, in particular Broca's region, and the left inferior parietal cortex. However, the direct link between planning of hand motor and speech actions remains to be elucidated. Thus, the present study investigated whether sequencing of hand motor actions vs. speech motor actions (...)
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  17. Simon B. Eickhoff Stefan Heim, Katrin Amunts, Tanja Hensel, Marion Grande, Walter Huber, Ferdinand Binkofski (2012). The Role of Human Parietal Area 7A as a Link Between Sequencing in Hand Actions and in Overt Speech Production. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 2041.5
    Research on the evolutionary basis of the human language faculty has proposed the mirror neuron system as a link between motor processing and speech development. Consequently, most work has focussed on the left inferior frontal cortex, in particular Broca's region, and the left inferior parietal cortex. However, the direct link between planning of hand motor and speech actions remains to be elucidated. Thus, the present study investigated whether sequencing of hand motor actions vs. speech motor actions (...)
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  18. Richard H. Winnick & E. James Archer (1974). The Retrieval of Positive and Negative Information From Short-Term Memory Storage for Use in a Concept-Identification Task. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 3 (4):309-310.score: 2023.7
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  19. Raffael Kalisch Christian Paret, Jessica Brenninkmeyer, Benjamin Meyer, Kenneth S. L. Yuen, Nina Gartmann, Marie-Luise Mechias (2011). A Test for the Implementation–Maintenance Model of Reappraisal. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 2013.3
    Reappraisal has been defined as a conscious, deliberate change in the way an emotional stimulus is interpreted, initiated in order to change its emotion-eliciting character (Gross, 2002). Reappraisal can be used to down-regulate negative emotions, including anxiety (reviewed in Kalisch, 2009). There is currently a strong interest in identifying the cognitive processes and neural substrates that mediate reappraisal. We have recently proposed a model (termed implementation-maintenance model or IMMO) that conceptualizes reappraisal as a temporally extended, dynamic and multi-componential process (Kalisch, (...)
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  20. Søren Brier, Cybersemiotics and the Problems of the Information-Processing Paradigm as a Candidate for a Unified Science of Information Behind Library Information Science.score: 2008.3
    As an answer to the humanistic, socially oriented critique of the information-processing paradigms used as a conceptual frame for library information science, this article formulates a broader and less objective concept of communication than that of the information-processing paradigm. Knowledge can be seen as the mental phenomenon that documents (combining signs into text, depending on the state of knowledge of the recipient) can cause through interpretation. The examination of these “correct circumstances” is an important part of information science. This article (...)
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  21. Fank W. Connolly (1996). A Call for a Statement of Expectations for the Global Information Infrastructure. Science and Engineering Ethics 2 (2):167-176.score: 2008.3
    This paper considers the relationship between ethics, technology and law, and the roles and limitations each has in this relationship. It argues that ethics has the key role in establishing a resilient, comprehensive and sensitive information infrastructure. It puts forward a Bill of Rights and Responsibilities for the electronic community. … the most important use of the internet, and indeed the NII, will be to allow individuals to communicate with each other and to rapidly access the information they require (...)
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  22. A. Abraham, M. Werning, H. Rakoczy, D. Von Cramon & R. Schubotz (2008). Minds, Persons, and Space: An fMRI Investigation Into the Relational Complexity of Higher-Order Intentionality. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (2):438-450.score: 1993.1
    Mental state reasoning or theory-of-mind has been the subject of a rich body of imaging research. Although such investigations routinely tap a common set of regions, the precise function of each area remains a contentious matter. With the help of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we sought to determine which areas are involved when processing mental state or intentional metarepresentations by focusing on the relational aspect of such representations. Using non-intentional relational representations such as spatial relations between persons (...)
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  23. Inti A. Brazil, Laurence T. Hunt, Berend H. Bulten, Roy Pc Kessels, Ellen Ra de Bruijn & Rogier B. Mars (2013). Psychopathy-Related Traits and the Use of Reward and Social Information: A Computational Approach. Frontiers in Psychology 4:952.score: 1943.9
    Psychopathy is often linked to disturbed reinforcement-guided adaptation of behaviour in both clinical and non-clinical populations. Recent work suggests that these disturbances might be due to a deficit in actively using information to guide changes in behaviour. However, how much information is actually used to guide behaviour is difficult to observe directly. Therefore, we used a computational model to estimate the use of information during learning. Thirty-six female subjects were recruited based on their total scores on the Psychopathic Personality Inventory (...)
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  24. A. Morin, Self-Awareness and the Left Inferior Frontal Gyrus: Inner Speech Use During Self-Related Processing.score: 1880.9
    To test the hypothesis of a participation of inner speech in self-referential activity we reviewed 59 studies measuring brain activity during processing of self-information in the following self-domains: agency, self-recognition, emotions, personality traits, autobiographical memory, preference judgments, and REST. The left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) has been shown to sustain inner speech use. We calculated the percentage of studies reporting LIFG activity for each self-dimension. 55.9% of all studies reviewed identified LIFG (and presumably inner speech) activity during self-awareness (...)
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  25. J. Decety & T. Chaminade (2003). When the Self Represents the Other: A New Cognitive Neuroscience View on Psychological Identification. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (4):577-596.score: 1875.4
    There is converging evidence from developmental and cognitive psychology, as well as from neuroscience, to suggest that the self is both special and social, and that self-other interaction is the driving force behind self-development. We review experimental findings which demonstrate that human infants are motivated for social interactions and suggest that the development of an awareness of other minds is rooted in the implicit notion that others are like the self. We then marshal evidence from functional neuroimaging explorations of the (...)
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  26. Igal Kvart, Rational Assertibility, the Steering Role of Knowledge, and Pragmatic Encroachment.score: 1838.6
    Igal Kvart RATIONAL ASSERTIBILITY, THE STEERING ROLE OF KNOWLEDGE, AND PRAGMATIC ENCROACHMENT Abstract In the past couple of decades, there were a few major attempts to establish the thesis of pragmatic encroachment – that there is a significant pragmatic ingredient in the truth-conditions for knowledge-ascriptions. Epistemic contextualism has flaunted the notion of a conversational standard, and Stanley's subject-sensitive invariantism (SSI) promoted stakes, each of which, according to their proponents, play a major role as pragmatic components in the truth (...)
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  27. Robert T. Schultz Vanessa Troiani (2013). Amygdala, Pulvinar, and Inferior Parietal Cortex Contribute to Early Processing of Faces Without Awareness. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 1830.9
    The goals of the present study were twofold. First, we wished to investigate the neural correlates of stimulus-driven processing of stimuli strongly suppressed from awareness and in the absence of top-down influences. We accomplished this using a novel approach in which participants performed an orthogonal task atop a flash suppression noise image to prevent top-down search. Second, we wished to investigate the extent to which amygdala responses differentiate between suppressed stimuli (fearful faces and houses) based on their motivational relevance. Using (...)
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  28. Anke Hammer, Bernadette Jansma, Claus Tempelmann & Thomas F. Münte (2011). Neural Mechanisms of Anaphoric Reference Revealed by fMRI. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 1830.3
    Pronouns are bound to their antecedents by matching syntactic and semantic information. The aim of this functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) study was to localize syntactic and semantic information retrieval and integration during pronoun resolution. Especially we investigated their possible interaction with verbal working memory manipulated by distance between antecedent and pronoun. We disentangled biological and syntactic gender information using German sentences about persons (biological/syntactic gender) or things (syntactic gender) followed by congruent or incongruent pronouns. Increasing the distance between pronoun (...)
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  29. Tila Tabea Brink, Karolina Urton, Dada Held, Evgeniya Kirilina, Markus Hofmann, Gisela Klann-Delius, Arthur M. Jacobs & Lars Kuchinke (2011). The Role of Orbitofrontal Cortex in Processing Empathy Stories in 4- to 8-Year-Old Children. Frontiers in Psychology 2:80.score: 1829.1
    This study investigates the neuronal correlates of empathic processing in children aged 4 to 8 years, an age range discussed to be crucial for the development of empathy. Empathy, defined as the ability to understand and share another person’s inner life, consists of two components: affective (emotion-sharing) and cognitive empathy (Theory of Mind). We examined the hemodynamic responses of pre-school and school children (N=48), while they processed verbal (auditory) and non-verbal (cartoons) empathy stories in a passive following paradigm, using functional (...)
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  30. Michael D. Rugg Jenny X. Wong, Marianne de Chastelaine (2013). Comparison of the Neural Correlates of Encoding Item-Item and Item-Context Associations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 1829.1
    fMRI was employed to investigate the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) in the encoding of item-item and item-context associations. On each of a series of study trials subjects viewed a picture that was presented either to the left or right of fixation, along with a subsequently presented word that appeared at fixation. Memory was tested in a subsequent memory test that took place outside of the scanner. On each test trial one of two (...)
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  31. Patrizia Turriziani, Daniela Smirni, Giuseppe Zappalà, Giuseppa R. Mangano, Massimiliano Oliveri & Lisa Cipolotti (2012). Enhancing Memory Performance with rTMS in Healthy Subjects and Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Role of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 1818.0
    A debated question in the literature is the degree of anatomical and functional lateralization of the executive control processes subserved by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during recognition memory retrieval. We investigated if transient inhibition and excitation of the left and right DLPFC at retrieval by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulate recognition memory performance in 100 healthy controls (HCs) and in 8 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Recognition memory tasks of faces, buildings (...)
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  32. Lisa Cipolotti Patrizia Turriziani, Daniela Smirni, Giuseppe Zappalà, Giuseppa R. Mangano, Massimiliano Oliveri (2012). Enhancing Memory Performance with rTMS in Healthy Subjects and Individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: The Role of the Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 1818.0
    A debated question in the literature is the degree of anatomical and functional lateralization of the executive control processes subserved by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during recognition memory retrieval. We investigated if transient inhibition and excitation of the left and right DLPFC at retrieval by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulate recognition memory performance in 100 healthy controls (HCs) and in 8 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Recognition memory tasks of faces, buildings (...)
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  33. Don Sherratt, Simon Rogerson & N. Ben Fairweather (2005). The Challenge of Raising Ethical Awareness: A Case-Based Aiding System for Use by Computing and ICT Students. Science and Engineering Ethics 11 (2):299-315.score: 1808.7
    Students, the future Information and Communication Technology (ICT) professionals, are often perceived to have little understanding of the ethical issues associated with the use of ICTs. There is a growing recognition that the moral issues associated with the use of the new technologies should be brought to the attention of students. Furthermore, they should be encouraged to explore and think more deeply about the social and legal consequences of the use of ICTs. This paper describes the development of a tool (...)
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  34. Simon van Gaal, Floris P. De Lange & Michael X. Cohen (2012). The Role of Consciousness in Cognitive Control and Decision Making. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 1795.1
    Here we review studies on the complexity and strength of unconscious information processing. We focus on empirical evidence that relates awareness of information to cognitive control processes (e.g. response inhibition, conflict resolution, and task-switching), the life-time of information maintenance (e.g. working memory) and the possibility to integrate multiple pieces of information across space and time. Overall, the results that we review paint a picture of local and specific effects of unconscious information on various (high-level) brain regions, including areas in the (...)
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  35. Guido Gainotti (2012). Brain Structures Playing a Crucial Role in the Representation of Tools in Humans and Non-Human Primates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 35 (4):224-225.score: 1773.0
    The cortical representation of concepts varies according to the information critical for their development. Living categories, being mainly based upon visual information, are bilaterally represented in the rostral parts of the ventral stream of visual processing; whereas tools, being mainly based upon action data, are unilaterally represented in a left-sided fronto-parietal network. The unilateral representation of tools results from involvement in actions of the right side of the body.
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  36. Jose-Manuel Prado-Lorenzo & Isabel-Maria Garcia-Sanchez (2010). The Role of the Board of Directors in Disseminating Relevant Information on Greenhouse Gases. Journal of Business Ethics 97 (3):391 - 424.score: 1746.7
    In today's world, the corporate image of the largest companies is closely linked to their performance in the field of corporate social responsibility and the disclosure of information on that topic, specifically, on climate change. Since the Board of Directors is the body responsible for this process, the aim of this article is to show the role that companies' Boards of Directors play in the accountability process vis-à-vis stakeholders in relation to one specific aspect which has enormous significance in (...)
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  37. Klaus Willmes Helga Krinzinger, Jan Willem Koten, Houpand Horoufchin, Nils Kohn, Dominique Arndt, Katleen Sahr, Kerstin Konrad (2011). The Role of Finger Representations and Saccades for Number Processing: An fMRI Study in Children. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 1735.9
    A possible functional role of finger representations for the development of early numerical cognition has been the subject of recent debate; however, until now, only behavioral studies have directly supported this view. Working from recent models of number processing, we focused on the neural networks involved in numerical tasks and their relationship to the areas underlying finger representations and saccades in children aged 6-12 years. We were able to differentiate three parietal circuits that were related to distinct aspects of (...)
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  38. Michael Huggett, Holger Hoos & Ron Rensink (2007). Cognitive Principles for Information Management: The Principles of Mnemonic Associative Knowledge (P-MAK). [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 17 (4):445-485.score: 1728.2
    Information management systems improve the retention of information in large collections. As such they act as memory prostheses, implying an ideal basis in human memory models. Since humans process information by association, and situate it in the context of space and time, systems should maximize their effectiveness by mimicking these functions. Since human attentional capacity is limited, systems should scaffold cognitive efforts in a comprehensible manner. We propose the Principles of Mnemonic Associative Knowledge (P-MAK), which describes a framework for semantically (...)
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  39. Stefon J. R. Van Noordt & Sidney J. Segalowitz (2012). Performance Monitoring and the Medial Prefrontal Cortex: A Review of Individual Differences and Context Effects as a Window on Self-Regulation. [REVIEW] Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6:197-197.score: 1727.7
    The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is central to self-regulation and has been implicated in generating a cluster of event-related potential components, collectively referred to as medial frontal negativities (MFNs). These MFNs are elicited while individuals monitor behavioural and environmental consequences, and include the error-related negativity, Nogo N2, and the feedback-related negativity. A growing cognitive and affective neuroscience literature indicates that the activation of the anterior cingulate cortex and surrounding medial prefrontal regions during performance monitoring is not only influenced (...)
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  40. Stephanie K. Riès, Kira Xie, Kathleen Y. Haaland, Nina F. Dronkers & Robert T. Knight (2013). Role of the Lateral Prefrontal Cortex in Speech Monitoring. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 1727.7
    The role of lateral prefrontal cortex in speech monitoring has not been delineated. Recent work suggests that medial frontal cortex (MFC) is involved in overt speech monitoring initiated before auditory feedback. This mechanism is reflected in an event-related potential (ERP), the error negativity (Ne), peaking within 100 ms after vocal-onset. Critically, in healthy individuals the Ne is sensitive to the accuracy of the response; it is larger for error than correct trials. By contrast, patients with lateral prefrontal (...)
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  41. Sanja Kovacevic Ksenija Marinkovic, Burke Q. Rosen, Brendan Cox (2012). Event-Related Theta Power During Lexical-Semantic Retrieval and Decision Conflict is Modulated by Alcohol Intoxication: Anatomically Constrained MEG. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 1719.6
    Language processing is commonly characterized by an event-related increase in theta power (4-7 Hz) in scalp EEG. Oscillatory brain dynamics underlying alcohol's effects on language are poorly understood despite impairments on verbal tasks. To investigate how moderate alcohol intoxication modulates event-related theta activity during visual word processing, healthy social drinkers (N=22, 11 females) participated in both alcohol (0.6 g/kg ethanol for men, 0.55 g/kg for women) and placebo conditions in a counterbalanced design. They performed a double-duty lexical decision task as (...)
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  42. Alexei A. Sharov (2009). Role of Utility and Inference in the Evolution of Functional Information. Biosemiotics 2 (1):101-115.score: 1714.1
    Functional information means an encoded network of functions in living organisms from molecular signaling pathways to an organism’s behavior. It is represented by two components: code and an interpretation system, which together form a self-sustaining semantic closure. Semantic closure allows some freedom between components because small variations of the code are still interpretable. The interpretation system consists of inference rules that control the correspondence between the code and the function (phenotype) and determines the shape of the fitness landscape. The utility (...)
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  43. Dori Kimel (2007). The Choice of Paradigm for Theory of Contract: Reflections on the Relational Model. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 27 (2):233-255.score: 1710.1
    The article comments on the supposed need for a paradigm for the theory of contract, primarily by way of engaging with the most prominent source of late of calls for a paradigm shift in contract theory, the relational theory of contract. The article distinguishes between an empirical, a doctrinal-prescriptive and a theoretical–analytical line of argument as offered by relational theory. With regard to the first line of argument, the article argues that the thought that contract law already is (...)
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  44. Kenneth A. Norman Joel R. Quamme, David J. Weiss (2010). Listening for Recollection: A Multi-Voxel Pattern Analysis of Recognition Memory Retrieval Strategies. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 1708.7
    Recent studies of recognition memory indicate that subjects can strategically vary how much they rely on recollection of specific details vs. feelings of familiarity when making recognition judgments. One possible explanation of these results is that subjects can establish an internally-directed attentional state ("listening for recollection") that enhances retrieval of studied details; fluctuations in this attentional state over time should be associated with fluctuations in subjects' recognition behavior. In this study, we used multi-voxel pattern analysis of fMRI data to (...)
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  45. S. J. Booij, D. P. Engberts, V. Rodig, A. Tibben & R. A. C. Roos (2013). A Plea for End-of-Life Discussions with Patients Suffering From Huntington's Disease: The Role of the Physician. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (10):621-624.score: 1707.1
    Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) by request and/or based on an advance directive are legal in The Netherlands under strict conditions, thus providing options for patients with Huntington's disease (HD) and other neurodegenerative diseases to stay in control and choose their end of life. HD is an inherited progressive disease characterised by chorea and hypokinesia, psychiatric symptoms and dementia. From a qualitative study based on interviews with 15 physicians experienced in treating HD, several ethical issues emerged. Consideration of these aspects (...)
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  46. Silke Schicktanz, Mark Schweda & Martina Franzen (2008). 'In a Completely Different Light'? The Role of 'Being Affected' for the Epistemic Perspectives and Moral Attitudes of Patients, Relatives and Lay People. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 11 (1):57-72.score: 1707.1
    In this paper, we explore and discuss the use of the concept of being affected in biomedical decision making processes in Germany. The corresponding German term ‘Betroffenheit’ characterizes on the one hand a relation between a state of affairs and a person and on the other an emotional reaction that involves feelings like concern and empathy with the suffering of others. An example for the increasing relevance of being affected is the postulation of the participation of people with disabilities and (...)
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  47. K. A. Akins & M. Hahn (2014). More Than Mere Colouring: The Role of Spectral Information in Human Vision. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (1):125-171.score: 1704.9
    A common view in both philosophy and the vision sciences is that, in human vision, wavelength information is primarily ‘for’ colouring: for seeing surfaces and various media as having colours. In this article we examine this assumption of ‘colour-for-colouring’. To motivate the need for an alternative theory, we begin with three major puzzles from neurophysiology, puzzles that are not explained by the standard theory. We then ask about the role of wavelength information in vision writ large. How might wavelength (...)
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  48. S. Shkedi-Rafid & Y. Hashiloni-Dolev (2012). Egg Freezing for Non-Medical Uses: The Lack of a Relational Approach to Autonomy in the New Israeli Policy and in Academic Discussion. Journal of Medical Ethics 38 (3):154-157.score: 1691.1
    Recently, the Israel National Bioethics Council (INBC) issued recommendations permitting egg freezing to prevent both disease- and age-related fertility decline. The INBC report forms the basis of Israel's new policy, being one of the first countries to regulate and authorise egg freezing for what it considers to be non-medical (ie, social) uses. The ethical discussion in the INBC report is reviewed and compared with the scant ethical discourse in the academic literature on egg freezing as a means of preventing age-related (...)
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  49. Paul J. Whalen, Hannah Raila, Randi Bennett, Alison Mattek, Annemarie Brown, James Taylor, Michelle van Tieghem, Alexandra Tanner, Matthew Miner & Amy Palmer (2013). Neuroscience and Facial Expressions of Emotion: The Role of Amygdala–Prefrontal Interactions. Emotion Review 5 (1):78-83.score: 1689.7
    The aim of this review is to show the fruitfulness of using images of facial expressions as experimental stimuli in order to study how neural systems support biologically relevant learning as it relates to social interactions. Here we consider facial expressions as naturally conditioned stimuli which, when presented in experimental paradigms, evoke activation in amygdala–prefrontal neural circuits that serve to decipher the predictive meaning of the expressions. Facial expressions offer a relatively innocuous strategy with which to investigate these normal (...)
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  50. Colin G. DeYoung (2013). The Neuromodulator of Exploration: A Unifying Theory of the Role of Dopamine in Personality. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 1689.7
    The neuromodulator dopamine is centrally involved in reward, approach behavior, exploration, and various aspects of cognition. Variations in dopaminergic function are assumed to be associated with variations in personality, but exactly which traits are influenced by dopamine remains an open question. This paper proposes a theory of the role of dopamine in personality that organizes and explains the diversity of findings, utilizing the division of the dopaminergic system into value coding and salience coding neurons (Bromberg-Martin, Matsumoto, and Hikosaka, 2010). (...)
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