Alors que, pour Thomas d'Aquin et Gilles de Rome, Dieu peut ajouter à la création une série infinie d'espèces de perfection croissante sans compromettre sa transcendance et sans contrevenir aux lois de la logique, Henri de Gand et Godefroid de Fontaines développent des arguments puissants contre cette même idée, arguant notamment que la production d'une telle série impliquerait une infinité en acte d'idées en Dieu. L'article montre comment, dans son Quodlibet I, q. 2 où il expose et critique systématiquement les (...) arguments de Godefroid et d'Henri, Jacques de Viterbe renoue avec une position proche de celle de Thomas et Gilles. While Thomas Aquinas and Giles of Rome believed that God could produce an infinite number of increasingly more perfect creatures without threatening his transcendence or breaching the laws of logic, Henry of Ghent and Godfrey of Fontaines argued against that belief, holding that such an ability on God's part would entail the existence of an actual infinity of ideas in the divine intellect. One author who was to be influenced by Henry's arguments was Godfrey of Fontaines whose views James of Viterbo refutes in Quodlibet I, q. 2. The article examines the detail of James's arguments against Godfrey and in favor of the view, much like Thomas'and Giles', that God can add to the total amount of perfection in creation. (shrink)
Este artigo analisa diversos textos da obra de Tomás de Aquino relativos aos temas do conhecimento divino e das ideias divinas com o intuito de mostrar como duas interpretações sustentadas por comentadores recentes da obra tomásica não se mantêm diante da análise rigorosa dos textos. Uma primeira e menos radical interpretação sustenta haver ideias práticas distintas de cada coisa particular, enquanto que, de acordo com uma interpretação ainda mais forte, ideias em sentido estrito pertencem primordialmente a coisas singulares. O objetivo (...) deste artigo é mostrar que, embora Tomás sustente que Deus conhece todas as coisas, inclusive os particulares, a doutrina das ideias, tal como Tomás a concebe, tem limites muito estreitos, não permitindo o pleno desenvolvimento de suas convicções de cunho aristotélico concernentes à cognoscibilidade dos particulares. (shrink)
The following paper offers a brief discussion of Simplicius’ intriguing concept of “propensity” (epitedeiotes), an attempt to account for particularized qualities in terms congenial to a Neoplatonist. For although claiming to follow Aristotle, Simplicius ultimately explains the existence of particularized qualities in termsof a metaphysic of participation. Although his doctrine does not seem not have enjoyed much popularity in Late Antiquity, it will be adopted and expanded upon both late 13th century scholastic authors such as James of Viterbo who see (...) Simplicius’ theory as offering a philosophically rigorous equivalent to Augustinian seminal reasons. (shrink)
The short anonymous work known as the Constitution of the Athenians has long since fascinated scholars. Written sometime in the 5th century, during or just before the Peloponnesian War, it offers a scathing attack on Athenian democratic institutions. Its author is unknown but has traditionally been called the "Old Oligarch" in reference to his obvious political convictions. But the pamphlet's interest lies not so much in its critique of Athenian democracy as in the connection the author sees between these institutions (...) and Athens' imperialist policies in the Aegean. (shrink)
This paper examines Claude Tresmontant's attempt to provide a philosophical argument in favour of God's existence using the results of modern science. Like many contemporary theists, Tresmontant believes that discoveries in the field of astrophysics, rightly interpreted, lead to the postulation of a deity. This paper challenges the philosophical presuppositions of Tresmontant's argument and the thesis that current cosmological theories can be used to construct a valid proof of the existence of God.