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  1. Anthony G. Greenwald, There Is Nothing So Theoretical.
    This article documents two facts that are provocative in juxtaposition. First: There is multidecade durability of theory controversies in psychology, demonstrated here in the subdisciplines of cognitive and social psychology. Second: There is a much greater frequency of Nobel science awards for contributions to method than for contributions to theory, shown here in an analysis of the last two decades of Nobel awards in physics, chemistry, and medicine. The available documentation of Nobel awards reveals two forms of method–theory synergy: (a) (...)
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  2. Anthony Greenwald, Automatic Preference for White Americans: Eliminating the Familiarity Explanation.
    Using the Implicit Association Test (IAT), recent experiments have demonstrated a strong and automatic positive evaluation of White Americans and a relatively negative evaluation of African Americans. Interpretations of this finding as revealing pro-White attitudes rest critically on tests of alternative interpretations, the most obvious one being perceivers’ greater familiarity with stimuli representing White Americans. The reported experiment demonstrated that positive attributes were more strongly associated with White than Black Americans even when (a) pictures of equally unfamiliar Black and White (...)
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  3. Anthony Greenwald, A Unified Theory of Implicit Attitudes, Stereotypes, Self-Esteem, and Self-Concept.
    This theoretical integration of social psychology’s main cognitive and affective constructs was shaped by 3 influences: (a) recent widespread interest in automatic and implicit cognition, (b) development of the Implicit Association Test (IAT; A. G. Greenwald, D. E. McGhee, & J. L. K. Schwartz, 1998), and (c) social psychology’s consistency theories of the 1950s, especially F. Heider’s (1958) balance theory. The balanced identity design is introduced as a method to test correlational predictions of the theory. Data obtained with this method (...)
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  4. Anthony Greenwald, Clarifying the Role of the “Other” Category in the Self-Esteem IAT.
    A. Karpinski (2004) recently criticized Implicit Association Test (IAT) measures of self-esteem, arguing that their measurements of self-associations are compromised by their contrasting self with a putatively extremely negative second category, the nonspecific other. The present data show, to the contrary, that the nonspecific other category in the self-esteem IAT is near neutral in valence. Validity of the self-esteem IAT is most appropriately assessed by examining its correlations with conceptually related measures. That has been done in several previous studies that (...)
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  5. Anthony Greenwald, Implicit Association Test: Validity Debates.
    Note posted 9 Jun 08 : Modifications made today include a new section on predictive validity, and addition of recently published article and in in-press article, both by Nosek & Hansen, under the "CULTURE VS. PERSON" heading, which replaces a previously listed unpublished ms. of theirs. I continue to encourage all interested to send material that they are willing to be included on this page. Please also to let me know about errors, including faulty links.
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  6. Anthony Greenwald, On Doing Two Things at Once: III. Confirmation of Perfect Timesharing When Simultaneous Tasks Are Ideomotor Compatible.
    A. G. Greenwald and H. G. Shulman (1973) found that 2 tasks characterized by ideomotor (IM) compatibility could be perfectly timeshared (i.e., performed simultaneously without mutual interference). The 2 tasks were pronouncing “A” or “B” in response to hearing those letter names, and making a manual left or right response to seeing a left- or right-positioned arrow. M.-C. Lien, R. W. Proctor, and P. A. Allen (2002) did not replicate Greenwald and Shulman’s result, and concluded that their finding of perfect (...)
     
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  7. Anthony Greenwald, Selected Articles & Chapters, by Date.
    Lane, K. A., Banaji, M. R., Nosek, B. A., & Greenwald, A. G. (2007). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: IV. What we know (so far) (Pp. 59–102). In B. Wittenbrink & N. S. Schwarz (Eds.). Implicit measures of attitudes: Procedures and controversies . New York: Guilford Press. PDF - 652KB ].
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  8. Anthony Greenwald, The Implicit Association Test's D Measure Can Minimize a Cognitive Skill Confound: Comment on McFarland and Crouch (2002).
    McFarland and Crouch (2002) reported substantial positive correlations (a) between the Implicit Association Test (IAT) and response speed and (b) between IATs assessing racism or self-esteem and ostensibly unrelated control IATs. Using an IAT measure in millisecond-difference score format, they concluded that the IAT was confounded with general cognitive ability. A reanalysis of these data using the D measure (Greenwald, Nosek, & Banaji, 2003) eliminated the speed of responding confound, although it did not eliminate the correlation between the control (...)
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  9. Anthony Greenwald, Targets of Discrimination: Effects of Race on Responses to Weapons Holders.
    Rapid actions to persons holding weapons were simulated using desktop virtual reality. Subjects responded to simulated (a) criminals, by pointing the computerÕs mouse at them and left-clicking (simulated shooting), (b) fellow police officers, by pressing the spacebar (safety signal), and (c) citizens, by inaction. In one of two tasks Black males holding guns were police officers while White males holding guns were criminals. In the other, Whites with guns were police and Blacks with guns were criminals. In both tasks Blacks (...)
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  10. Anthony Greenwald & L. H. Krieger, Implicit Bias: Scientific Foundations.
  11. D. Maison, Anthony G. Greenwald & R. H. Bruin (2004). Predictive Validity of the Implicit Association Test in Studies of Brands, Consumer Attitudes, and Behavior. Journal of Consumer Psychology 14:405-415.
    Three studies investigated implicit brand attitudes and their relation to explicit attitudes, prod- uct usage, and product differentiation. Implicit attitudes were measured using the Implicit As- sociation Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998). Study 1 showed expected differ- ences in implicit attitudes between users of two leading yogurt brands, also revealing significant correlations between IAT-measured implicit attitudes and explicit attitudes. In Study 2, users of two fast food restaurants (McDonald’s and Milk Bar) showed implicit attitudi- nal preference for their (...)
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  12. Anthony G. Greenwald, R. L. Abrams, Lionel Naccache & Stanislas Dehaene (2003). Long-Term Semantic Memory Versus Contextual Memory in Unconscious Number Processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology 29 (2):235-247.
    Subjects classified visible 2-digit numbers as larger or smaller than 55. Target numbers were preceded by masked 2-digit primes that were either congruent (same relation to 55) or incongruent. Experiments 1 and 2 showed prime congruency effects for stimuli never included in the set of classified visible targets, indicating subliminal priming based on long-term semantic memory. Experiments 2 and 3 went further to demonstrate paradoxical unconscious priming effects resulting from task context. For example, after repeated practice classifying 73 as larger (...)
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  13. Jane E. Swanson, E. Swanson & Anthony G. Greenwald (2001). Using the Implicit Association Test to Investigate Attitude-Behaviour Consistency for Stigmatised Behaviour. Cognition and Emotion 15 (2):207-230.
  14. R. L. Abrams & Anthony G. Greenwald (2000). Parts Outweigh the Whole (Word) in Unconscious Analysis of Meaning. Psychological Science 11 (2):118-124.
  15. K. Klauer & Anthony G. Greenwald (2000). Measurement Error in Subliminal Perception Experiments: Simulation Analyses of Two Regression Methods. Journal of Experimental Psychology 26:1506-1508.
     
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  16. Sean Draine & Anthony G. Greenwald (1998). Replicable Unconscious Semantic Priming. Journal Of Experimental Psychology-General 127 (3):286-303.
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  17. Owen Flanagan Churchland, John Gabrieli, Melvyn Goodale, Anthony Greenwald, Valerie Hardcastle, Larry Jacoby, Christof Koch, Philip Merikle, David Milner & Daniel Schacter (1997). What Does Implicit Cognition Tell Us About Consciousness? Consciousness and Cognition 6:148.
     
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  18. Anthony G. Greenwald & Sean Draine (1997). Do Subliminal Stimuli Enter the Mind Unnoticed? Tests with a New Method. In Jonathan D. Cohen & Jonathan W. Schooler (eds.), Scientific Approaches to Consciousness. Lawrence Erlbaum. 83--108.
  19. Sean Draine, Anthony G. Greenwald & Mahzarin R. Banaji (1996). Modeling Unconscious Gender Bias in Fame Judgments. Consciousness And Cognition 5 (1-2):221-225.
  20. Anthony G. Greenwald, Bernard J. Baars, John R. Pani, Mahzarin R. Banaji, J. Passchier, William P. Banks, Elizabeth Ligon Bjork, A. E. Bonebakker, Timothy L. Hubbard & Roger Ratcliff (1996). A G McKoon, Gail, 500 Merikle, Philip M., 525 Andrade, Jackie, 562 Goshen-Gottstein, Yonatan, Mori, Monica, 91 117 Graf, Peter, 91 B P. [REVIEW] Consciousness and Cognition 5:606.
     
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  21. Anthony G. Greenwald, M. R. Klinger & E. S. Schuh (1995). Activation by Marginally Perceptible ("Subliminal") Stimuli: Dissociation of Unconscious From Conscious Cognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 124 (1):22-42.
  22. Anthony G. Greenwald (1992). New Look 3: Unconscious Cognition Reclaimed. American Psychologist 47:766-79.
  23. Anthony G. Greenwald, E. Spangenberg, A. R. Pratkanis & J. Eskenazi (1991). Double Blind Tests of Subliminal Self-Help Audiotapes. Psychological Science.
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  24. Anthony G. Greenwald (1990). What Cognitive Representations Underlie Social Attitudes? Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 28 (3):254-260.
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  25. Anthony G. Greenwald, M. R. Klinger & T. J. Liu (1989). Unconscious Processing of Dichoptically Masked Words. Memory and Cognition 17:35-47.
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  26. A. R. Pratkanis & Anthony G. Greenwald (1988). Recent Perspectives on Unconscious Processing: Still No Marketing Applications. Psychology and Marketing 5:337-53.
     
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  27. Anthony R. Pratkanis Andanthony G. Greenwald (1985). How Shall the Self Be Conceived? Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 15 (3):311–329.
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  28. Anthony R. Pratkanis & Anthony G. Greenwald (1985). How Shall the Self Be Conceived? 1. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 15 (3):311-329.
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  29. Anthony G. Greenwald & Harvey G. Shulman (1973). On Doing Two Things at Once: II. Elimination of the Psychological Refractory Period Effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology 101 (1):70.
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  30. Anthony G. Greenwald (1972). Evidence of Both Perceptual Filtering and Response Suppression for Rejected Messages in Selective Attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (1):58.
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  31. Anthony G. Greenwald (1972). On Doing Two Things at Once: Time Sharing as a Function of Ideomotor Compatibility. Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (1):52.
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  32. Anthony G. Greenwald (1970). A Choice Reaction Time Test of Ideomotor Theory. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (1):20.
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  33. Anthony G. Greenwald (1970). A Double Stimulation Test of Ideomotor Theory with Implications for Selective Attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (3):392.
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  34. Anthony G. Greenwald (1970). Selective Attention as a Function of Signal Rate. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (1):48.
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  35. Anthony G. Greenwald & Stuart M. Albert (1968). Observational Learning: A Technique for Elucidating s-R Mediation Processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology 76 (2p1):273.
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