Search results for 'Alternative' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Dachun Liu & Yongmou Liu (2009). A Reflection on the Alternative Philosophy of Science. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (4):576-588.score: 24.0
    A prominent phenomenon in contemporary philosophy of science has been the unexpected rise of alternative philosophers of science. This article analyses in depth such alternative philosophers of science as Paul Feyerabend, Richard Rorty, and Michel Foucault, summarizing the similarities and differences between alternative philosophies of science and traditional philosophy of science so as to unveil the trends in contemporary philosophy of science. With its different principles and foundation, alternative philosophy of science has made breakthroughs in terms (...)
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  2. Christopher Evan Franklin (2011). Neo-Frankfurtians and Buffer Cases: The New Challenge to the Principle of Alternative Possibilities. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 152 (2):189–207.score: 24.0
    The debate over whether Frankfurt-style cases are counterexamples to the principle of alternative possibilities (PAP) has taken an interesting turn in recent years. Frankfurt originally envisaged his attack as an attempting to show that PAP is false—that the ability to do otherwise is not necessary for moral responsibility. To many this attack has failed. But Frankfurtians have not conceded defeat. Neo-Frankfurtians, as I will call them, argue that the upshot of Frankfurt-style cases is not that PAP is false, but (...)
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  3. Holger Kirchmann (1994). Biological Dynamic Farming — an Occult Form of Alternative Agriculture? Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7 (2):173-187.score: 24.0
    An analysis of the theory of biodynamic farming is presented. The founder of biological dynamic agriculture, the Austrian Rudolf Steiner, Ph.D., (1861–1925), introduced methods of preparation and use of eight compounds forming the nucleus of his agricultural theory. His instructions were based on insights and inner visions from spiritualistic exercises and not on agricultural experiments. His purpose was to show mankind a form of agriculture that enables not only the production of healthy foods but also the achievement of harmonious interactions (...)
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  4. John Martin Fischer (2009). Ultimacy and Alternative Possibilities. Philosophical Studies 144 (1):15 - 20.score: 24.0
    I explore a key feature of Robert Kane’s libertarianism (about which I have been puzzled for some time). Kane claims that we should separate issues of alternative possibilities from issues of ultimacy, but he further argues that they are connected in a certain way. I call into question this connection, and I continue to argue for a strict separation of considerations pertaining to alternative possibilities and “actual-sequence” considerations.
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  5. G. C. Goddu (2006). More on Blameworthiness and Alternative Possibilities. Journal of Moral Philosophy 3 (1):69-75.score: 24.0
    The derivation of the generally held Principle of Alternative Possibilities (PAP), roughly ‘you are morally responsible only if you could do otherwise’, from an even more generally held moral principle, K (for Kant), that roughly speaking ‘ought implies can’, has recently been the focus of significant debate. In this paper I shall argue that by focusing on PAP interpreted in terms of commissions alone an alternative derivation of PAP interpreted in terms of omissions is being overlooked. The advantage (...)
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  6. Ishtiyaque Haji (2010). Intrinsic Value, Alternative Possibilities, and Reason. Journal of Ethics 14 (2):149-171.score: 24.0
    I address three issues in this paper: first, just as many have thought that there is a requirement of alternative possibilities for the truth of judgments of moral responsibility, is there reason to think that the truth of judgments of intrinsic value also presupposes our having alternatives? Second, if there is this sort of requirement for the truth of judgments of intrinsic value, is there an analogous requirement for the truth of judgments of moral obligation on the supposition that (...)
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  7. Jeffrey R. Follett (2009). Choosing a Food Future: Differentiating Among Alternative Food Options. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 22 (1):31-51.score: 24.0
    This article examines the diversity of food networks that fit within the alternative food system of the United States. While farmers’ markets, community supported agriculture schemes, and corporate organic food markets all fit within the alternative food system, they differ greatly in the conventions and beliefs that they represent. The alternative food system has divided into two movements: corporate, weak alternative food networks; and local, strong alternative food networks. The weak corporate version focuses on protecting (...)
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  8. Monika Clark-Grill (2010). When Listening to the People: Lessons From Complementary and Alternative Medicine (Cam) for Bioethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (1):71-81.score: 24.0
    Complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) have become increasingly popular over recent decades. Within bioethics CAM has so far mostly stimulated discussions around their level of scientific evidence, or along the standard concerns of bioethics. To gain an understanding as to why CAM is so successful and what the CAM success means for health care ethics, this paper explores empirical research studies on users of CAM and the reasons for their choice. It emerges that there is a close connection to (...)
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  9. María Biezma & Kyle Rawlins (2012). Responding to Alternative and Polar Questions. Linguistics and Philosophy 35 (5):361-406.score: 24.0
    This paper gives an account of the differences between polar and alternative questions, as well as an account of the division of labor between compositional semantics and pragmatics in interpreting these types of questions. Alternative questions involve a strong exhaustivity presupposition for the mentioned alternatives. We derive this compositionally from the meaning of the final falling tone and its interaction with the pragmatics of questioning in discourse. Alternative questions are exhaustive in two ways: they exhaust the space (...)
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  10. Luis Alonso-Ovalle (2008). Innocent Exclusion in an Alternative Semantics. Natural Language Semantics 16 (2):115-128.score: 24.0
    The exclusive component of unembedded disjunctions is standardly derived as a conversational implicature by assuming that or forms a lexical scale with and. It is well known, however, that this assumption does not suffice to determine the required scalar competitors of disjunctions with more than two atomic disjuncts (McCawley, Everything that linguists have always wanted to know about logic* (But were ashamed to ask). Chicago University Press, Chicago, 1993, p. 324; Simons, “Or”: Issues in the semantics and pragmatics of disjunction. (...)
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  11. Stephen Lyng (2010). Reflexive Biomedicalization and Alternative Healing Systems. Journal of Bioethical Inquiry 7 (1):53-69.score: 24.0
    The utilization of alternative medical therapies and practitioners has increased dramatically in the U.S. in the last two to three decades. This trend seems paradoxical when one considers the rapid advances taking place in biomedical knowledge and technology during this same time period. Observers both inside and outside of the medical profession have attempted to explain the rising popularity of alternative medicine by proposing that it signals a growing sense of dissatisfaction and disenchantment with professional biomedical practices on (...)
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  12. Kjell Johan Sæbø (2007). Focus Interpretation in Thetic Statements: Alternative Semantics and Optimality Theory Pragmatics. [REVIEW] Journal of Logic, Language and Information 16 (1):15-33.score: 24.0
    Broad focus (or informational integration or nonautonomy) is lexically and contextually constrained, but these constraints are not well understood. On a standard theory of focus interpretation, the presupposition of a broad focus is verified whenever those of two narrow foci are. I argue that to account for cases where two narrow foci are preferred, it is necessary to assume that broad focus competes with two narrow foci and implicates the opposite of what they presuppose. Central constraints on thetic statements are (...)
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  13. Guy Hawkins, Scott D. Brown, Mark Steyvers & Eric-Jan Wagenmakers (2012). Context Effects in Multi-Alternative Decision Making: Empirical Data and a Bayesian Model. Cognitive Science 36 (3):498-516.score: 24.0
    For decisions between many alternatives, the benchmark result is Hick's Law: that response time increases log-linearly with the number of choice alternatives. Even when Hick's Law is observed for response times, divergent results have been observed for error rates—sometimes error rates increase with the number of choice alternatives, and sometimes they are constant. We provide evidence from two experiments that error rates are mostly independent of the number of choice alternatives, unless context effects induce participants to trade speed for accuracy (...)
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  14. Kent Staley (2008). Error-Statistical Elimination of Alternative Hypotheses. Synthese 163 (3):397 - 408.score: 24.0
    I consider the error-statistical account as both a theory of evidence and as a theory of inference. I seek to show how inferences regarding the truth of hypotheses can be upheld by avoiding a certain kind of alternative hypothesis problem. In addition to the testing of assumptions behind the experimental model, I discuss the role of judgments of implausibility. A benefit of my analysis is that it reveals a continuity in the application of error-statistical assessment to low-level empirical hypotheses (...)
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  15. Stephen Tyreman (2011). Values in Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 14 (2):209-217.score: 24.0
    In recent years so-called Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) practices have made significant political and professional advances particularly in the United Kingdom (UK): osteopathy and chiropractic were granted statutory self-regulation in the 1990s effectively giving them more professional autonomy and independence than health care professions supplementary to medicine; the practice of acupuncture is widespread within the National Health Service (NHS) for pain control; and homoeopathy is offered to patients by a few General Practitioners alongside conventional treatments. These developments have (...)
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  16. Ryan Gunderson (2013). Problems with the Defetishization Thesis: Ethical Consumerism, Alternative Food Systems, and Commodity Fetishism. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values:1-9.score: 24.0
    The defetishization thesis claims alternative markets can lead to a more honest, less mystified relationship with food production and, in turn, strengthen civil society. Drawing from Marxian political economic and environmental sociological theory, I make three general claims: (1) capitalism is inherently ecologically and socially harmful; (2) “ethical” commodities derived from alternative markets cannot fundamentally counteract the pervasiveness and scale of (1); and, because of (1) and (2), (3) ethical consumerism does not defetishize the commodity form, but acts (...)
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  17. Marcel Mertz (2007). Complementary and Alternative Medicine: The Challenges of Ethical Justification. [REVIEW] Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 10 (3):329-345.score: 24.0
    With the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) increasing in western societies, questions of the ethical justification of these alternative health care approaches and practices have to be addressed. In order to evaluate philosophical reasoning on this subject, it is of paramount importance to identify and analyse possible arguments for the ethical justification of CAM considering contemporary biomedical ethics as well as more fundamental philosophical aspects. Moreover, it is vital to provide adequate analytical instruments for this task, (...)
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  18. Juandre Peacock, Lauren N. Harkrider, Zhanna Bagdasarov, Shane Connelly, James F. Johnson, Chase E. Thiel, Alexandra E. MacDougall, Michael D. Mumford & Lynn D. Devenport (2013). Effects of Alternative Outcome Scenarios and Structured Outcome Evaluation on Case-Based Ethics Instruction. Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (3):1283-1303.score: 24.0
    Case-based instruction has been regarded by many as a viable alternative to traditional lecture-based education and training. However, little is known about how case-based training techniques impact training effectiveness. This study examined the effects of two such techniques: (a) presentation of alternative outcome scenarios to a case, and (b) conducting a structured outcome evaluation. Consistent with the hypotheses, results indicate that presentation of alternative outcome scenarios reduced knowledge acquisition, reduced sensemaking and ethical decision-making strategy use, and reduced (...)
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  19. Norman D. Bishara & Cindy A. Schipani (2009). Complementary Alternative Benefits to Promote Peace. Journal of Business Ethics 89 (4):539 - 557.score: 24.0
    Recent research has focused on business as a mediating institution that can influence society while engaging in the traditional profit-making and value generation functions. This work includes Professors Fort's and Schipani's arguments about how business may be able to play a role in promoting more peaceful societies, and other research addressing how businesses might serve a role in reducing violence in society and the workplace. Although there is a significant body of scholarship on the role of business in reducing violence (...)
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  20. Zhiqiang Zhang (2009). From the “Alternative School of Principles” to the Lay Buddhism: On the Conceptual Features of Modern Consciousness-Only School From the Perspective of the Evolution of Thought During the Ming and Qing Dynasties. [REVIEW] Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):64-87.score: 24.0
    The best representatives of the self-reflection of xinxue 心学 (the School of Mind) and its development during the Ming and Qing Dynasties are the three masters from the late Ming Dynasty. The overall tendency is to shake off the internal constraints of the School of Mind by studying the Confucian classics and history. During the Qing Dynasty, Dai Zhen had attempted to set up a theoretical system based on Confucian classics and history, offering a theoretical foundation for a new academic (...)
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  21. Zhang Zhiqiang & Huang Deyuan (2009). From the "Alternative School of Principles" to the Lay Buddhism: On the Conceptual Features of Modern Consciousness-Only School From the Perspective of the Evolution of Thought During the Ming and Qing Dynasties. Frontiers of Philosophy in China 4 (1):64 - 87.score: 24.0
    The best representatives of the self-reflection of xinxue 心学 (the School of Mind) and its development during the Ming and Qing Dynasties are the three masters from the late Ming Dynasty. The overall tendency is to shake off the internal constraints of the School of Mind by studying the Confucian classics and history. During the Qing Dynasty, Dai Zhen had attempted to set up a theoretical system based on Confucian classics and history, offering a theoretical foundation for a new academic (...)
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  22. E. Melanie DuPuis & Sean Gillon (2009). Alternative Modes of Governance: Organic as Civic Engagement. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 26 (1-2):43-56.score: 24.0
    A major strategy in the creation of sustainable economies is the establishment of alternative market institutions, such as fair trade and local market systems. However, the dynamics of these alternative markets are poorly understood. What are the rules of behavior by which these markets function? How do these markets maintain their separate identity as “alternative”: apart from the conventional (“free”) market system? Building on Lyson’s notion of civic agriculture, we argue that alternative markets maintain themselves through (...)
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  23. Mihaela Frunza (2010). Christopher Partridge, The Re-Enchantment of the West. Volume II. Alternative Spiritualities, Sacralization, Popular Culture, and Occulture. Journal for the Study of Religions and Ideologies 6 (16):179-181.score: 24.0
    Christopher Partridge, The Re-Enchantment of the West. Volume II. Alternative Spiritualities, Sacralization, Popular Culture, and Occulture T&T Clark, New York, 2005.
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  24. Valerie Imbruce (2007). Bringing Southeast Asia to the Southeast United States: New Forms of Alternative Agriculture in Homestead, Florida. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 24 (1):41-59.score: 24.0
    Immigrant farmers from Southeast Asia have brought knowledge of tropical fruit and vegetable production from their home countries to Homestead, Florida. They have developed a new style of farming, one that most closely resembles agricultural systems described as “homegardens.” Although biodiverse agricultural systems are generally thought to be commercially unviable, homegarden farmers successfully manage crop diversity as an economic strategy. By focusing on growing a mixture of specialty Southeast Asian herbs, fruits, and vegetables, the farmers have created their own economic (...)
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  25. Chris Mallin & Kean Ow-Yong (2010). The UK Alternative Investment Market — Ethical Dimensions. Journal of Business Ethics 95 (2):223 - 239.score: 24.0
    The UK Alternative Investment Market (AIM) was launched in 1995 and has been a great success with over 1200 companies now listed. In this article, we examine the development of AIM as it reaches its 15th year and discuss the potential pitfalls of the light touch regulation that is one of the attractions of AIM and identify potential corporate governance and ethical issues that may arise as a result of light touch regulation. We examine the central role of the (...)
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  26. Justin Myers (2013). The Logic of the Gift: The Possibilities and Limitations of Carlo Petrini's Slow Food Alternative. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 30 (3):405-415.score: 24.0
    The majority of literature on Slow Food focuses on the organization or actors involved in the movement. There is a dearth of material analyzing Carlo Petrini’s aspirations for Slow Food, particularly in light of his desire within Slow Food Nation (2007) and Terra Madre (2010) to make “freewill giving a part of economic discourse.” This essay corrects the literature gap through historicizing and critiquing Petrini’s alternative to global capitalism while rooting it in actually existing practices. First, Petrini’s problematic conceptualization (...)
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  27. Robin Jane Roff (2009). No Alternative? The Politics and History of Non-GMO Certification. Agriculture and Human Values 26 (4):351-363.score: 24.0
    Third-party certification is an increasingly prevalent tactic which agrifood activists use to “help” consumers shop ethically, and also to reorganize commodity markets. While consumers embrace the chance to “vote with their dollar,” academics question the potential for labels to foster widespread political, economic, and agroecological change. Yet, despite widespread critique, a mounting body of work appears resigned to accept that certification may be the only option available to activist groups in the context of neoliberal socio-economic orders. At the extreme, Guthman (...)
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  28. Mary A. Beckie, Emily Huddart Kennedy & Hannah Wittman (2012). Scaling Up Alternative Food Networks: Farmers' Markets and the Role of Clustering in Western Canada. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 29 (3):333-345.score: 24.0
    Farmers’ markets, often structured as non-profit or cooperative organizations, play a prominent role in emerging alternative food networks of western Canada. The contribution of these social economy organizations to network development may relate, in part, to the process of regional clustering. In this study we explore the nature and significance of farmers’ market clustering in the western Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Alberta, focusing on the possible connection between clustering and a “scaling up” of alternative food networks. (...)
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  29. Laurynas Biekša (2011). Regulating Internal Protection Alternative as the Element of Refugee Definition in the EU Directive 2004/83/EC and its Recast Proposal (article in Lithuanian). [REVIEW] Jurisprudence 18 (3):871-882.score: 24.0
    Internal protection alternative (further—IPA) as the element of refugee definition is interpreted very differently in the practice of the State Parties to the 1951 Convention and the 1967 Protocol relating to the Status of Refugees (further—Geneva Convention). Thus it is important to regulate this concept clearly in the EC directive 2004/83/EB (further—Qualification directive) and its coming amendments. The definition of the IPA concept does not contain adequate criteria for assessing the level and effectiveness of protection required, in line with (...)
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  30. Betty T. Izumi, D. Wynne Wright & Michael W. Hamm (2010). Farm to School Programs: Exploring the Role of Regionally-Based Food Distributors in Alternative Agrifood Networks. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 27 (3):335-350.score: 24.0
    Farm to school programs are at the vanguard of efforts to create an alternative agrifood system in the United States. Regionally-based, mid-tier food distributors may play an important role in harnessing the potential of farm to school programs to create viable market opportunities for small- and mid-size family farmers, while bringing more locally grown fresh food to school cafeterias. This paper focuses on the perspectives of food distributors. Our findings suggest that the food distributors profiled have the potential to (...)
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  31. Ian James Kidd (2013). A Pluralist Challenge to 'Integrative Medicine': Feyerabend and Popper on the Cognitive Value of Alternative Medicine. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):392–400.score: 24.0
    This paper is a critique of ‘integrative medicine’ as an ideal of medical progress on the grounds that it fails to realise the cognitive value of alternative medicine. After a brief account of the cognitive value of alternative medicine, I outline the form of ‘integrative medicine’ defended by the late Stephen Straus, former director of the US National Centre for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Straus’ account is then considered in the light of Zuzana Parusnikova’s recent criticism of (...)
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  32. Connie Missimer (1995). The Case That Alternative Argumentation Drives the Growth of Knowledge-Some Preliminary Evidence. Informal Logic 17 (2).score: 24.0
    Argumentation theorists can make a much larger case for the significance of their discipline than they appear to do. This larger case entails asking the overarching question, "How is knowledge driven?" and seeking the answer in arguments for which there is near universal agreement that they drove the growth of knowledge. Three such benchmark arguments are Newton's on motion, Darwin's on evolution, and Mill's on women's intellectual equality to men. These and other seminal historical arguments suggest that alternative argumentation (...)
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  33. Douglas L. Murray & Laura T. Raynolds (2000). Alternative Trade in Bananas: Obstacles and Opportunities for Progressive Social Change in the Global Economy. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 17 (1):65-74.score: 24.0
    Fair trade bananas are the latest inan increasing array of commodities that are beingpromoted by various organizations in an effort tocreate alternative production and consumption patternsto the environmentally destructive and sociallyinequitable patterns inherent in traditionalproduction and trade systems. Fair trade is touted asa strategy to achieve more sustainable developmentthrough linking environmentally and socially consciousconsumers in the North with producers pursuingenvironmentally sound and socially just productionpractices in the South. Promotion of fair tradebananas in Europe has achieved impressive initialgains on the (...)
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  34. Feliksas Petrauskas & Aida Gasiūnaitė (2013). Alternative Dispute Resolution in the Field of Consumer Energy Services in the Eu. Jurisprudence 20 (1):119-139.score: 24.0
    Energy services have a particularly significant impact on the daily life and welfare of consumers. The importance of such services is high, and their regulation is also changing both at the EU and Member States level, especially after the adoption of the Third Energy Package1, which is focused on improving the operation of retail markets to yield real benefits for both electricity and gas consumers. In order to implement the main or the most relevant goal of the EU, such as (...)
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  35. Gregg B. Walker & Steven E. Daniels (1995). Argument and Alternative Dispute Resolution Systems. Argumentation 9 (5):693-704.score: 24.0
    Alternative dispute resolution occurs outside the litigation process. The alternative dispute resolution (ADR) movement in North America has emphasized viable alternatives to the litigation framework, such as arbitration, mediation, med-arb, multi-party facilitation, non-legal negotiation, mini-trials, administrative hearings, private judging (“renta-judge”), fact finding, and moderated settlement conferences. This essay addresses argument in the dominant alternatives: arbitration, mediation, and multi-party facilitation. Prior to comparing argument in these ADR systems, each will be briefly described.
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  36. Sarah Bowen & Tad Mutersbaugh (2013). Local or Localized? Exploring the Contributions of Franco-Mediterranean Agrifood Theory to Alternative Food Research. Agriculture and Human Values 31 (2):1-13.score: 24.0
    Notions such as terroir and “Slow Food,” which originated in Mediterranean Europe, have emerged as buzzwords around the globe, becoming commonplace across Europe and economically important in the United States and Canada, Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Given the increased global prominence of terroir and regulatory frameworks like geographical indications, we argue that the associated conceptual tools have become more relevant to scholars working within the “alternative food networks” (AFN) framework in the United States and United Kingdom. Specifically, the (...)
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  37. Stephen E. Gareau (2004). Analysis of Plant Nutrient Management Strategies: Conventional and Alternative Approaches. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 21 (4):347-353.score: 24.0
    During times of economic uncertainty, such as the current period, all costs of agricultural production become important and worthy of close scrutiny if the threat of farm foreclosures is to be minimized. This concern particularly applies to the cost of plant nutrients, which, under conventional approaches, typically represents 24%–30% (or more) of the total variable costs of production [Lu et al. (2000) Food Reviews International 16(2): 121–157; Bullen and Brown (2001) Economic Evaluation of UNR Cotton, NC State University, Raleigh, North (...)
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  38. Feliksas Petrauskas & Aida Gasiūnaitė (2012). Alternative Dispute Resolution in the Field of Consumer Financial Services. Jurisprudence 19 (1):179-194.score: 24.0
    Financial services have a very significant impact on and meaning to the daily life and welfare of consumers. The spectrum of these types of services is very broad, and their regulation is also changing both at EU and national (Member State) level. In order to implement the main or the most relevant EU level goals, such as high level consumer rights protection, consumer trust in business sector, proper and effective functioning of the EU internal market it is essential to ensure (...)
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  39. Feliksas Petrauskas (2011). Development of Alternative Consumers and Business Dispute Resolution and their Reglamentation (article in Lithuanian). Jurisprudence 18 (2):631-658.score: 24.0
    Out-of-court proceedings or alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is a peaceful, voluntary alternative method for settling disputes without litigation in the court. ADR institutions usually use a third party to help the consumer and the trader reach a solution. The main purpose of this article is to share the main insights and experience about the out-of-court proceedings in various countries and present main trends of ADR development. First of all, in this article, ADR is presented and its main advantages (...)
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  40. Feliksas Petrauskas (2010). Forms of Alternative Consumers and Business Disputes and Conflicts Resolution. Their Characteristics (text only in Lithuanian). Jurisprudence 122 (4):295-318.score: 24.0
    Out-of-court proceedings or alternative dispute resolution (ADR) is a peaceful, voluntary alternative method for settling disputes without litigation in the court. ADR institutions usually use a third party to help the consumer and the trader to reach a solution. The main purpose of this article is to share the main insights and experience about the out-of-court proceedings in various countries and European Union Member States, to discuss the most important problems concerning ADR and propose possible solutions of these (...)
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  41. Vincent Terstappen, Lori Hanson & Darrell McLaughlin (2013). Gender, Health, Labor, and Inequities: A Review of the Fair and Alternative Trade Literature. [REVIEW] Agriculture and Human Values 30 (1):21-39.score: 24.0
    Although research into fair and alternative trade networks has increased significantly in recent years, very little synthesis of the literature has occurred thus far, especially for social considerations such as gender, health, labor, and equity. We draw on insights from critical theorists to reflect on the current state of fair and alternative trade, draw out contradictions from within the existing research, and suggest actions to help the emancipatory potential of the movement. Using a systematic scoping review methodology, this (...)
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  42. Ishtiyaque Haji (2003). Alternative Possibilities, Luck, and Moral Responsibility. Journal of Ethics 7 (3):253-275.score: 22.0
    I first question whether genuinealternatives are necessary for moralresponsibility by assessing the assumption thataccessibility to such alternatives is vital tohaving the kind of control required forresponsibility. I next suggest that theavailability of genuine alternatives courtsproblems of responsibility-subverting luck foran important class of libertarian theories. Isummarize one such problem and respond torecent replies it has elicited. I then proposethat if this ``luck objection'''' against theidentified class of libertarian theories ispersuasive, a similar objection appears toafflict compatibilist theories as well.Finally, I show that (...)
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  43. Phillip D. Gosselin (1987). The Principle of Alternative Possibilities. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 17 (March):91-104.score: 22.0
    In 1969 harry frankfurt attacked the principle of alternate possibilities, I.E., The principle that one is morally responsible for what one has done only if one could have done otherwise. The first two parts of this paper offer a supplement to and clarification of that principle; the third part defends the supplemented version of it against three frankfurt arguments; and the fourth comments on a recent discussion of it by michael zimmerman.
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  44. Derk Pereboom (2003). Source Incompatibilism and Alternative Possibilities. In Michael S. McKenna & David Widerker (eds.), Freedom, Responsibility, and Agency: Essays on the Importance of Alternative Possibilities. Ashgate. 184--199.score: 21.0
    The claim that moral responsibility for an action requires that the agent could have done otherwise is surely attractive. Moreover, it seems reasonable to contend that a requirement of this sort is not merely a necessary condition of little consequence, but that it plays a decisive role in explaining an agent's moral responsibility for an action. For if an agent is to be blameworthy for an action, it seems crucial that she could have done something to avoid this blameworthiness. If (...)
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  45. David Palmer (2006). Moral Responsibility, Alternative Possibilities and Determinism: Begging the Question in the Frankfurt Cases. Southwest Philosophy Review 22 (1):79-86.score: 21.0
  46. Ian D. Coulter (1999). Chiropractic: A Philosophy for Alternative Health Care. Butterworth-Heinemann.score: 21.0
    An introductory text on the philosophy of chiropractic, for both chiropractic students and practitioners and those interested in the practice and philosophy of ...
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  47. Ishtiyaque Haji & Michael S. McKenna (2004). Dialectical Delicacies in the Debate About Freedom and Alternative Possibilities. Journal of Philosophy 101 (6):299-314.score: 21.0
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  48. Kirsten Hansen & Klemens Kappel (2012). Pre-Trial Beliefs in Complementary and Alternative Medicine: Whose Pre-Trial Belief Should Be Considered? Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 15 (1):15-21.score: 21.0
    Subjective probabilities play a significant role in the assessment of evidence: in other words, our background knowledge, or pre-trial beliefs, cannot be set aside when new evidence is being evaluated. Focusing on homeopathy, this paper investigates the nature of pre-trial beliefs in clinical trials. It asks whether pre-trial beliefs of the sort normally held only by those who are sympathetic to homeopathy can legitimately be disregarded in those trials. The paper addresses several surprisingly unsuccessful attempts to provide a satisfactory justification (...)
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  49. Andrew Ofstehage (2012). The Construction of an Alternative Quinoa Economy: Balancing Solidarity, Household Needs, and Profit in San Agustín, Bolivia. Agriculture and Human Values 29 (4):441-454.score: 21.0
    Quinoa farmers in San Agustín, Bolivia face the dilemma of producing for a growing international market while defending their community interests and resources, meeting their basic household needs, and making a profit. Farmers responded to a changing market in the 1970s by creating committees in defense of quinoa and farmer cooperatives to represent their interests and maximize economic returns. Today farmer cooperatives offer high, stable prices, politically represent farmers, and are major quinoa exporters, but intermediaries continue to play an important (...)
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  50. Ying Ge & Bo T. Porse (2014). The Functional Consequences of Intron Retention: Alternative Splicing Coupled to NMD as a Regulator of Gene Expression. Bioessays 36 (3):236-243.score: 21.0
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