In the twenty-second series of The Logic of Sense, Gilles Deleuze references a remarkable essay by Günther (Stern) Anders. Anders’ essay, translated here as ‘The Pathology of Freedom’, addresses the sickness and health of our negotiation with the negative anthropological condition of ‘not being cut out for the world’.
This article examines the relation between policies concerning Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and philosophical moral theories. The objective is to determine which moral theories form the basis for CSR policies. Are they based on ethical egoism, libertarianism, utilitarianism or some kind of common-sense morality? In order to address this issue, I conducted an empirical investigation examining the relation between moral theories and CSR policies, in companies engaged in CSR. Based on the empirical data I collected, I start by suggesting some (...) normative arguments used by the respondents. Secondly, I suggest that these moral arguments implicitly rely on some specific moral principles, which I characterise. Thirdly, on the basis of these moral principles, I suggest the moral theories upon which the CSR policies are built. Previous empirical studies examining the relation between philosophical moral theories and the ethical content of business activities have mainly concentrated on the ethical decision-making of managers. Some of the most prominent investigations in that regard propose that managers mainly act in accordance with utilitarian moral theory (Fritzsche, D. J. and H. Becker: 1984 , Academy of Management Journal 27 (1), 166–175; Premeaux, S. and W. Mony: 1993 , Journal of Business Ethics 12 , 349–357; Premeaux, S.: 2004 , Journal of Business Ethics 52 , 269–278). I conclude that CSR policies are not based on utilitarian thinking, but instead, on some kind of common-sense morality. The ethical foundation of companies engaged in CSR, thus, does not mirror the ethical foundation of managers. (shrink)
Many religiously minded materialist philosophers have attempted to understand the doctrine of the survival of death from within a physicalist approach. Their goal is not to show the doctrine false, but to explain how it can be true. One such approach has been developed by Peter van Inwagen. After explaining what I call the duplication objection, I present van Inwagen’s proposal and show how a proponent might attempt to solve the problem of duplication. I argue that the very features of (...) the view that aid the proponent in responding to the duplication objection entails the possibility of an impossible state of affairs—that two distinct persons can at the same time be identical with the same bundle of material simples. The religiously minded materialist is caught between the horns of a dilemma. One’s view regarding human persons must be robust enough to account for personal identity over time, and so not fall to the duplication objection. At the same time, the view must not entail the possibility of two persons temporarily having complete coincident existence. (shrink)
This article presents a discussion of the presentation of utilitarianism in textbooks and research articles within the field of business ethics. My objective is twofold. First, I will demonstrate that the presentation of utilitarianism, by a substantial number of prominent business ethicists, is characterized by a lack of precision and includes faulty descriptions. In this regard, I focus on presentations of utilitarianism in relation to distributive principles and on the demanding nature of utilitarianism. Second, I will demonstrate that these imprecise (...) and faulty presentations result in a misguided critique of utilitarianism and dubious conclusions within the field of business ethics. Here, I will discuss and reject conclusions regarding utilitarianism and its relation to capitalism, theclaim that utilitarianism is not much more sophisticated than a simple majority vote and that utilitarianism is in accordance with harmful actions such as bribery and child labor. (shrink)
In modern technical applications various multiphase mixtures are used to meet demanding mechanical, chemical and electrical requirements. To understand their structural properties as continuous macroscopic materials, it is important to capture the microstructure of these mixtures. Due to their vast range of applications multicomponent systems are subjected to microstructural changes such as phase separation and coarsening. Therefore the ultimate microstructural arrangement depends on the system's configuration and on exterior driving forces. In addition to this, random physical imperfections within the material (...) and random noise in the exterior thermodynamic fields influence in essence the microstructural evolution. Since all physical processes are subjected to a certain degree of random inhomogeneity under realistic conditions, the influence of random phenomena cannot be neglected in modern physical models. An advanced mathematical description and an implementation of these stochastic processes are required to adapt simulation results based on deterministic mathematical models to experimental observations. In our contribution we will present an operator-scaling anisotropic random field embedded in the Cahn?Hilliard phase-field model to describe the phase evolution in a binary mixture. The arising nonlinear diffusion equation will be solved numerically in the innovative framework of the isogeometric finite element method. To illustrate the flexibility and versatility of our approach, numerical and experimental results for a eutectic Sn-Pb alloy are contraposed. This is the first time that the microstructural evolution in a multicomponent system has been associated with operator-scaling anisotropic random fields. Due to its enormous potential as an essential ingredient in stochastic mathematical and physical modeling it is only a matter of time until these processes will become prevalent in engineering applications. (shrink)
In this paper we consider the effect of unitarity bounds sb⩾s≡(E1+E2) cms 2 for the recently proposed types of nonderivative 4-fermion contact interactions. To this purpose we decompose the helicity amplitudes at c.m.s. into partial waves. The bounds are defined to hold for all reaction channels due to the same type of contact interaction. We find sb=τ4π/κ. Here κ is the coupling constant. The factor τ depends on the type of coupling and on the different cases to identify the fermions. (...) It ranges from 1/3 to 4. (shrink)
In this paper we argue that one-way quantum computation can be seen as a form of phase transition with the available information about the solution of the computation being the order parameter. We draw a number of striking analogies between standard thermodynamical quantities such as energy, temperature, work, and corresponding computational quantities such as the amount of entanglement, time, potential capacity for computation, respectively. Aside from being intuitively pleasing, this picture allows us to make novel conjectures, such as an estimate (...) of the necessary critical time to finish a computation and a proposal of suitable architectures for universal one-way computation in 1D. (shrink)
This article seeks to explain and conceptualise certain aspects of industrial and technological change at the regional level, using the Baltic region as a case. The concept of new institutions is applied to understand recent attempts to stimulate organised behaviour, trustrelations and co-operation at the level of low policy. New regional institutions deal with competing pressure groups, but their strength lies mostly in the ability to orchestrate and influence pressure groups in a formative way. The article identifies potential starting points (...) for this regional involvement. It is divided into three parts. First, some of the economic problems and potentials of the Baltic states are scrutinised. Second, some features of new institutions are explored at the theoretical level. Third, some aspects of international policy-making are briefly discussed, especially the concept of low policies and bottom-up approaches. (shrink)
This chapter will examine two puzzles that percolate Husserl’s On the Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time (PITC). They concern: (1) whether or not memory is pictorial and (2) whether or not the temporal determinations (past, now, future, etc.) are categories. Considering these aporetic discussions helps us to understand the time diagrams Husserl uses, as well as some of the motivation behind Husserl’s talk of the two intentionalities of retention and his talk of the time-constituting flow. Moreover, this approach (...) to PITC helps to highlight the role that aporetic considerations play in phenomenological investigation more generally. (shrink)
The core structures of d111 ¢screw dislocations in bcc metals are studied using density functional theory in the local-density approximation. For Mo and Fe, direct calculations of the core structures show the cores to be symmetric with respect to 180° rotations around an axis perpendicular to the dislocation line. The magnetic moment in the Fe core is shown to be reduced relative to the bulk value. Calculations of nsurfaces and the elastic constants B , C ' and c 44 are (...) reported for Fe and all group VB and VIB metals. Using a criterion suggested by Vitek and Duesbery the calculations point to symmetric core structures for all the studied metals. (shrink)
Research on the neural mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practise without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five women and were asked to decide which of four possible emotions (anger, disgust, fear and sadness) was (...) shown in each clip. Although no external information about the correctness of the participant’s response or the sender’s true affective state was provided, participants showed a significant increase of facial emotion recognition accuracy both within and across two training sessions two days to several weeks apart. We discuss several factors that might have a critical or modulating effect on such unsupervised learning of facial emotion decoding skills. (shrink)
Conversion to organic farming, along with its associated driving forces and barriers, has been explored intensively over the past decade, while studies on the distribution and impacts of local socio-cultural processes in relation to conversion to and diffusion of organic farming have been scarce. The concentration of organic farms in Denmark differs according to county and, moreover, there appears to be large within-county variation in the density of organic farms. The present study explores local aspects of conversion to organic farming (...) and the factors that may help explain variation in density and concentration of organic farms within smaller areas. The study is based on nine qualitative interviews with organic farmers from two neighboring areas, referred to as “mainland” and “island,” respectively. Three farms were situated in the high-density area (mainland) and the remaining six in the low-density area (island). Furthermore, five advisors with connections to the area provided information with regard to their local experience and perceptions. Three main, and to some extent interacting, issues are discussed. The first is the price of land related to local scarcity of land, in the context of structural development and the effects of agricultural policies. The second is distance – both physical and social. Cooperation and exchange of experience among organic farmers was frequent on the mainland side, while isolation and lack of interaction was more common for the island farmers. Third, the role of the agricultural advisory service and the existence of champion farmers are important: pioneer farmers on the mainland have been supported by committed agricultural advisors, while lack of organic champion farmers and low priority granted to organic farming among agricultural advisors were found on the island. (shrink)
Nature quality in relation to farming is a complex field. It involves different traditions and interests, different views of what nature is, and different ways of valuing nature. Furthermore there is a general lack of empirical data on many aspects of nature quality in the farmed landscape. In this paper we discuss nature quality from the perspective of organic farming, which has its own values and goals in relation to nature – the Ecologist View of Nature. This is in contrast (...) to the Culturist View characteristic of much conventional agriculture and the Naturalist View characteristic of the traditional biological approach to nature quality. This threefold distinction forms a framework for exploration of nature quality criteria in the farmed landscape. The traditional work on nature quality has mainly focused on biological interests based on a Naturalist View of Nature. In this paper we will explore how criteria for nature quality based on the Ecologist View can be developed and thereby feed into the ongoing discussion of the development of the organic farming practices. We suggest additional criteria for nature quality based on an Ecologist View of Nature: biodiversity, habitat diversity, extent and structure, functional integrity of habitats and agro-ecosystems, landscape integrity, accessibility, and experientiality. The larger set of Naturalist and Ecologist criteria can provide a wider and more balanced basis for developing nature quality indicators that are relevant in the farmed landscapes. This broader approach to nature quality is also expected to benefit the general societal discussions and decisions on farming and nature. (shrink)
This Article is a short response to Anders Tolland's "Iterated Non-Refutation: Robert Lockie on Relativism", International Journal of Philosophical Studies Vol. 14, no. 2, 245-254, 2006. Tolland's article was itself a response to Lockie, R (2003) "Relativism and Reflexivity", International Journal of Philosophical Studies Vol. 11, no. 3, 319-339.
The ?beyond method? approach is pivotal to the Norwegian philosopher Anders Lindseth, who pioneered philosophical counseling in Norway, and has been a mentor to other counselors. Being himself influenced by Gerd Achenbach, Lindseth has a distaste for method and therapy, advocating instead the principle of ?touched not-knowing.? During a seminar in Oslo last year Lindseth discussed these concepts with students of philosophical counseling, and had a demonstration session to be assessed. Based on the seminary, this article presents the Lindseth (...) position, and looks critically into the notion of ?beyond method.? Instead of eschewing method altogether, the author claims that philosophical counselors might employ method in a limited sense without succumbing to ?therapy? in the professional, pejatorive sense of the word. (shrink)