Search results for 'Anna Katharina Schaffner' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. David Hopkins & Anna Katharina Schaffner (eds.) (2006). Neo-Avant-Garde. Rodopi.score: 870.0
    'ART' AND 'LIFE'... AND DEATH: MARCEL DUCHAMP, ROBERT MORRIS AND NEO-AVANT- GARDE IRONY DAVID HOPKINS Peter Bürger charges avant-garde art of the and 60s ...
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  2. Anna Katharina Schaffner (forthcoming). Exhaustion and the Pathologization of Modernity. Journal of Medical Humanities.score: 870.0
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  3. Schalom Ben-Chorin (1974). Eine alttestamentliche Vision der Anna Katharina Emmerich. Zeitschrift für Religions- Und Geistesgeschichte 26 (4):334-345.score: 140.0
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  4. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1993). Discovery and Explanation in Biology and Medicine. University of Chicago Press.score: 60.0
    Kenneth F. Schaffner compares the practice of biological and medical research and shows how traditional topics in philosophy of science--such as the nature of theories and of explanation--can illuminate the life sciences. While Schaffner pays some attention to the conceptual questions of evolutionary biology, his chief focus is on the examples that immunology, human genetics, neuroscience, and internal medicine provide for examinations of the way scientists develop, examine, test, and apply theories. Although traditional philosophy of science has regarded (...)
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  5. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1967). Approaches to Reduction. Philosophy of Science 34 (2):137-147.score: 30.0
    Four current accounts of theory reduction are presented, first informally and then formally: (1) an account of direct theory reduction that is based on the contributions of Nagel, Woodger, and Quine, (2) an indirect reduction paradigm due to Kemeny and Oppenheim, (3) an "isomorphic model" schema traceable to Suppes, and (4) a theory of reduction that is based on the work of Popper, Feyerabend, and Kuhn. Reference is made, in an attempt to choose between these schemas, to the explanation of (...)
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  6. Drozdstoj Stoyanov, Peter Machamer & Kenneth Schaffner, In Quest for Scientific Psychiatry: Towards Bridging the Explanatory Gap.score: 30.0
    The contemporary epistemic status of mental health disciplines does not allow the cross validation of mental disorders among various genetic markers, biochemical pathway or mechanisms, and clinical assessments in neuroscience explanations. We attempt to provide a meta-empirical analysis of the contemporary status of the cross-disciplinary issues existing between neuro-biology and psychopathology. Our case studies take as an established medical mode an example cross validation between biological sciences and clinical cardiology in the case of myocardial infarction. This is then contrasted with (...)
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  7. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2006). Reduction: The Cheshire Cat Problem and a Return to Roots. Synthese 151 (3):377 - 402.score: 30.0
    In this paper, I propose two theses, and then examine what the consequences of those theses are for discussions of reduction and emergence. The first thesis is that what have traditionally been seen as robust, reductions of one theory or one branch of science by another more fundamental one are a largely a myth. Although there are such reductions in the physical sciences, they are quite rare, and depend on special requirements. In the biological sciences, these prima facie sweeping reductions (...)
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  8. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2008). Theories, Models, and Equations in Biology: The Heuristic Search for Emergent Simplifications in Neurobiology. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):1008-1021.score: 30.0
    This article considers claims that biology should seek general theories similar to those found in physics but argues for an alternative framework for biological theories as collections of prototypical interlevel models that can be extrapolated by analogy to different organisms. This position is exemplified in the development of the Hodgkin‐Huxley giant squid model for action potentials, which uses equations in specialized ways. This model is viewed as an “emergent unifier.” Such unifiers, which require various simplifications, involve the types of heuristics (...)
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  9. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1993). Theory Structure, Reduction, and Disciplinary Integration in Biology. Biology and Philosophy 8 (3):319-347.score: 30.0
    This paper examines the nature of theory structure in biology and considers the implications of those theoretical structures for theory reduction. An account of biological theories as interlevel prototypes embodying causal sequences, and related to each other by strong analogies, is presented, and examples from the neurosciences are provided to illustrate these middle-range theories. I then go on to discuss several modifications of Nagel''s classical model of theory reduction, and indicate at what stages in the development of reductions these models (...)
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  10. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1969). The Watson-Crick Model and Reductionism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 20 (4):325-348.score: 30.0
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  11. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1986). Exemplar Reasoning About Biological Models and Diseases: A Relation Between the Philosophy of Medicine and Philosophy of Science. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (1):63-80.score: 30.0
    the structure of medical science with a special focus on the role of generalizations and universals in medicine, and (2) philosophy of medicine's relation with the philosophy of science. I argue that a usually overlooked aspect of Kuhnian paradigms, namely, their characteristic of being "exemplars", is of considerable significance in the biomedical sciences. This significance rests on certain important differences from the physical sciences in the nature of theories in the basic and the clinical medical sciences. I describe those differences (...)
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  12. Kenneth F. Schaffner, Ullica Segerstrale, Paul E. Griffiths & Steven Pinker (2004). Liberals Ate My Genes? Metascience 13 (1):28-51.score: 30.0
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  13. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1998). Model Organisms and Behavioral Genetics: A Rejoinder. Philosophy of Science 65 (2):276-288.score: 30.0
    In this rejoinder to the three preceding comments, I provide some additional philosophical warrant for the biomedical sciences' focus on model organisms. I then relate the inquiries on model systems to the concept of 'deep homology', and indicate that the issues that appear to divide my commentators and myself are in part empirical ones. I cite recent work on model organisms, and especially C. elegans that supports my views. Finally, I briefly readdress some of the issues raised by Developmental Systems (...)
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  14. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2000). Behavior at the Organismal and Molecular Levels: The Case of C. Elegans. Philosophy of Science 67 (3):288.score: 30.0
    Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a tiny worm that has become the focus of a large number of worldwide research projects examining its genetics, development, neuroscience, and behavior. Recently several groups of investigators have begun to tie together the behavior of the organism and the underlying genes, neural circuits, and molecular processes implemented in those circuits. Behavior is quintessentially organismal--it is the organism as a whole that moves and mates--but the explanations are devised at the molecular and neurocircuit levels, and (...)
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  15. Filippo Aureli & Colleen M. Schaffner (2001). Empathy as a Special Case of Emotional Mediation of Social Behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (1):23-24.score: 30.0
    Empathy can be viewed as an intervening variable to explain complex webs of causation between multiple factors and the resulting responses. The mediating role of emotion, implicit in the concept of an intervening variable, can be at the basis of the flexibility of empathic responses. Knowledge of the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms is needed for empathy to be considered as a biologically functional intervening variable.
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  16. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1969). Correspondence Rules. Philosophy of Science 36 (3):280-290.score: 30.0
    The traditional role which correspondence rules, coordinating definitions, or semantical rules, have in a logical analysis of a scientific theory is questioned by providing an alternative analysis. The alternative account suggests that scientific theories are "meaningful" prior to the establishment of correspondence rules, and that correspondence rules are introduced to permit explanation and testing in the "observational" sector. The role of models is briefly assessed in connection with this prior or "antecedent theoretical meaning," and a causal sequence analysis of a (...)
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  17. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2000). Medical Informatics and the Concept of Disease. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 21 (1):85-100.score: 30.0
    This paper attempts to address the general questionwhether information technologies, as applied in thearea of medicine and health care, have or are likelyto change fundamental concepts regarding disease andhealth. After a short excursion into the domain ofmedical informatics I provide a brief overview of someof the current theories of what a disease is from amore philosophical perspective, i.e. the ``valuefree'' and ``value laden'' view of disease. Next, Iconsider at some length, whether health careinformatics is currently modifying fundamentalconcepts of disease. To (...)
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  18. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1999). Coming Home to Hume: A Sociobiological Foundation for a Concept of 'Health' and Morality. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 24 (4):365 – 375.score: 30.0
    Assessing the normative status of concepts of health and disease involves one in questions regarding the relationship between fact and value. Some have argued that Christopher Boorse's conception of health and disease lacks such a valuational element because it cannot account for types of harms which, while disvalued, do not have evolutionarily dysfunctional consequences. I take Boorse's account and incorporate some Humean-like sociobiological assumptions in order to respond to this challenge. The possession of moral sentiments, I argue, offers an evolutionary (...)
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  19. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2001). Biopsychosocial Foundations. American Journal of Bioethics 1 (2):26 – 27.score: 30.0
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  20. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1998). Genes, Behavior, and Developmental Emergentism: One Process, Indivisible? Philosophy of Science 65 (2):209-252.score: 30.0
    The question of the influence of genes on behavior raises difficult philosophical and social issues. In this paper I delineate what I call the Developmentalist Challenge (DC) to assertions of genetic influence on behavior, and then examine the DC through an indepth analysis of the behavioral genetics of the nematode, C. elegans, with some briefer references to work on Drosophila. I argue that eight "rules" relating genes and behavior through environmentally-influenced and tangled neural nets capture the results of developmental and (...)
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  21. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1992). Molecular Genetics, Reductionism, and Disease Concepts in Psychiatry. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 17 (2):127-153.score: 30.0
    The study of mental illness by the methods of molecular genetics is still in its infancy, but the use of genetic markers in psychiatry may potentially lead to a Virchowian revolution in the conception of mental illness. Genetic markers may define novel clusters of patients having diverse clinical presentations but sharing a common genetic and mechanistic basis. Such clusters may differ radically from the conventional classification schemes of psychiatric illness. However, the reduction of even relatively simple Mendelian phenomena to molecular (...)
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  22. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1992). Theory Change in Immunology Part I: Extended Theories and Scientific Progress. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (2).score: 30.0
    This two-part article examines the competition between the clonal selection theory and the instructive theory of the immune response from 1957–1967. In Part I the concept of a temporally extended theory is introduced, which requires attention to the hitherto largely ignored issue of theory individuation. Factors which influence the acceptability of such an extended theory at different temporal points are also embedded in a Bayesian framework, which is shown to provide a rational account of belief change in science. In Part (...)
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  23. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1992). Theory Change in Immunology Part II: The Clonal Selection Theory. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 13 (2).score: 30.0
    This two-part article examines the competition between the clonal selection theory and the instructive theory of the immune response from 1957–1967. In Part I the concept of a temporally extended theory is introduced, which requires attention to the hitherto largely ignored issue of theory individuation. Factors which influence the acceptability of such an extended theory at different temporal points are also embedded in a Bayesian framework, which is shown to provide a rational account of belief change in science. In Part (...)
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  24. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1980). Theory Structure in the Biomedical Sciences. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 5 (1):57-97.score: 30.0
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  25. Gabriele Anna (2000). Mind-World Identity Theory and Semantic Realism: Haldane and Boulter on Aquinas. Philosophical Quarterly 50 (198):82 - 87.score: 30.0
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  26. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1998). Paradigm Changes in Organ Transplantation: A Journey Toward Selflessness? Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 19 (5):425-440.score: 30.0
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  27. Kenneth Schaffner (1974). Logic of Discovery and Justification in Regulatory Genetics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 4 (4):349-385.score: 30.0
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  28. A. Mathew Thomas, Gene Cohen, Robert M. Cook-Deegan, Joan O'sullivan, Stephen G. Post, Allen D. Roses, Kenneth F. Schaffner & Ronald M. Green (1998). Alzheimer Testing at Silver Years. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 7 (3):294-307.score: 30.0
    Early last year, the GenEthics Consortium (GEC) of the Washington Metropolitan Area convened at George Washington University to consider a complex case about genetic testing for Alzheimer disease (AD). The GEC consists of scientists, bioethicists, lawyers, genetic counselors, and consumers from a variety of institutions and affiliations. Four of the 8 co-authors of this paper delivered presentations on the case. Supplemented by additional ethical and legal observations, these presentations form the basis for the following discussion.
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  29. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1986). Ethical Problems in Clinical Trials. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 11 (4):297-315.score: 30.0
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  30. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1981). Modeling Medical Diagnosis: Logical and Computer Approaches. Synthese 47 (1):163 - 199.score: 30.0
    In the present article I have surveyed several approaches to modeling the clinical diagnostic process. I have argued that at this point of the field's development, logics which simulate the reasoning patterns and knowledge base of expert clinicians represent research programs that are most likely to succeed. No logic of diagnosis has yet attained the status of being definitive; in spite of striking progress much more research and testing is required. On the basis of various existing logics, I have attempted (...)
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  31. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1974). Einstein Versus Lorentz: Research Programmes and the Logic of Comparative Theory Evaluation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 25 (1):45-78.score: 30.0
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  32. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1989). Introduction. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 14 (2):103-107.score: 30.0
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  33. Kenneth Schaffner (2004). Commentary on Stotz and Griffiths, Burian, and Waters: Genes, Concepts, DST Implications, and the Possibility of Prototypes. History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences 26 (1):81 - 90.score: 30.0
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  34. Janet L. Schaffner & Robert M. Nelson (1999). What Are Healthcare Ethics Committees in Wisconsin Doing? HEC Forum 11 (3):247-253.score: 30.0
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  35. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1981). Introduction. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 6 (2):93-100.score: 30.0
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  36. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1994). Introduction. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 19 (4):301-303.score: 30.0
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  37. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1995). Response to Michael Ruse. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 16 (3):317-319.score: 30.0
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  38. Kenneth F. Schaffner (2008). Etiological Models in Psychiatry : Reductive and Nonreductive Approaches. In Kenneth S. Kendler & Josef Parnas (eds.), Philosophical Issues in Psychiatry: Explanation, Phenomenology, and Nosology. Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 30.0
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  39. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1984). Introduction. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 9 (2):127-134.score: 30.0
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  40. Anna-Katharina Gisbertz (2009). Stimmung, Leib, Sprache: Eine Konfiguration in der Wiener Moderne. Wilhelm Fink.score: 28.0
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  41. Georg Kerkhoff Lena Schmidt, Kathrin S. Utz, Lena Depper, Michaela Adams, Anna-Katharina Schaadt, Stefan Reinhart (2013). Now You Feel Both: Galvanic Vestibular Stimulation Induces Lasting Improvements in the Rehabilitation of Chronic Tactile Extinction. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 28.0
    Tactile extinction is frequent, debilitating and often persistent after brain damage. Currently, there is no treatment available for this disorder. In two previous case studies we showed an influence of galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) on tactile extinction. Here, we evaluated in further patients the immediate and lasting effects of GVS on tactile extinction. GVS is known to induce polarity-specific changes in cerebral excitability in the vestibular cortices and adjacent cortical areas. Tactile extinction was examined with the Quality Extinction Test (QET) (...)
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  42. Anna-Katharina Rieger (2014). Ulrich Mania, Die Rote Halle in Pergamon. Klio 96 (1):249-256.score: 28.0
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  43. J. Edwards (2003). A Reply to de Anna on the Simple View of Colour. Philosophy 78 (303):99-114.score: 24.0
    John Campbell proposed a so-called simple view of colours according to which colours are categorical properties of the surfaces of objects just as they normally appear to be. I raised an invertion problem for Campbell's view according to which the senses of colour terms fail to match their references, thus rendering those terms meaningless—or so I claimed. Gabriele de Anna defended Campbell's view against my example by contesting two points in particular. Firstly, de Anna claimed that there is (...)
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  44. Gregory J. Morgan (2001). Bacteriophage Biology and Kenneth Schaffner's Rendition of Developmentalism. Biology and Philosophy 16 (1):85-92.score: 24.0
    In this paper I consider Kenneth Schaffner''s(1998) rendition of ''''developmentalism'''' from the point of viewof bacteriophage biology. I argue that the fact that a viablephage can be produced from purified DNA and host cellularcomponents lends some support to the anti-developmentalist, ifthey first show that one can draw a principled distinctionbetween genetic and environmental effects. The existence ofhost-controlled phage host range restriction supports thedevelopmentalist''s insistence on the parity of DNA andenvironment. However, in the case of bacteriophage, thedevelopmentalist stands on less (...)
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  45. Karola Pitsch, Anna-Lisa Vollmer, Katharina J. Rohlfing, Jannik Fritsch & Britta Wrede (2014). Tutoring in Adult-Child Interaction: On the Loop of the Tutor’s Action Modification and the Recipient’s Gaze. [REVIEW] Interaction Studies 15 (1):55-98.score: 24.0
    Research of tutoring in parent-infant interaction has shown that tutors – when presenting some action – modify both their verbal and manual performance for the learner (‘motherese’, ‘motionese’). Investigating the sources and effects of the tutors’ action modifications, we suggest an interactional account of ‘motionese’. Using video-data from a semi-experimental study in which parents taught their 8- to 11-month old infants how to nest a set of differently sized cups, we found that the tutors’ action modifications (in particular: high arches) (...)
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  46. Kenneth S. Kendler & Kenneth F. Schaffner (2011). The Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia: An Historical and Philosophical Analysis. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (1):41-63.score: 20.0
    This essay selectively reviews, from an historical and philosophical perspective, the dopamine (DA) hypothesis of schizophrenia (DHS; Table 1 lists the abbreviations used in this essay). Our goal is not to adjudicate the validity of the theory—although we arrive at a generally skeptical conclusion—but to focus on the process whereby the DHS has evolved over time and been evaluated. Since its inception, the DHS has been the most prominent etiologic theory in psychiatry and is still referred to widely in current (...)
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  47. Kenneth S. Kendler & Kenneth F. Schaffner (2011). Further Thoughts on the Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophrenia. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (1):73-75.score: 20.0
    We are gratified at the largely positive comments on our essay on the dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia (DHS) by these two distinguished commentators from the fields of biological psychiatry (Dr. Tamminga) and the philosophy of psychiatry (Dr. Murphy). There is little that they have said with which we disagree. Rather, we want to expand briefly on their commentaries.We found Dr. Tamminga's reactions to be particularly fascinating because she has been an "insider" to the story of the DHS as it has (...)
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  48. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1974). The Peripherality of Reductionism in the Development of Molecular Biology. Journal of the History of Biology 7 (1):111 - 139.score: 20.0
    I have not attempted to provide here an analysis of the methodology of molecular biology or molecular genetics which would demonstrate at what specific points a more reductionist aim would make sense as a research strategy. This, I believe, would require a much deeper analysis of scientific growth than philosophy of science has been able to provide thus far. What I have tried to show is that a straightforward reductionist strategy cannot be said to be follwed in important cases of (...)
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  49. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1974). Reductionism in Biology: Prospects and Problems. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1974:613 - 632.score: 20.0
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  50. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1994). Interactions Among Theory, Experiment, and Technology in Molecular Biology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:192 - 205.score: 20.0
    This article examines how a molecular "solution" to an important biological problem-how is antibody diversity generated? was obtained in the 1970s. After the primarily biological clonal selection theory (CST) was accepted by 1967, immunologists developed several different contrasting theories to complete the SCST. To choose among these theories, immunology had to turn to the new molecular biology, first to nucleic acid hybridization and then to recombinant DNA technology. The research programs of Tonegawa and Leder that led to the "solution" are (...)
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