Background Ethical decision making in intensive care is a demanding task. The need to proceed to ethical decision is considered to be a stress factor that may lead to burnout. The aim of this study is to explore the ethical problems that may increase burnout levels among physicians and nurses working in Portuguese intensive care units (ICUs). A quantitative, multicentre, correlational study was conducted among 300 professionals. Results The most crucial ethical decisions made by professionals working in ICU were related (...) to communication, withholding or withdrawing treatments and terminal sedation. A positive relation was found between ethical decision making and burnout in nurses, namely, between burnout and the need to withdraw treatments (p=0.032), to withhold treatments (p=0.002) and to proceed to terminal sedation (p=0.005). This did not apply to physicians. Emotional exhaustion was the burnout subdimension most affected by the ethical decision. The nurses' lack of involvement in ethical decision making was identified as a risk factor. Nevertheless, in comparison with nurses (6%), it was the physicians (34%) who more keenly felt the need to proceed to ethical decisions in ICU. Conclusions Ethical problems were reported at different levels by physicians and nurses. The type of ethical decisions made by nurses working in Portuguese ICUs had an impact on burnout levels. This did not apply to physicians. This study highlights the need for education in the field of ethics in ICUs and the need to foster inter-disciplinary discussion so as to encourage ethical team deliberation in order to prevent burnout. (shrink)
TEIXEIRA, C. M. Comunidade ética e religião: A estruturação da fé kantiana. Dissertação (Mestrado). 2013. 113f - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte Palavras-chave Liberdade. Comunidade ética. Igreja. Religião moral. Fé racional.
No mais profundo centro: João da Cruz e o Sufismo Sadili cantam a união transformante Carlos Frederico Barboza de Souza O camelô em Belo Horizonte: aspectos da informalidade e da identidade Maria Aparecida Carvalho de Castro Igreja, povo de Deus, sujeito da comunhão e da missão Cleto Caliman A literatura como questionamento do sujeito da modernidade: Memórias do cárcere, de Graciliano Ramos, e A peste, de Albert Camus João Pereira Pinto O ensino religioso na rede pública estadual de Belo (...) Horizonte -MG: história, modelos e percepções de professores sobre formação e docência Douglas Cabral Dantas. (shrink)
SOUZA PINTO. L. E. A concepção biocêntrica e sua viabilidade na doutrina da igreja católica . Dissertação (Mestrado) 2013. 94f - Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte. Palavras-chave: Antropocentrismo. Biocentrismo. Catecismo da Igreja Católica.
This paper reflects on quality assessment and performance evaluation in higher education, namely by analysing the insufficient link between those two aspects. We start by reviewing the current state of the art regarding different processes and mechanisms of quality assessment and performance evaluation and discuss some of the major issues regarding the implementation of some of them. In particular, we analyse the current limitations regarding data collected, available and publicised on the performance of HEIs and the problems those limitations bring (...) to a fair evaluation of higher education. Through this analysis we intend to contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms of evaluation in higher education and the way these may lead to the promotion of better quality assessment practices and institutional management. (shrink)
We describe a sequent calculus, based on work of Herbelin, of which the cut-free derivations are in 1-1 correspondence with the normal natural deduction proofs of intuitionistic logic. We present a simple proof of Herbelin's strong cut-elimination theorem for the calculus, using the recursive path ordering theorem of Dershowitz.
The phenomenon of cheating in higher education is of overwhelming importance in that the students engaging in these acts are unlikely to have the skills necessary for their future professional life. Despite its relevance, the empirical evaluation of cheating in universities has been almost exclusively focused on the US context. Little is known about cheating at the European level, let alone in Portugal. Even less is explored at the regional level. In this paper we present evidence on the perception of (...) cheating by Portuguese undergraduate students of economics/business degrees. We undertake a large-scale survey, involving 2675 students from all Portuguese mainland public universities (10). We found that copying-favourable environments are associated with a higher propensity to cheat. Moreover, in universities where ‘codes of honour’ exist, this propensity tends to be lower. Finally, the propensity to copy seems to be highly influenced by the cultural systems and socially-related factors of different regions. (shrink)
Aquí lo que me interesa es, primero, distinguir dos problemas de justificación con respecto a la inferencia inductiva: por un lado, el de una justificación persuasiva de este tipo de inferencia y, por otro lado, el de una justificación explicativa de tal inferencia. En segundo lugar, intento mostrar que el argumento de Ramsey-de Finetti a favor de las reglas inductivas de la lógica bayesiana no es capaz de proporcionar una justifi-cación persuasiva de estas reglas. Finalmente, propongo una justificación explicativa para (...) las reglas de condicionalización bayesianas en términos de un argumento trascendental de inspiración kantiana y de estilo davidsoniano.Here, I am interested, firstly, in distinguishing two justification problems concerning inductive inference: on the one hand, the problem of a persuasive justification of induction and, on the other, the problem of an explicative justification of this sort of inference. Secondly, I intend to show that Ramsey-de Finetti’s argument in favor of Bayesian inductive rules cannot provide a persuasive justification for these rules. Finally, I propose an explicative justification for Bayesian conditionalization rules in terms of a transcendental argument of Kantian inspiration and Davidsonian style. (shrink)
There is a growing interest in understanding consumer ethical actions in relation to their dealings with firms. This paper examines whether there are differences between Northern and Southern European Union (EU) consumers'' perceptions of ethical consumer behaviour using Muncy and Vitell''s (1992) Consumer Ethics Scale (CES). The study samples 962 university students across four Northern EU countries (Germany, Denmark, Scotland, The Netherlands) and four Southern EU countries (Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece). Some differences are identified between the two samples, which might (...) question the ability of organisations to consider the EU as one homogeneous market. (shrink)
This paper attempts two things: (a) to give the reader a very general idea of the main outlines of what Govier has to say both about social and political trust and about trust in personal relationships, and (b) to present in slightly more detail what she says about the role of trust in acquiring belief and/or knowledge from testimony and about the reasons for trusting such testimony.
The philosophy of mathematics of the later Wittgenstein is normally not taken very seriously. According to a popular objection, it cannot account for mathematical necessity. Other critics have dismissed Wittgenstein's approach on the grounds that his anti-platonism is unable to explain mathematical objectivity. This latter objection would be endorsed by somebody who agreed with Paul Benacerraf that any anti-platonistic view fails to describe mathematical truth. This paper focuses on the problem proposed by Benacerraf of reconciling the semantics with the epistemology (...) for mathematics. It is claimed that there is a way of solving Benacerrafs problem along the lines suggested by Wittgenstein's later remarks on mathematics. This will require demonstrating that a satisfactory conception of mathematical objectivity can be extracted from his mature philosophy. (shrink)
RESUMO -/- Faz-se uma comparação entre as abordagens de Hume e de Matias Aires no que concerne à vaidade e seus efeitos sobre a vida humana. O propósito é divulgar as idéias do filósofo brasileiro Matias Aires e revelar o que poderia ser uma falha importante na explicação filosófica humiana da experiência religiosa. -/- ABSTRACT -/- A comparison is made between Hume's and Matias Aires' approaches concerning vanity and its effects on human life. The purpose is to divulge the ideas (...) of the Brazilian philosopher Matias Aires and to reveal what might be an important flaw in the Humean philosophical account of religious experience. (shrink)
This paper challenges the view that arguments are (by definition, as it were) attempts to persuade or convince an audience to accept (or reject) a point of view by presenting reasons for (or against) that point of view. I maintain, first, that an arguer need not intend any effect beyond that of making it manifest to readers or hearers that there is a reason for doing some particular thing (e.g., for believing a certain proposition, or alternatively for rejecting it), and (...) second that when an arguer is in fact trying to induce an effect above and beyond rendering a reason manifest, the effect intended—the use to which his or her argument is put—need not be that hearers do what the stated reasons are reasons for doing. Where the actual or intended effect of making a reason R for doing X manifest is something other than doing X, I call it an oblique—as opposed to a direct—effect of making that reason manifest. The core of the paper presents an overview or map of the main categories of effect which arguments can have, and the main sub-types within each category, calling attention to the points at which such effects can be indirect or oblique effects. The purpose of that typology is to make it clear (i) how oblique effects can come about and (ii) how important a role they can play in the conduct of argumentation. (shrink)
O tema sobre a cultura da mesa de refeição quer refletir o aspecto teológico-religioso da cultura do antigo Israel e apontar a relação entre cultura e teologia, costumes e valores espirituais, como experiências que apontam para o Transcendente e para a unidade de um grupo. Com isso, o texto quer resgatar tal reflexão para o mundo pós-moderno, no qual a cultura sustenta-se por uma dimensão que transcende a vida prática dos homens, assinala valores impregnados de religiosidade e espiritualidade e, consequentemente, (...) de crenças instaladas no mais íntimo de um corpo social. O fim último é o respeito e o reconhecimento da vida que vem de Deus. (shrink)
O presente artigo pretende situar a candente questão das teologias índias no tempo atual e o desafio essencial do reconhecimento da alteridade indígena e dos direitos que acompanham essa singularidade. Inicia-se com a reflexão sobre as controvérsias que envolvem o tema das teologias índias no contexto eclesial contemporâneo. A seguir, discute-se o difícil aprendizado que envolve a tomada de consciência dos povos indígenas como “povos distintos”. Nota-se na atual conjuntura da Igreja católica romana um particular embaraço nesse delicado campo, e (...) uma tendência a entender a diversidade religiosa como momento passageiro ou conjuntural. A questão da alteridade ganha uma peculiar atualidade para a teologia cristã, que vem provocada a ampliar o seu campo de compreensão. Tal aprendizado envolve a ampliação do olhar e também o resgate de valores que são fundamentais, e que nem sempre estão presentes no repertório cristão, como o resgate da espiritualidade terrenal desses povos indígenas. A vida espiritual expressa pela teologia índia revela-se “cosmoteândrica”. Nos rituais andinos celebra-se uma grande comunhão que integra a comunidade humana, o meio ambiente e a divindade geradora de vida. Encontra-se uma viva consciência da imanência de Deus e da sacralidade da criação, da transparência de Deus e de sua diafania por toda parte. Essa espiritualidade recupera valores que são essenciais para o ser humano e que estão esquecidos e abafados em nossa sociedade marcada por uma lógica egocêntrica e pela racionalidade do mercado. Palavras-chave: Teologia índia; alteridade; espiritualidade terrenal; espiritualidade cosmoteândrica. ABSTRACT The present article aims to situate the discussion of the Indian theologies nowadays. It also seeks to situate the essential challenge of the recognition of native alterity as well as the rights that go with such peculiarity. This paper first begins by reflecting on controversies that cover the question of the Indian theologies in the current days.. After that, a detailed discussion on the difficulties of general apprenticeship involving consciousness of the native people as “a different people ” is made. Expressive difficulties on the part of the Catholic Church in dealing with diversity as well as its tendency to comprehend diversity as a conjunctural and not a structural subject are currently observed. The discussion on alterity has required full attention on the side of Christian theology, which has broadened understanding on such issue. Apprenticeship concerning the question of alterity involves expansion of vision and also the recovering of those values which have always been present on Christian repertoire. It is important to emphasize here that one of those basic Christian values to be considered are those related to the recovering of terrestrial spirituality of native people. The spiritual life expressed by the Indian theology appears to be "cosmoteandric". In the Andean rituals, celebration and integration of human community, environment and divinity, are always present. A lively consciousness of the immanence of God, as well as awareness of the sacrality of the creation and the transparency of God and of his manifestation in everywhere is often found among Indian people. Such spirituality recovers values considered of strong importance for human being but unfortunately put aside in our society which is undoubtedly marked by an egocentric logic and by the rationality of economy and market. Key words : Indian theology; alterity; terrestrial spirituality; cosmoteandric spirituality. (shrink)
The relation between academic integrity and real world corruption is more often presumed than proven. Based on a sample of 7,602 students from 21 countries, it was found that academic cheating in the past is a predictor of the countries’ current level of corruption. This reproducibility and persistence over time of dishonest behaviors highlights the danger of disregarding students cheating at university.
In recent multicultural conflicts, such as the Danish Muhammad cartoons affair and the religious controversy about having a gay pride parade in the holy city of Jerusalem, religious minority members have argued that certain acts should be prohibited because they offend their religious and cultural feelings. According to the orthodox view in current liberal thought, however, there should be no legal protection from mere insult to feelings and sensibilities, as related to sacred religious and cultural values as they may be. (...) In this article I challenge this view. I argue that certain offensive acts ought to be legally regulated and propose a normative principle for their regulation, which is consistent with neutral liberalism. I argue that some claims of offence to feelings boil down to a struggle for equality in the public sphere between competing cultural identities. I conceptualize such claims as claims that purport to protect people’s right in the integrity of their cultural identity. I suggest the vulnerable cultural identity principle, according to which the more vulnerable the social and civic status of one’s cultural identity is, the stronger her claim is from integrity of cultural identity. I argue that this principle avoids the problems of legal moralism and the subjectivity in evaluating painful feelings. (shrink)
Anyone who has followed an economic controversy will have encountered the expectation that empirical research could provide an important role in clarifying the issues at stake. However, this hardly ever seems to be the case. Using the example of the debate between human capital and screening theories to explain the correlation between education and earnings, this paper discusses some possible reasons for the lack of impact that empirical research has had in many economic debates. The aspects discussed relate to the (...) way many economists approach empirical work, which may undermine its relevance and impact for economic debates. (shrink)
There are very few (published) accounts of editorial misconduct, and those that do exist are almost exclusively focused on medicine-related areas. In the present article we detail a case of editorial misconduct in a rather underexplored domain, the social sciences. This case demonstrates that although legal systems provide different instruments of protection to avoid, compensate for, and punish misconduct on the part of journal editors, the social and economic power unbalance between authors and publishers suggests the importance of alternative solutions (...) before or instead of bringing a lawsuit to court. It puts forward strong arguments in favour of the need for effective regulatory bodies so as to achieve and maintain a culture of research integrity by all involved in the process. (shrink)
Após a obrigatoriedade da educação sexual (ES) nas escolas portuguesas em 2009, pretendemos conhecer que perspectiva têm os professores ( N = 307) sobre a ES. Através de um questionário on-line , analisado através de estatística descritiva e de análise factorial e inferencial, avaliámos as atitudes gerais sobre a ES, o conhecimento, o conforto e a disponibilidade para a ensinar, a importância atribuída a diversos tópicos de ES e o nível de escolaridade em que devem ser introduzidos. Os professores revelaram (...) atitudes ainda mais positivas do que em estudos anteriores. Consideraram ter um conhecimento, um conforto e uma disponibilidade moderados, realidade que se mantém inalterada na última década. Ao contrário de estudos anteriores, o início da ES foi proposto mais precocemente, entre o pré-escolar e o 5º ano.1 A perspectiva de ES defendida revela um modelo médico-preventivo, valorizando-se mais a saúde sexual e menos o comportamento sexual e as questões de género. A percepção de formação considerada suficiente, a erotofilia e pontualmente o sexo feminino destacam-se na adopção de uma perspectiva abrangente de ES. A análise de resultados foi, sempre que possível, comparada com resultados de estudos similares realizados no Brasil. (shrink)
Resumen El artículo sitúa su reflexión en el tema del ecumenismo, relacionándolo con las propuestas de aggiornamento expresadas por el Vaticano II. Hace también alusión al ámbito de las mudanzas en el seno del protestantismo, de las Iglesias ortodoxas e incluso del cristianismo romano. Además alude a los grandes nombres que trazaron la reflexión teológica en el período de crisis que antecedió al evento –hablamos de aspectos que acabaron incidiendo en los debates conciliares. Siguiendo a Gutiérrez, el artículo destaca tres (...) dimensiones relativas a la búsqueda del diálogo de la Iglesia con el mundo contemporáneo: la urgencia de ser actual, la perspectiva ecuménica y la solidaridad con los pobres. Analiza los “caminos equivocados” que fueron adoptados por la Iglesia en lo concerniente a las propuestas ecumênicas del Concilio: el tomar un “execesivo cuidado” en lo que respecta al mundo moderno, las posiciones de intolerância frente a lo diferente, la comprensión reduccionista del ecumenismo. Hace mención a la exigência de construir relaciones que tengan como bases: la gracia y el amor. Por último, propone la tesis de que “no puede existir un sentido del diálogo, un encuentro entre los seres diferentes, sin la libertad”. Palabras-clave : Iglesia. Vaticano II. Ecumenismo. Diálogo inter-religioso.This article focuses its discussion on the theme of ecumenism, in relation to the catholic proposal of aggiornamento expressed by Vatican II. The text refers to the changes within the Protestantism, the Orthodox churches and also within the Roman Christianity. It also mentions the relevant names that marked theological reflection in those times of crisis prior to the Council. Following the author´s thought, the text highlights three dimensions of the dialogue of the Church with the contemporary world: the urgency in getting things update, the ecumenical perspective and the solidarity with the poor. The article evaluates the "wrong path" taken by the Church in relation to the propositions of the ecumenical council: attitudes of intolerance to the different and the reductionist understanding of ecumenism. It also refers to the need to build relationships whose bases are the grace and love. The article finally expresses the following thesis: "there cannot be a sense of dialogue among different beings without freedom." Keywords : Church. Vatican II. Ecumenism. Inter-religious Dialogue. - DOI: 10.5752/P.2175-5841.2011v9n24p1246. (shrink)
The term etonism is from «Etona» that means flag, marks, evidence, and reason in Kikôngo. The variants in Umbûndu: etonolo or etonuilo means, allegations, reasons, indulgence (tolerance). The Nyaneka form is etŏnya: 1) reasons, 2) allegations, 3) indulgence and 5) the justice and the tolerance. Etona is Angolan artist (sculptor/painter). In his sculpture they are morphologically evidenced three treatments in the surface of the matter, namely 1) flat treatment; 2) rude treatment and finally 3) accidental treatment. Each one is a (...) code: #1. The flat treatment indicates well-knowledge; a man of superior class; race or tribe or religion of majority; thought well-organized and structured. In painting, the hot intensity indicates dominance, prosperity, energy, intense desires; #2. The rude treatment reveals an acquired knowledge without academism, self-taught; medium class men; speech out of the scientific perimeters but with certain admissibility; race, tribe or religion of lot of people, but not of majority. In his painting, the neutral intensity marks the balance and inspires recomfort nurtured from two opposed poles (hot and cold); #3. The accidental part of the sculpture indicates some knowledge’s lack (pure empiricism); inferior class; race, tribe, religion of minority. In the painting, the cold intensity is naturally contrary of #1. Etonism is the tolerant reason between #1=I, #2=YOU and #3=HE. All of them form the coherent society that we call WE: the Etonian jusphilosophy that African peoples need for stability of their democracies and finishing their War. (shrink)
The term etonism reflects the Angolan ancestral philosophy… Etona in Kikôngo, etonolo or etonuilo in Umbûndu: allegations, reasons, indulgence (tolerance). In Nyaneka form is etŏnya. These significances constitute the essence of the etonism: 1) reasons, 2) allegations, 3) indulgence, 4) evidence that generates the justice and the tolerance. «Who is correct tolerates who is wrong». Also, Etonism identifies 1) racism, 2) tribalism and 3) discrimination as a serious sequel of neo-colonialism, and calls the attention of the Angolan people, using roots (...) of angolanity safeguarding a harmonious society in the future. It suggests the tolerant reason as one of the main form of tranquility in Angola after-war. (shrink)
Resumo Este artigo analisa parte do discurso que a Igreja Católica teceu sobre as mulheres, enfatizando o tema da maternidade durante o século XIX. O enfoque parte da Bulla Sylabus (1864), expedida no pontificado de Pio IX, e da encíclica Rerum Novarum (1891), do Papa Leão XIII. Entre a segunda metade do século XIX e a Primeira Guerra Mundial, a Igreja passou pelo processo conhecido como "romanização", caracterizado pela preocupação moral e disciplinar do clero diante de críticas do laicado, além (...) da promoção de ordens e congregações religiosas. O objetivo deste artigo é, portanto, discutir como aquela instituição definiu um papel social feminino vinculado à ideia do amor materno, divulgado como natural e incondicional. A partir da contribuição dos estudos de gênero, aborda a atribuição de características masculinas e femininas para a distinção não apenas biológica entre homens e mulheres. Concluiu-se que, na longa duração, o discurso católico passou de uma postura misógina - de recusa do sexo feminino - à incorporação das mulheres como público essencial para a sustentação do catolicismo diante das propostas de laicização da sociedade ocidental contemporânea. Palavras-chave: Mulheres; Discurso católico; Maternidade; Gênero.This paper discusses part of the discourse that the Catholic Church built in order to define woman's role in the 19th century, emphasizing representations of motherhood. The focus starts with Pius IX's Bulla Sylabus (1864) and Pope Lion XIII's Rerum Novarum (1891). Between the second half of the 19th century and World War I, the Catholic Church underwent a process known as "Romanization", characterized by the clergy's moral and disciplinary concern in face of the laity's criticism, and by the promotion of new religious orders and congregations. The paper considers, therefore, how the Catholic Church defined a social female role linked to the idea of maternal love, diffused as natural and unconditional. With basis on the contribution of cultural history and gender studies, it demonstrates how that Church attributed male and female characteristics to the distinction not merely biological between men and women, associating the latter with the idea of motherhood and natural love for their children. It concludes that, through time, the Church has changed its misogyny discourse - refusing the female sex - into one that incorporates women as essential to support Catholicism in facing the laicization of contemporary western society. Key words: Women; Catholic discourse; Motherhood; Gender. (shrink)