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  1. Antonio Zadra & Geneviève Robert (2012). Dream Recall Frequency: Impact of Prospective Measures and Motivational Factors. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (4):1695-1702.
    Significant individual differences exist in dream recall frequency but some variance is likely attributable to instrument choice in measuring DRF. Three hundred and fifty eight participants estimated their weekly DRF and recorded their dreams in either a narrative log or checklist log for 2–5 weeks. There was an early peak in DRF within the first week of both types of prospective logs after which DRF remained relatively stable. Although the two groups did not differ in their estimated DRF, significantly fewer (...)
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  2. Félix-Antoine Lusignan, Roger Godbout, Marie-Josée Dubuc, Anne-Marie Daoust, Jean-Pierre Mottard & Antonio Zadra (2010). NonREM Sleep Mentation in Chronically-Treated Persons with Schizophrenia. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):977-985.
    This study examined the laboratory dream content reported by 14 patients with schizophrenia and 15 controls, with a focus on reports obtained from NonREM sleep. Both the controls’ and patients’ frequency of dream recall following awakenings from NonREM and REM sleep were similar to values reported for healthy participants. Patients’ NonREM sleep narratives were shorter than those from controls. When compared to their reports from REM sleep, both groups’ NonREM sleep reports included significantly fewer words and reportable items. The controls (...)
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  3. Sophie Desjardins & Antonio Zadra (2006). Is the Threat Simulation Theory Threatened by Recurrent Dreams? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):470-474.
    Zadra, Desjardins, and Marcotte tested several predictions derived from the Threat Simulation Theory of dreaming in a large sample of recurrent dreams. In response to these findings, Valli and Revonsuo presented a commentary outlining alternate conceptualizations and explanations for the results obtained. We argue that many points raised by Valli and Revonsuo do not accurately reflect our main findings and at times present a biased assessment of the data. In this article, we provide necessary clarifications and responses to each one (...)
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  4. Antonio Zadra, Sophie Desjardins & Éric Marcotte (2006). Evolutionary Function of Dreams: A Test of the Threat Simulation Theory in Recurrent Dreams. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):450-463.
    Revonsuo proposed an intriguing and detailed evolutionary theory of dreams which stipulates that the biological function of dreaming is to simulate threatening events and to rehearse threat avoidance behaviors. The goal of the present study was to test this theory using a sample of 212 recurrent dreams that was scored using a slightly expanded version of the DreamThreat rating scale. Six of the eight hypotheses tested were supported. Among the positive findings, 66% of the recurrent dream reports contained one or (...)
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  5. Anne Germain, Tore A. Nielsen, Antonio Zadra & Jacques Montplaisir (2000). The Prevalence of Typical Dream Themes Challenges the Specificity of the Threat Simulation Theory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):940-941.
    The evolutionary theory of threat simulation during dreaming indicates that themes appropriate to ancestral survival concerns (threats) should be disproportionately represented in dreams. Our studies of typical dream themes in students and sleep-disordered patients indicate that threatening dreams involving chase and pursuit are indeed among the three most prevalent themes, thus supporting Revonsuo's theory. However, many of the most prevalent themes are of positive, not negative, events (e.g., sex, flying) and of current, not ancestral, threat scenarios (e.g., schoolwork). Moreover, many (...)
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