1.  8
    Anna Shusterman & E. S. Spelke (2005). Language and the Development of Spatial Reasoning. In Peter Carruthers (ed.), The Innate Mind: Structure and Contents. New York: Oxford University Press New York 89--106.
    This chapter argues that human and animal minds indeed depend on a collection of domain-specific, task-specific, and encapsulated cognitive systems: on a set of cognitive ‘modules’ in Fodor's sense. It also argues that human and animal minds are endowed with domain-general, central systems that orchestrate the information delivered by core knowledge systems. The chapter begins by reviewing the literature on spatial reorientation in animals and in young children, arguing that spatial reorientation bears the hallmarks of core knowledge and of modularity. (...)
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  2.  2
    Anna Shusterman, Sang Ah Lee & Elizabeth S. Spelke (2011). Cognitive Effects of Language on Human Navigation. Cognition 120 (2):186-201.
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  3. Sang Ah Lee, Anna Shusterman & Elizabeth S. Spelke, Evidence for Two Systems.
    ��Disoriented 4-year-old children use a distinctive container to locate a hidden object, but do they reorient by this information? We addressed this question by testing children’s search for objects in a circular room containing one distinctive and two identical containers. Children’s search patterns provided evidence that the distinctive container served as a direct cue to a hidden object’s location, but not as a directional signal guiding reorientation. The findings suggest that disoriented children’s search behavior depends on two distinct processes: a (...)
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