This research examines how the fit between employees moral development and the ethical work climate of their organization affects employee attitudes. Person-organization fit was assessed by matching individuals' level of cognitive moral development with the ethical climate of their organization. The influence of P-O fit on employee attitudes was assessed using a sample of 304 individuals from 73 organizations. In general, the findings support our predictions that fit between personal and organizational ethics is related to higher levels of commitment and (...) job satisfaction and lower levels of turnover intent. Ethical P-O fit was related to higher levels of affective commitment across all three ethical climate types. Job satisfaction was only associated with ethical P-O fit for one of the three P-O fit variables and turnover intentions were significantly associated with two of the ethical P-O fit variables. The most consistent effect was found for the Conventional - Caring fit variable, which was significantly related to all three attitudes assessed. The weakest effect was found for the Preconventional - Instrumental fit variable, which was only predictive of affective commitment. The pattern of findings and implications for practice and future research are discussed. (shrink)
Cet article explore les méthodes et moyens à mettre en œuvre pour reconstruire la séparation entre espaces public et privé, mise à mal par la connexion continue sur les réseaux. Il est difficile et pourtant indispensable de proposer un nouveau paradigme garantissant l'exercice de la liberté individuelle car celle-ci n'est plus assurée selon le cadre fixé par la Déclaration des droits de l'homme. Dans une première partie, nous abordons les contradictions de la situation actuelle, avant de proposer ensuite des solutions (...) autour de la pseudonymisation et de terminer par une réflexion sur les conditions à réunir pour la nécessaire multiplicité des identités numériques gérée par la personne assurant ainsi l'exercice de sa liberté. (shrink)
Le premier chapitre de la Métaphysique allemande ne comprend que neuf paragraphes et semble ne représenter qu' une sorte de préambule. De ce fait, on peut avoir le sentiment que la métaphysique ne commence à proprement parler qu'avec le § 10, lequel ouvre, avec l'énoncé du principe de contradiction, la partie ontologique de l'ouvrage. Pourtant, Wolff fait figurer dans cette première partie des considérations qui concernent de très près le commencement de sa philosophie: il présente tout d'abord quelque chose comme (...) un cogito. De plus, les acquis de ce premier chapitre sont repris à l'ouverture des cinq autres chapitres qui suivent : y aurait-il là matière à affirmer que la métaphysique wolffienne est fondée dans une expérience psychologique ? Cette hypothèse est donc ici testée par l'examen successif des statuts de l'Ontologie, de la Logique et de la Psychologie empirique au travers d'une lecture conjointe de la Métaphysique allemande et de la Logique allemande. The first chapter of the German Metaphysics gathers only nine paragraphs and seems to represent but some kind of a preamble. Hence one may feel that metaphysics begins only with paragraph 10 opening the ontological part of the text with the contradiction principle. Yet Wolff already mentions a few considerations in this first part that are extremely close to the beginning of his philosophy : he presents from the start something very similar to a cogito. Moreover the assets of this first chapter are recaptured whenever every one of the five following chapters opens. Would there be therein sufficient matter at stake to evidence that the Wolffian Metaphysics is grounded in a psychological experience ? Hence the author tests here such a hypothesis through the successive analysis of the status of Ontology, of Logics and of empirical Psychology, through a joint reading of the German Metaphysics and of the German Logics. (shrink)
L’univers romain est peu propice en général à l’étude du sentiment, faute de matière exploitable. Les manifestations extérieures de la sphère de l’affect sont par nature exclues d’un univers au sein duquel l’émotion est considérée, au même titre que toutes les passions, comme antinomique du métier de citoyen, et, a fortiori, de celui de dirigeant. C’est l’un des fondements théoriques de l’exclusion, de la sphère du politique, aussi bien des femmes que de la jeunesse, réputées également guidée..
The management literature is not short of tools for helping people to make wiser decisions. This paper outlines another tool so it must be asked how can it justify itself given the substantial work that is already done. We suggest that many tools either fail to properly integrate, or simply lack an analysis of (i) showinghow emotions help or hinder solving the problem, (ii) the role of creative and critical thinking and (Hi), working out what values are at issue in (...) the problem. These three categories can be integrated into a decision-making procedure through an analysis of the stages of decision making While the emphasis that is laid on these stages will differ depending upon the problem, we suggest that wise decision making requires (i) gaining an adequate understanding of the situation, (ii) working out what matters, (Hi) generating options, (iv) selecting an option on the basis of what matters and (v) carrying out the option. As practical philosophers we must ask how each of these stages can be adequately carried out, and here we seek to show how philosophy, and other disciplines, can help for the three areas we identify above as lacunae. In looking at the role of emotions we base our analysis on the Aristotelian and Stoic notion that the core of emotions is that they are judgements. This analysis allows us to make sense of both the rationalist view that emotions are a hindrance, and the romantic notion that emotions are a help. Wise decision making involves unpacking emotions to see what they can reliably tell us about the situation, our values, potential options and how they can motivate us. We suggest ways this task can be achieved. Critical thinking needs to be employed throughout the decision-making procedure so that we fairly andadequately understand the situation and assess potential values and options. We outline some key skills and interventions that can be employed. Critical thinking needs material to work on so we suggest how creative thinking can be used to reframe the situation, and generate potential values and options. The driving force of making a decision is, or at least should be, the values we wish to realise with our decision; what we think matters. Some decisions are purely prudential and here we draw upon ideas of Nozick, Griffin, Aristotle and Epicurus to suggest ways the decision maker can evaluate their prudential values. For ethical decisions ideas from Mill, Kant and others can help us think through what we wish to achieve. We end with a case study to illustrate how the procedure works in practice. (shrink)
The foundation of Mathematics is both a logico-formal issue and an epistemological one. By the first, we mean the explicitation and analysis of formal proof principles, which, largely a posteriori, ground proof on general deduction rules and schemata. By the second, we mean the investigation of the constitutive genesis of concepts and structures, the aim of this paper. This “genealogy of concepts”, so dear to Riemann, Poincaré and Enriques among others, is necessary both in order to enrich the foundational analysis (...) with an often disregarded aspect (the cognitive and historical constitution of mathematical structures) and because of the provable incompleteness of proof principles also in the analysis of deduction. For the purposes of our investigation, we will hint here to a philosophical frame as well as to some recent experimental studies on numerical cognition that support our claim on the cognitive origin and the constitutive role of mathematical intuition. (shrink)
Running head: Implicit sequence learning ABSTRACT Can we learn without awareness? Although this issue has been extensively explored through studies of implicit learning, there is currently no agreement about the extent to which knowledge can be acquired and projected onto performance in an unconscious way. The controversy, like that surrounding implicit memory, seems to be at least in part attributable to unquestioned acceptance of the unrealistic assumption that tasks are process-pure, that is, that a given task exclusively involves either implicit (...) or explicit knowledge. (shrink)