The discretionary powers of welfare state professionals are in tension with the requirements of the democratic Rechtsstaat. Extensive use of discretion can threaten the principles of the rule of law and relinquish democratic control over the implementation of laws and policies. These two tensions are in principle ineradicable. But does this also mean that they are impossible to come to grips with? Are there measures that may ease these tensions? We introduce an understanding of discretion that adds an epistemic dimension (...) (discretion as a mode of reasoning) to the common structural understanding of discretion (an area of judgment and decision). Accordingly we distinguish between structural and epistemic measures of accountability. The aim of the former is to constrain discretionary spaces or the behaviour within them while the aim of the latter is to improve the quality of discretionary reasoning. The focus in this article is on epistemic measures that are internally related to the main characteristic of accountability, namely justified use of discretionary power. (shrink)
In the twenty-second series of The Logic of Sense, Gilles Deleuze references a remarkable essay by Günther (Stern) Anders. Anders’ essay, translated here as ‘The Pathology of Freedom’, addresses the sickness and health of our negotiation with the negative anthropological condition of ‘not being cut out for the world’.
Many religiously minded materialist philosophers have attempted to understand the doctrine of the survival of death from within a physicalist approach. Their goal is not to show the doctrine false, but to explain how it can be true. One such approach has been developed by Peter van Inwagen. After explaining what I call the duplication objection, I present van Inwagen’s proposal and show how a proponent might attempt to solve the problem of duplication. I argue that the very features of (...) the view that aid the proponent in responding to the duplication objection entails the possibility of an impossible state of affairs—that two distinct persons can at the same time be identical with the same bundle of material simples. The religiously minded materialist is caught between the horns of a dilemma. One’s view regarding human persons must be robust enough to account for personal identity over time, and so not fall to the duplication objection. At the same time, the view must not entail the possibility of two persons temporarily having complete coincident existence. (shrink)
The paper explores the promise of ethical codes as a means to control unethical behavior in business. After a review of arguments for ethical codes from outside the business system, the paper outlines the arguments for codes from inside the business system at the level of the industry, firm and individual executive.The paper then discusses the problems of code design — the dilemma between specific practices and general precepts — and offers a model for a thoroughgoing code. This is followed (...) by a discussion of the problems of promulgation and code enforcement. (shrink)
It is argued that political democracyand citizenship should not be taken as primarygoals within university education. Instead theauthor argues for a notion of ``academicdemocracy'' with the overall goal or ethos oflearning together. Moreover it is argued that``learning'' then should be understood accordingto ``practical traditions of knowledge'', whichmeans that truth is not the ultimate goal. Theultimate goal is practices that lead to thegood of men and women.
In modern technical applications various multiphase mixtures are used to meet demanding mechanical, chemical and electrical requirements. To understand their structural properties as continuous macroscopic materials, it is important to capture the microstructure of these mixtures. Due to their vast range of applications multicomponent systems are subjected to microstructural changes such as phase separation and coarsening. Therefore the ultimate microstructural arrangement depends on the system's configuration and on exterior driving forces. In addition to this, random physical imperfections within the material (...) and random noise in the exterior thermodynamic fields influence in essence the microstructural evolution. Since all physical processes are subjected to a certain degree of random inhomogeneity under realistic conditions, the influence of random phenomena cannot be neglected in modern physical models. An advanced mathematical description and an implementation of these stochastic processes are required to adapt simulation results based on deterministic mathematical models to experimental observations. In our contribution we will present an operator-scaling anisotropic random field embedded in the Cahn?Hilliard phase-field model to describe the phase evolution in a binary mixture. The arising nonlinear diffusion equation will be solved numerically in the innovative framework of the isogeometric finite element method. To illustrate the flexibility and versatility of our approach, numerical and experimental results for a eutectic Sn-Pb alloy are contraposed. This is the first time that the microstructural evolution in a multicomponent system has been associated with operator-scaling anisotropic random fields. Due to its enormous potential as an essential ingredient in stochastic mathematical and physical modeling it is only a matter of time until these processes will become prevalent in engineering applications. (shrink)
In this paper we argue that one-way quantum computation can be seen as a form of phase transition with the available information about the solution of the computation being the order parameter. We draw a number of striking analogies between standard thermodynamical quantities such as energy, temperature, work, and corresponding computational quantities such as the amount of entanglement, time, potential capacity for computation, respectively. Aside from being intuitively pleasing, this picture allows us to make novel conjectures, such as an estimate (...) of the necessary critical time to finish a computation and a proposal of suitable architectures for universal one-way computation in 1D. (shrink)
In this paper we consider the effect of unitarity bounds sb⩾s≡(E1+E2) cms 2 for the recently proposed types of nonderivative 4-fermion contact interactions. To this purpose we decompose the helicity amplitudes at c.m.s. into partial waves. The bounds are defined to hold for all reaction channels due to the same type of contact interaction. We find sb=τ4π/κ. Here κ is the coupling constant. The factor τ depends on the type of coupling and on the different cases to identify the fermions. (...) It ranges from 1/3 to 4. (shrink)
Studies investigating the regulation of force of motor actions are scarce, and particularly so in the area of sports. This is surprising, considering that in most sports precise force is of great importance. The current study demonstrates how a psychophysical scale, the Borg CR100 scale® (Borg & Borg, 2001), can be used to assess subjective force as well as regulate force in putting. Psychophysical functions were calculated on the relationships between judgments of force using the CR100 scale and the length (...) of putting shots, examined in a laboratory setting, where 44 amateur golfers played on both flat and uphill surfaces. High agreement and consistency between CR 100 ratings and distances putted was demonstrated. No significant differences in handling the scale were observed between younger (mean age ≈37 years) and older (mean age ≈69 years) players or between players of different skill level. This study provides a new innovative use of an existing instrument, the Borg CR 100 scale ®, in order to understand the regulation of force needed for putts of various lengths and surfaces. These results and the potential future benefits of the psychophysical approach in golf are discussed. (shrink)
This chapter will examine two puzzles that percolate Husserl’s On the Phenomenology of the Consciousness of Internal Time (PITC). They concern: (1) whether or not memory is pictorial and (2) whether or not the temporal determinations (past, now, future, etc.) are categories. Considering these aporetic discussions helps us to understand the time diagrams Husserl uses, as well as some of the motivation behind Husserl’s talk of the two intentionalities of retention and his talk of the time-constituting flow. Moreover, this approach (...) to PITC helps to highlight the role that aporetic considerations play in phenomenological investigation more generally. (shrink)
Research on the neural mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practise without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five women and were asked to decide which of four possible emotions (anger, disgust, fear and sadness) was (...) shown in each clip. Although no external information about the correctness of the participant’s response or the sender’s true affective state was provided, participants showed a significant increase of facial emotion recognition accuracy both within and across two training sessions two days to several weeks apart. We discuss several factors that might have a critical or modulating effect on such unsupervised learning of facial emotion decoding skills. (shrink)
This Article is a short response to Anders Tolland's "Iterated Non-Refutation: Robert Lockie on Relativism", International Journal of Philosophical Studies Vol. 14, no. 2, 245-254, 2006. Tolland's article was itself a response to Lockie, R (2003) "Relativism and Reflexivity", International Journal of Philosophical Studies Vol. 11, no. 3, 319-339.
The ?beyond method? approach is pivotal to the Norwegian philosopher Anders Lindseth, who pioneered philosophical counseling in Norway, and has been a mentor to other counselors. Being himself influenced by Gerd Achenbach, Lindseth has a distaste for method and therapy, advocating instead the principle of ?touched not-knowing.? During a seminar in Oslo last year Lindseth discussed these concepts with students of philosophical counseling, and had a demonstration session to be assessed. Based on the seminary, this article presents the Lindseth (...) position, and looks critically into the notion of ?beyond method.? Instead of eschewing method altogether, the author claims that philosophical counselors might employ method in a limited sense without succumbing to ?therapy? in the professional, pejatorive sense of the word. (shrink)
The classical formulations given to the problem of free will and determinism in analytical philosophy can be split into two groups according to a double function of the element : „to be able to act otherwise”. In the first case we speak of „the problem of autonomy” and in the second of „the problem of justifying punishment”. Both formulations are inadequate. „The problem of autonomy” is wrongly formulated, since determinism does not threaten our possibilities. „The problem of justifying punishment” is (...) likewise a wrong formulation, since the question of „being able to act otherwise” merely has a secondary role in the attribution of guilt. Nevertheless certain elements can be found in both formulations to provide us with a new formulation and it is in this direction that we should like to move. (shrink)