The question of rationality and of its role in human agency has been at the core of pragmatist concerns since the beginning of this movement. While Peirce framed the horizon of a new understanding of human reason through the idea of inquiry as aiming at belief-fixation and James stressed the individualistic drives that move individuals to action, it is in Dewey’s writing that we find the deepest understanding of the naturalistic and normative traits of rationality considered as the qualifying attribute (...) of human agency. Recent developments in moral and political philosophy as well as in general pragmatist scholarship have shown a renewal of interest in the role of human reason in agency, both with respect to control of conduct (decisions about how to act) and with respect to normative attitudes (considerations of what is good and right). In this article I will examine some features of Dewey’s epistemology which are particularly promising for the elaboration of a theory of practical rationality based on pragmatist sources. In particular, I will focus on Dewey’s notion of “judgment of practice” in order to frame a distinctively Deweyan approach to practical rationality. In order to point out the specificity of Dewey’s epistemological framework, I will refer to it as an “epistemology of practice”i. The aim of this article is to clarify the epistemological meaning of the concepts of articulation and transformation, that Dewey places at the heart of his theory of inquiry. Part of my argument consists in showing that through these notions Dewey aimed at broadening the conception of rationality, bringing it beyond the reach of the standard notions of analysis and synthesis and of induction, deduction, and abduction. Once the specificity of Dewey’s conception of rationality will have been demonstrated, I will proceed to show some of its implications in the explanation of the rationality of human agency with reference to practical reasoning and value assessment. I will then conclude the article by drawing some implications of Dewey’s theory of judgment for a broader epistemology based upon the acknowledgment of the primacy of practice. (shrink)
Introduction -- Inquiry as the logic of practical reasoning -- From reasoning to judgment -- Expressive inquiry -- The public sphere -- Pragmatism, pluralism, and the fact of relativism -- A pragmatic theory of objectivity -- Why justification matters? -- Pragmatism as an epistemology of practice.
This paper explores the epistemological impact of the idea of post-secularism on the concept of public reason. It does so by examining a strand of the Rawls-Habermas debate on the role of religious beliefs within public reason. The paper identifies a difficulty in the liberal solution that depends upon the unwillingness to challenge the proviso-like conception of public reason and contends that this difficulty is overcome neither by Habermas’ “institutional” version of proviso nor by Cristina Lafont’s version of “mutual accountability” (...) proviso. Once acknowledged this blind spot in the theory of public reason, the paper proceeds to show that a pragmatist-based conception of public reason can overcome this shortcoming as it grants to religious beliefs a role that does not compromise the liberal ethics of citizenship while at the same time does not frustrate the communitarian and religious call for a less restrictive conception of the public sphere. The conclusion this paper brings home is that a proviso-free public reason is necessary for tackling the theoretical challenge of defending liberalism in a post-secular society. (shrink)
There is . . . something both intellectually and socially unresponsive in the appeal to self-evidence upon controverted issues. Over the last two decades philosophers have focused increasingly on the role of society and practices in shaping practical normativity.3 Contemporary moral and political philosophy remains fundamentally committed to individualistic and causal approaches to normativity, but a contrary trend has taken root—at least since Wittgenstein’s insights regarding the role of context, practices, and uses—with increasing appeals made to the “social” and to (...) “practice” in reaction to the over-individualistic and idealistic trends characterizing mainstream philosophy, especially in the .. (shrink)
This paper tackles with the issue of the place of comprehensive beliefs within the public space. It tries to strike a middle path between the liberal ban on comprehensive beliefs and the anti-liberal claim that comprehensive beliefs should be given full pride of place in public deliberations. The article relies on arguments that are inspired by the pragmatist tradition. It starts locating the main cause of failures at articulating comprehensive beliefs and public reason in a central feature of liberal epistemology, (...) namely the way it conceives public reason via a preliminary distinction between public and non public beliefs. After criticizing this distinction, the article introduces a distinction between the normative practice of justification and the normative practice of adjudication as a more perspicuous way to establish the place that comprehensive beliefs should play within political forums. It then concludes showing that this approach provides a satisfying answer to the issue of the public role of comprehensive beliefs in a liberal democratic regime that is respectful of citizens’ thick identities while at the same time complying with the requirements of respect set by the liberal tradition. Keywords: public reason and religion - pragmatism - liberalism - communitarianism - normative practices. (shrink)
Resumen El artículo sitúa su reflexión en el tema del ecumenismo, relacionándolo con las propuestas de aggiornamento expresadas por el Vaticano II. Hace también alusión al ámbito de las mudanzas en el seno del protestantismo, de las Iglesias ortodoxas e incluso del cristianismo romano. Además alude a los grandes nombres que trazaron la reflexión teológica en el período de crisis que antecedió al evento –hablamos de aspectos que acabaron incidiendo en los debates conciliares. Siguiendo a Gutiérrez, el artículo destaca tres (...) dimensiones relativas a la búsqueda del diálogo de la Iglesia con el mundo contemporáneo: la urgencia de ser actual, la perspectiva ecuménica y la solidaridad con los pobres. Analiza los “caminos equivocados” que fueron adoptados por la Iglesia en lo concerniente a las propuestas ecumênicas del Concilio: el tomar un “execesivo cuidado” en lo que respecta al mundo moderno, las posiciones de intolerância frente a lo diferente, la comprensión reduccionista del ecumenismo. Hace mención a la exigência de construir relaciones que tengan como bases: la gracia y el amor. Por último, propone la tesis de que “no puede existir un sentido del diálogo, un encuentro entre los seres diferentes, sin la libertad”. Palabras-clave : Iglesia. Vaticano II. Ecumenismo. Diálogo inter-religioso.This article focuses its discussion on the theme of ecumenism, in relation to the catholic proposal of aggiornamento expressed by Vatican II. The text refers to the changes within the Protestantism, the Orthodox churches and also within the Roman Christianity. It also mentions the relevant names that marked theological reflection in those times of crisis prior to the Council. Following the author´s thought, the text highlights three dimensions of the dialogue of the Church with the contemporary world: the urgency in getting things update, the ecumenical perspective and the solidarity with the poor. The article evaluates the "wrong path" taken by the Church in relation to the propositions of the ecumenical council: attitudes of intolerance to the different and the reductionist understanding of ecumenism. It also refers to the need to build relationships whose bases are the grace and love. The article finally expresses the following thesis: "there cannot be a sense of dialogue among different beings without freedom." Keywords : Church. Vatican II. Ecumenism. Inter-religious Dialogue. - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1246. (shrink)
The term etonism is from «Etona» that means flag, marks, evidence, and reason in Kikôngo. The variants in Umbûndu: etonolo or etonuilo means, allegations, reasons, indulgence (tolerance). The Nyaneka form is etŏnya: 1) reasons, 2) allegations, 3) indulgence and 5) the justice and the tolerance. Etona is Angolan artist (sculptor/painter). In his sculpture they are morphologically evidenced three treatments in the surface of the matter, namely 1) flat treatment; 2) rude treatment and finally 3) accidental treatment. Each one is a (...) code: #1. The flat treatment indicates well-knowledge; a man of superior class; race or tribe or religion of majority; thought well-organized and structured. In painting, the hot intensity indicates dominance, prosperity, energy, intense desires; #2. The rude treatment reveals an acquired knowledge without academism, self-taught; medium class men; speech out of the scientific perimeters but with certain admissibility; race, tribe or religion of lot of people, but not of majority. In his painting, the neutral intensity marks the balance and inspires recomfort nurtured from two opposed poles (hot and cold); #3. The accidental part of the sculpture indicates some knowledge’s lack (pure empiricism); inferior class; race, tribe, religion of minority. In the painting, the cold intensity is naturally contrary of #1. Etonism is the tolerant reason between #1=I, #2=YOU and #3=HE. All of them form the coherent society that we call WE: the Etonian jusphilosophy that African peoples need for stability of their democracies and finishing their War. (shrink)
The term etonism reflects the Angolan ancestral philosophy… Etona in Kikôngo, etonolo or etonuilo in Umbûndu: allegations, reasons, indulgence (tolerance). In Nyaneka form is etŏnya. These significances constitute the essence of the etonism: 1) reasons, 2) allegations, 3) indulgence, 4) evidence that generates the justice and the tolerance. «Who is correct tolerates who is wrong». Also, Etonism identifies 1) racism, 2) tribalism and 3) discrimination as a serious sequel of neo-colonialism, and calls the attention of the Angolan people, using roots (...) of angolanity safeguarding a harmonious society in the future. It suggests the tolerant reason as one of the main form of tranquility in Angola after-war. (shrink)
As opposed to Descartes, and in accordance with authors such as Nietzsche, Darwin or Chomsky, Pinker sustains that language is just another instinct of human nature. But he differs himself from Chomsky by affirming that language is also the result of the mechanism of natural selection. Recent discoveries seem to strengthen Pinker’s thesis, in as far as it has been possible to establish a link between the FOXP2 gene and language. Philosophy should take good note of these results, as they (...) fully affect the status of lógos: from now on, it is possible, without needing to resort to any type of transcendence, to consider language as constitutive of human singularity regarding other species and, at the same times, as just another avatar in the evolution of the natural world. (shrink)
This paper aims at renovating the prospects for social philosophy through a confrontation between pragmatism and critical theory. In particular, it contends that the resources of pragmatism for advancing a project of emancipatory social philosophy have so far been neglected. After contrasting the two major traditions in social philosophy—the analytical and the critical—I proceed to outline the main traits of a pragmatist social philosophy. By inscribing pragmatism within the tradition of social philosophy, my aim is to promote a new understanding (...) of pragmatism as one of the central Euro-American traditions in social and political philosophy, deserving to be on an equal footing with critical theory and political liberalism. And, furthermore, one whose critical and radical force may be of great help in the wake of the dismissal of the metaphysical certainties upon which the critical program of social philosophy had once set its hopes of social emancipation. (shrink)
This article defends a pragmatic conception of objectivity for the moral domain. I begin contextualizing pragmatic approaches to objectivity and discuss at some length one of the most interesting proposals in this area, Cheryl Misak’s conception of pragmatic objectivity. My general argument is that in order to defend a pragmatic approach to objectivity the pragmatic stance should be interpreted in more radical terms than most contemporary proposals do. I propose notably to disentangle the connection between objectivity and truth, claiming that (...) moral inquiry is in most of the cases responsive to a discursive norm that is closer to warranted assertibility than to truth. Using an argument that relies partly on Huw Price's account of forms of normative assertion, I will show that a practice-based account of warranted assertibility does the epistemic work required to defend objectivity while not being exposed to the criticisms that are usually addressed against this notion. The first section sets the general argument within its pragmatic context. The second section outlines Misak's conception of pragmatic objectivity, and highlights the sense in which she makes moral objectivity depend upon truth. The third and the fourth sections provide two critical arguments against Misak's thesis. Finally, with the critical work done, in the last section I present my constructive account of pragmatic objectivity for the moral domain. (shrink)
This article defends a pragmatic conception of objectivity for the moral domain. I begin by contextualizing pragmatic approaches to objectivity and discuss at some length one of the most interesting proposals in this area, Cheryl Misak's conception of pragmatic objectivity. My general argument is that in order to defend a pragmatic approach to objectivity, the pragmatic stance should be interpreted in more radical terms than most contemporary proposals do. I suggest in particular that we should disentangle objectivity from truth, and (...) I claim that moral inquiry is in most cases responsive to a normative standard that is closer to warranted assertibility than to truth. Using an argument that relies partly on Huw Price's account of forms of normative assertion, I will show that a practice-based account of warranted assertibility does the epistemic work required to defend objectivity while avoiding exposure to the criticisms that are usually addressed against this notion. (shrink)
Se analizará la manera en que la influencia teórica de las ciencias biológicas y médicas sobre la noción de “vida” imponen una transformación de las construcciones políticas, ideológicas y legales de un Estado que puede ser descrito como biopolítico. Para esto, se acudirá al análisis de la transformación de la idea operativa de “vida” desde la perspectiva agambiana de la politización de la muerte y la pretensión de disolver el umbral de decidibilidad entre vida y muerte para tomar, luego, tres (...) ejemplos de instancias legales en las que puede terminarse con la vida sin contradecir el propósito biopolítico de protegerla; esto es, instancias en las cuales no existe penalización ante la finalización de la vida. Estos tres ejemplos, que se presentarán de manera progresiva son: a) la eutanasia, b) el aborto y c) la contracepción. Es importante aclarar que no se pretende defender ni condenar en un plano moral las instancias de decisión sobre la disposición de una vida distinta de la propia, ni tampoco dar argumentos para que algo así se haga. Por el contrario, lo que aquí se pretende es aportar una dimensión explicativa –y analítica– desde el marco de la biopolítica, siguiendo, quizá, la sugerencia agambiana respecto de la necesidad de adoptar una perspectiva de este tipo para poder tener una comprensión adecuada de ciertos fenómenos políticos. (shrink)
O artigo visa a analisar como a Psicologia tem encarado os desafios colocados pelo desempenho escolar. Discute os princípios e as ferramentas q ue têm orientado as práticas psicológicas no campo do fracasso escolar. Faz um debate acerca da interface Psicologia e Educação, partindo dos princípios da ..
O presente trabalho focaliza o fenômeno dos longos litígios em Varas de Família, com o objetivo de discutir a inscrição do judiciário na trama conjugal. Ressalta-se que alguns casais, mesmo após o divórcio, ficam aprisionados numa dinâmica de repetição que atua por meio do litígio, representado nas ..
Este artigo tem por objetivo investigar, no contexto da Primeira República, as tensões entre dois projetos educacionais implementados por confissões religiosas que, por meio da formação das elites, disputavam a hegemonia ideológico-cultural da sociedade brasileira, a saber, o protestante, na sua versão metodista, e o católico. Palavras-chave: Metodistas; Católicos; Educação. ABSTRACT This article aims at investigating in the context of the First Republic, the tensions between the two educational projects implemented by the religious groups who, through the formation of the (...) elite, disputed the ideological and cultural hegemony in Brazilian society that is the protestant project in its Methodist form and the catholic project. Key words: Methodists; Catholics; Education. (shrink)
El presente artículo ahonda en la vulnerabilidad de las y los migrantes en México, ya sean en tránsito o de destino, haciendo énfasis en la falta de políticas públicas al respecto, las cuales si las hay, no contemplan la perspectiva de género, categoría de análisis imprescindible. La llamada “feminización de las migraciones” está aumentando, adquiriendo especial importancia en la Frontera Sur. La violación sistemática de los derechos humanos hacia las mujeres migrantes y su situación de indefensión, hace que sean objeto (...) de vejaciones que ni si quiera pueden denunciar por su condición irregular, así como por sus factores sociales y culturales (género, clase, etnia…), lo que les hace estar desprovistas de los recursos necesarios de empoderamiento y acción. Se analiza la desprotección de las migrantes centroamericanas en Chiapas así como los Convenios nacionales e internacionales en defensa de sus derechos, acabando el artículo con propuestas específicas, relativas a las políticas públicas para el caso estudiado. (shrink)
A teoria pedagógica comporta muitos fenômenos que o educador deve compreender e levar em consideração, dentre eles, a crise. Alguns educadores exercem dignamente o seu ofício. Mesmo diante das situações mais adversas, eles podem ser considerados resilientes. Resiliência é o nome dado à capacidade concreta das pessoas de não só superarem situações críticas, mas também de utilizá-las em seus processos de desenvolvimento pessoal. Os estudos sobre o tema se propõem a enfatizar a promoção de processos educativos que facilitem ou tornem (...) as pessoas mais resistentes e maduras para enfrentar as dificuldades que ocorrem em sua vida. A inclusão da espiritualidade como um fator de favorecimento da resiliência parece ser o de desafiar o futuro numa perspectiva de superação, considerando as adversidades como obstáculos que poderão favorecer o amadurecimento pessoal, através da ampliação da visão de mundo e do estabelecimento de novas formas de equilíbrio. Acredita-se que um professor resiliente poderá mais facilmente manter-se firme em sua tarefa de educar, transcendendo as questões meramente pedagógicas, buscando desenvolver a integralidade na prática formativa, sobretudo porque possui mais possibilidades de vivenciar a sua própria multidimensionalidade. Este texto tem como finalidade estudar a importância da espiritualidade no favorecimento de uma postura resiliente no educador. (shrink)