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Profile: Anders Kraal (University of Calgary)
  1. Anders Kraal (forthcoming). Has Plantinga “Buried” Mackie's Logical Argument From Evil? International Journal for Philosophy of Religion:1-8.
    In seeking to undermine Mackie’s logical argument from evil, Plantinga assumes that Mackie’s argument regards it as a necessary truth that a wholly good God would eliminate all evil that he could eliminate. I argue that this is an interpretative mistake, and that Mackie is merely assuming that the theist believes that God’s goodness entails that God would eliminate all evil that he could eliminate. Once the difference between these two assumptions, and the implausibility of Plantinga’s assumption, are brought out, (...)
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  2. Anders Kraal (2013). A Humean Objection to Plantinga's Quantitative Free Will Defense. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 73 (3):221-233.
    Plantinga’s The Nature of Necessity (1974) contains a largely neglected argument for the claim that the proposition “God is omnipotent, omniscient, and wholly good” is logically consistent with “the vast amount and variety of evil the universe actually contains” (not to be confused with Plantinga’s famous “Free Will Defense,” which seeks to show that this same proposition is logically consistent with “some evil”). In this paper I explicate this argument, and argue that it assumes that there is more moral good (...)
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  3. Anders Kraal (2013). Himma on the Free-Will Argument: A Critical Response. Religious Studies 49 (4):491-503.
    In two recent articles in this journal Kenneth Himma has launched an attack on what he describes as the of the Free-Will Argument, the first of which he describes as version and the second of which he identifies with Plantinga's Free-Will Defence in God, Freedom, and Evil (1974). In this article I argue for three main claims: (i) that Himma's objections against Free-Will Argument are directed at a straw man; (ii) that Himma's critique of Plantinga's Free-Will Defence is based on (...)
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  4. Anders Kraal (2013). Is the Existence of the Best Possible World Logically Impossible? International Philosophical Quarterly 53 (1):37-46.
    Since the 1960s an increasing number of philosophers have endorsed the thesis that there can be no such thing as “the best possible world.” In this paper I examine the main arguments for this thesis as put forth by George Schlesinger, Alvin Plantinga, Bruce Reichenbach, Peter Forrest, and Richard Swinburne. I argue that none of these arguments succeed in establishing the thesis and that the logical possibility of the best possible world is as yet an open question.
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  5. Anders Kraal (2013). Philo's Argument From Evil in Hume's Dialogues X: A Semantic Interpretation. [REVIEW] Sophia 52 (4):573-592.
    Philo's argument from evil in a much-discussed passage in Part X of Hume's Dialogues concerning Natural Religion (1779) has been interpreted in three main ways: as a logical argument from evil, as an evidential argument from evil, and as an argument against natural theology's inference of a benevolent and merciful God from the course of the world. I argue that Philo is not offering an argument of any of these sorts, but is arguing that there is a radical disanalogy between (...)
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  6. Anders Kraal (2013). The Aim of Russell's Early Logicism: A Reinterpretation. Synthese:1-18.
    I argue that three main interpretations of the aim of Russell’s early logicism in The Principles of Mathematics (1903) are mistaken, and propose a new interpretation. According to this new interpretation, the aim of Russell’s logicism is to show, in opposition to Kant, that mathematical propositions have a certain sort of complete generality which entails that their truth is independent of space and time. I argue that on this interpretation two often-heard objections to Russell’s logicism, deriving from Gödel’s incompleteness theorem (...)
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  7. Anders Kraal (2013). The Emergence of Logical Formalization in the Philosophy of Religion: Genesis, Crisis, and Rehabilitation. History and Philosophy of Logic 34 (4):351 - 366.
    The paper offers a historical survey of the emergence of logical formalization in twentieth-century analytically oriented philosophy of religion. This development is taken to have passed through three main ?stages?: a pioneering stage in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries (led by Frege and Russell), a stage of crisis in the 1920s and early 1930s (occasioned by Wittgenstein, logical positivists such as Carnap, and neo-Thomists such as Maritain), and a stage of rehabilitation in the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s (led (...)
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  8. Anders Kraal (2011). Logic and Divine Simplicity. Philosophy Compass 6 (4):282-294.
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  9. Anders Kraal (2011). Teaching & Learning Guide For: Logic and Divine Simplicity. Philosophy Compass 6 (8):572-574.
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