Search results for 'Antti Koura' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  46
    Antti Koura (1988). An Approach to Why-Questions. Synthese 74 (2):191 - 206.
    The purpose of this paper is to give a semantical analysis of why-questions. Why-questions will be construed as requests for knowledge. Special attention will be paid to considering what the conditions for conclusive answerhood are in the case of why-questions. Since explanations can often be thought of as answers to why-questions, we also discuss some topics in the theory of explanation.
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  2. Antti Koura (1993). Rebalancing Normative Systems. In Risto Hilpinen, Olli Koistinen & Juha Räikkä (eds.), Good Reason: Essays Dedicated to Risto Hilpinen. Turun Yliopisto 200--64.
     
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  3. A. Alexander, A. Andrew, Kallio Sakari & Revonsuo Antti (2007). Hypnosis Induces a Changed Composition of Brain Oscillations in EEG: A Case Study. Contemporary Hypnosis 24 (1):3-18.
     
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  4.  42
    Antti Karjalanien, Epistemological Contextualism and Transparent Possibilities Antti Karjalainen, University of Bristol.
    When knowledge is being doubted one way to express this doubt is by a counterfactual. Typically this counterfactual quotes some elements of the actual case or a case considered as actual and dodges the connection between proposition believed and what makes that proposition true. For example, when Descartes states his dreaming skepticism case, he gives us instances where he has previously been lying in his bed fast asleep while dreaming that he is awake. What triggers the loss of knowledge in (...)
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  5.  2
    J. P. Keenan (2001). A Thing Done Well. A Reply to Dr. Antti RevonsuosCan Functional Brain Imaging Discover Consciousness in the Brain? Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (3):31-33.
    Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation is a technique that may aid researchers in their attempts to elucidate the underlying brain functions involved in consciousness. By employing TMS along with other neuroimaging methods and case studies, researchers may be aided in addressing their various hypotheses. Employing the ‘brain as mobile’ analogy, it may be possible to determine the individual contributions of single elements of the brain without upsetting the overall balance.
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  6.  48
    B. Molyneux (2008). Review: Antti Revonsuo: Inner Presence: Consciousness as a Biological Phenomenon. [REVIEW] Mind 117 (465):210-213.
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  7.  20
    Sebastiano Bavetta (2009). Discretionary Time: A New Measure of Freedom , Robert Goodin, James Mahmud Rice, Antti Parpo, and Lina Eriksson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008, 484 Pages. [REVIEW] Economics and Philosophy 25 (3):384-389.
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  8.  2
    L. Mudrik & D. Lamy (2007). Antti Revonsuo, Inner Presence: Consciousness as a Biological Phenomenon. Pragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):379.
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  9.  4
    James A. Brundage (1999). Antti Arjava, Women and Law in Late Antiquity. Oxford: Clarendon Press; New York: Oxford University Press, 1996. Pp. Xii, 304. $65. [REVIEW] Speculum 74 (1):115-117.
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  10. V. G. Hardcastle (2006). Antti Revonsuo, Inner Presence. [REVIEW] Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (6):118.
  11. W. Haselager (1998). Learning to Work Together: Review of Consciousness In Philosophy And Cognitive Neuroscience Antti Revonsuo & Matti Kamppinen. [REVIEW] Psyche 4.
     
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  12. Liad Mudrik & Dominique Lamy (2007). Antti Revonsuo,Inner Presence: Consciousness as a Biological Phenomenon. Pragmatics and Cognitionpragmatics and Cognition 15 (2):379-387.
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  13. Gayle B. Speck, Kieron P. OÕConnor, Frederick Aardema, Walter J. Perrig, Doris Eckstein, Berenice Valdes Conroy, A. Catena, P. Marı-Beffa, Michiel B. de Ruiter & R. Hans Phaf (2004). Katja Valli, Antti Revonsuo, Outi Pälkäs, Kamaran Hassan Ismahil, Karsan Jelal Ali, and Raija-Leena Punamäki. The. Consciousness and Cognition 13:655.
     
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  14. John Tolan (2003). Antti Ruotsala, Europeans and Mongols in the Middle of the Thirteenth Century: Encountering the Other. Helsinki: Finnish Academy of Science and Letters, 2001. Paper. Pp. 169; Black-and-White Figures, 1 Genealogical Table, and Maps. Distributed by Bookstore Tiedekirja, Kirkkokatu 14, 00170 Helsinki, Finland. [REVIEW] Speculum 78 (3):992-993.
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  15.  68
    Antti Kauppinen (forthcoming). Empathy and Moral Judgment. In Heidi Maibom (ed.), The Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Empathy. Routledge
    Empathic feelings seem to causally influence our moral judgments at least sometimes. But is empathy necessary for our ability to make moral judgments? And it is a good thing if our judgments are based on empathy? This chapter examines the contemporary debate on these issues.
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  16.  70
    Antti Kauppinen (forthcoming). Practical Reasoning. In Daniel Star (ed.), Oxford Handbook of Reasons and Normativity. Oxford University Press
    This chapter presents two contemporary pictures of practical reasoning. According to the Rule-Guidance Conception, roughly, practical reasoning is a rule-guided operation of acquiring (or retaining or giving up) intentions so as to meet synchronic requirements of rationality. According to the Reasons-Responsiveness Conception, practical reasoning is a process of responding to reasons we take ourselves to have, and its standards of correctness derive from what we objectively have reason to do, if things are as we suppose them to be. I argue (...)
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  17. Antti Kauppinen (2007). The Rise and Fall of Experimental Philosophy. Philosophical Explorations 10 (2):95 – 118.
    In disputes about conceptual analysis, each side typically appeals to pre-theoretical 'intuitions' about particular cases. Recently, many naturalistically oriented philosophers have suggested that these appeals should be understood as empirical hypotheses about what people would say when presented with descriptions of situations, and have consequently conducted surveys on non-specialists. I argue that this philosophical research programme, a key branch of what is known as 'experimental philosophy', rests on mistaken assumptions about the relation between people's concepts and their linguistic behaviour. The (...)
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  18. Markku Keinänen, Jani Hakkarainen & Antti Keskinen (2016). Why Realists Need Tropes. Metaphysica 17 (1):69-85.
    We argue that if one wishes to be a realist, one should adopt a Neo-Aristotelian ontology involving tropes instead of a Russellian ontology of property universals and objects. Either Russellian realists should adopt the relata-specific relational tropes of instantiation instead of facts, or convert to Neo-Aristotelian realism with monadic tropes. Regarding Neo-Aristotelian realism, we have two novel points why it fares better than Russellian realism. Instantiation of property universals by tropes and characterization or inherence between tropes and objects are more (...)
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  19. Thomas Nadelhoffer & Eddy Nahmias (2007). The Past and Future of Experimental Philosophy. Philosophical Explorations 10 (2):123 – 149.
    Experimental philosophy is the name for a recent movement whose participants use the methods of experimental psychology to probe the way people think about philosophical issues and then examine how the results of such studies bear on traditional philosophical debates. Given both the breadth of the research being carried out by experimental philosophers and the controversial nature of some of their central methodological assumptions, it is of no surprise that their work has recently come under attack. In this paper we (...)
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  20. Antti Revonsuo & Matti Kamppinen (eds.) (1994). Consciousness in Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience. Lawrence Erlbaum.
    Consciousness seems to be an enigmatic phenomenon: it is difficult to imagine how our perceptions of the world and our inner thoughts, sensations and feelings could be related to the immensely complicated biological organ we call the brain. This volume presents the thoughts of some of the leading philosophers and cognitive scientists who have recently participated in the discussion of the status of consciousness in science. The focus of inquiry is the question: "Is it possible to incorporate consciousness into science?" (...)
     
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  21.  94
    Antti Kauppinen (2015). What's So Great About Experience? Res Philosophica 92 (2):371-388.
    Suppose that our life choices result in unpredictable experiences, as L.A. Paul has recently argued. What does this mean for the possibility of rational prudential choice? Not as much as Paul thinks. First, what’s valuable about experience is its broadly hedonic quality, and empirical studies suggest we tend to significantly overestimate the impact of our choices in this respect. Second, contrary to what Paul suggests, the value of finding out what an outcome is like for us does not suffice to (...)
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  22. Antti Revonsuo (2000). The Reinterpretation of Dreams: An Evolutionary Hypothesis of the Function of Dreaming. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 23 (6):877-901.
    Several theories claim that dreaming is a random by-product of REM sleep physiology and that it does not serve any natural function. Phenomenal dream content, however, is not as disorganized as such views imply. The form and content of dreams is not random but organized and selective: during dreaming, the brain constructs a complex model of the world in which certain types of elements, when compared to waking life, are underrepresented whereas others are over represented. Furthermore, dream content is consistently (...)
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  23. Antti Kauppinen (2012). Meaningfulness and Time. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 84 (2):345-377.
    (Pdf updated to final, slightly revised version of November 2010) -/- Almost everyone would prefer to lead a meaningful life. But what is meaning in life and what makes a life meaningful? I argue, first, for a new analysis of the concept of meaningfulness in terms of the appropriateness of feelings of fulfilment and admiration. Second, I argue that while the best current conceptions of meaningfulness, such as Susan Wolf’s view that in a meaningful life ‘subjective attraction meets objective attractiveness’, (...)
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  24. Antti Kauppinen (2013). Sentimentalism (International Encyclopedia of Ethics). In Hugh LaFollette (ed.), International Encyclopedia of Ethics. Blackwell
    Sentimentalism comes in many varieties: explanatory sentimentalism, judgment sentimentalism, metaphysical sentimentalism, and epistemic sentimentalism. This encyclopedia entry gives an overview of the positions and main arguments pro and con.
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  25. Antti Revonsuo (1995). Consciousness, Dreams and Virtual Realities. Philosophical Psychology 8 (1):35-58.
    In this paper I develop the thesis that dreams are essential to an understanding of waking consciousness. In the first part I argue in opposition to the philosophers Malcolm and Dennett that empirical evidence now shows dreams to be real conscious experiences. In the second part, three questions concerning consciousness research are addressed. (1) How do we isolate the system to be explained (consciousness) from other systems? (2) How do we describe the system thus isolated? (3) How do we reveal (...)
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  26. Antti Kauppinen (2014). Empathy, Emotion Regulation, and Moral Judgment. In Heidi Maibom (ed.), Empathy and Morality. Oxford University Press
    In this paper, my aim is to bring together contemporary psychological literature on emotion regulation and the classical sentimentalism of David Hume and Adam Smith to arrive at a plausible account of empathy's role in explaining patterns of moral judgment. Along the way, I criticize related arguments by Michael Slote, Jesse Prinz, and others.
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  27.  97
    Antti Karjalainen & Adam Morton (2003). Contrastive Knowledge. Philosophical Explorations 6 (2):74 – 89.
    We describe the three place relation of contrastive knowledge, which holds between a person, a target proposition, and a contrasting proposition. The person knows that p rather than that q. We argue for three claims about this relation. (a) Many common sense and philosophical ascriptions of knowledge can be understood in terms of it. (b) Its application is subject to fewer complications than non-contrastive knowledge is. (c) It applies over a wide range of human and nonhuman cases.
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  28. Antti Kauppinen (2013). Meaning and Happiness. Philosophical Topics 41 (1):161-185.
    What is the relationship between meaning in life and happiness? In psychological research, subjective meaning and happiness are often contrasted with each other. I argue that while the objective meaningfulness of a life is distinct from happiness, subjective or felt meaning is a key constituent of happiness, which is best understood as a multidimensional affective condition. Measures of felt meaning should consequently be included in empirical studies of the causes and correlates of happiness.
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  29. Antti Kauppinen (2015). Intuition and Belief in Moral Motivation. In Gunnar Björnsson (ed.), Moral Internalism. Oxford University Press
    It seems to many that moral opinions must make a difference to what we’re motivated to do, at least in suitable conditions. For others, it seems that it is possible to have genuine moral opinions that make no motivational difference. Both sides – internalists and externalists about moral motivation – can tell persuasive stories of actual and hypothetical cases. My proposal for a kind of reconciliation is to distinguish between two kinds of psychological states with moral content. There are both (...)
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  30.  13
    Antti Kauppinen (forthcoming). Reiluhko mahdollisuus onneen. In Tuomas Tahko (ed.), Mahdollisuus.
  31. Antti Kauppinen (2014). Fittingness and Idealization. Ethics 124 (3):572-588.
    This note explores how ideal subjectivism in metanormative theory can help solve two important problems for Fitting Attitude analyses of value. The wrong-kind-of-reason problem is that there may be sufficient reason for attitude Y even if the object is not Y-able. The many-kinds-of-fittingness problem is that the same attitude can be fitting in many ways. Ideal subjectivism addresses both by maintaining that an attitude is W-ly fitting if and only if endorsed by any W-ly ideal subject. A subject is W-ly (...)
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  32.  31
    Antti Kauppinen (forthcoming). Sentimentalism, Blameworthiness, and Wrongdoing. In Karsten Stueber & Remy Debes (eds.), Ethical Sentimentalism. Cambridge University Press
    For ambitious metaphysical neo-sentimentalists, all normative facts are grounded in fitting attitudes, where fittingness is understood in naturalistic terms. In this paper, I offer a neo-sentimentalist account of blameworthiness in terms of the reactive attitudes of a morally authoritative subject I label a Nagelian Imp. I also argue that moral impermissibility is indirectly linked to blameworthiness: roughly, an act is morally impermissible if and only if and because it is not *possible* in the circumstances to adopt a plan of performing (...)
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  33. Antti Kauppinen (2015). Favoring. Philosophical Studies 172 (7):1953-1971.
    It has become common to take reasons to form a basic normative category that is not amenable to non-circular analysis. This paper offers a novel characterization of reasons in terms of how we ought or it would be good for us to think in response to our awareness of facts, and thus rejects such Reason Primitivism. Briefly, for r to be a normative reason for A to φ is for it to be the case that A ought to conduct her (...)
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  34.  53
    Antti Revonsuo (2000). Inner Presence: Consciousness As a Biological Phenomenon. MIT Press.
  35. Antti Kauppinen (2015). Moral Intuition in Philosophy and Psychology. In Neil Levy & Jens Clausen (eds.), Springer Handbook of Neuroethics. Springer
    Psychologists and philosophers use the term 'intuition' for a variety of different phenomena. In this paper, I try to provide a kind of a roadmap of the debates, point to some confusions and problems, and give a brief sketch of an empirically respectable philosophical approach.
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  36.  38
    Antti Keskinen, Jani Hakkarainen & Markku Keinänen (2015). Concrete Universals and Spatial Relations. European Journal of Analytic Philosophy 11 (1):57-71.
    According to strong immanent realism, proposed for instance by David M. Armstrong, universals are concrete, located in their instances. E.J. Lowe and Douglas Ehring have presented arguments to the effect that strong immanent realism is incoherent. Cody Gilmore has defended strong immanent realism against the charge of incoherence. Gilmore’s argument has thus far remained unanswered. We argue that Gilmore’s response to the charge of incoherence is an ad hoc move without support independent of strong immanent realism itself. We conclude that (...)
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  37. Antti Kauppinen (2013). A Humean Theory of Moral Intuition. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 43 (3):360-381.
    According to the quasi-perceptualist account of philosophical intuitions, they are intellectual appearances that are psychologically and epistemically analogous to perceptual appearances. Moral intuitions share the key characteristics of other intuitions, but can also have a distinctive phenomenology and motivational role. This paper develops the Humean claim that the shared and distinctive features of substantive moral intuitions are best explained by their being constituted by moral emotions. This is supported by an independently plausible non-Humean, quasi-perceptualist theory of emotion, according to which (...)
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  38.  34
    Antti Revonsuo (1993). Is There a Ghost in the Cognitive Machinery? Philosophical Psychology 6 (4):387-405.
    The cognitive mind-brain is haunted by the ghost of consciousness. Cognitive science must face this ghost, since consciousness is perhaps the most important mental phenomenon: it forms a seemingly united, multimodal phenomenological world around the subject who experiences this world from a certain point of view. Many current approaches to consciousness fail to illuminate the nature of this “experienced world”. Some philosophers want to eliminate consciousness from science for good, others build theories in which the concept of consciousness is distorted (...)
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  39.  1
    Matti Kamppinen & Antti Revonsuo (1993). Ultimate Relativism. In Consciousness, Cognitive Schemata, and Relativism. Kluwer 229--242.
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  40.  82
    Antti Kauppinen (2014). Flourishing and Finitude. Journal of Ethics and Social Philosophy:1-6.
    It would be terrible for us if humanity ceased to exist after we all die. But of course, eventually humanity will go out of existence. Does this result in a vicious regress if our flourishing hangs on what happens after us? Mark Johnston thinks so. In this note, I explain how Johnston's objection can be avoided. Briefly, our activities have a meaning horizon that extends for some generations after us. What matters is that we make a positive difference to the (...)
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  41.  22
    Mika Koivisto, Antti Revonsuo & Minna Lehtonen (2006). Independence of Visual Awareness From the Scope of Attention: An Electrophysiological Study. Cerebral Cortex 16 (3):415-424.
  42.  23
    Antti Kauppinen (forthcoming). Character and Blame in Hume and Beyond. In Iskra Fileva (ed.), Questions of Character. Oxford University Press
    Are we really to blame only for actions that manifest our character, as Hume claims? In this paper, I explore Hume's reasoning and the nature of blame in general. I suggest that insofar as blame comes in a relational variety as well as the more familiar reactive one, there may be something to be said for linking blame with character flaws after all.
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  43. Antti Revonsuo (1999). Binding and the Phenomenal Unity of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 8 (2):173-85.
    The binding problem is frequently discussed in consciousness research. However, it is by no means clear what the problem is supposed to be and how exactly it relates to consciousness. In the present paper the nature of the binding problem is clarified by distinguishing between different formulations of the problem. Some of them make no mention of consciousness, whereas others are directly related to aspects of phenomenal experience. Certain formulations of the binding problem are closely connected to the classical philosophical (...)
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  44.  79
    Antti Kauppinen (2015). Meaningfulness (Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Well-Being). In Guy Fletcher (ed.), Routledge Handbook of the Philosophy of Well-Being. Routledge
    This paper is an overview of contemporary theories of meaning in life and its relation to well-being.
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  45. Antti Kauppinen (forthcoming). The Narrative Calculus. Oxford Studies in Normative Ethics 5.
    This paper examines systematically which features of a life story (or history) make it good for the subject herself - not aesthetically or morally good, but prudentially good. The tentative narrative calculus presented claims that the prudential narrative value of an event is a function of the extent to which it contributes to her concurrent and non-concurrent goals, the value of those goals, and the degree to which success in reaching the goals is deserved in virtue of exercising agency. The (...)
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  46. Antti Revonsuo & Katja Valli (2000). Dreaming and Consciousness: Testing the Threat Simulation Theory of the Function of Dreaming. Psyche 6 (8).
    We tested the new threat simulation theory of the biological function of dreaming by analysing 592 dreams from 52 subjects with a rating scale developed for quantifying threatening events in dreams. The main predictions were that dreams contain more frequent and more severe threats than waking life does; that dream threats are realistic; and that they primarily threaten the Dream Self who tends to behave in a relevant defensive manner in response to them. These predictions were confirmed and the theory (...)
     
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  47. Antti Kauppinen (2010). What Makes a Sentiment Moral? In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics vol. 5. Oxford University Press 225-256.
    Update January 2010: The original title of the paper ('A Sentimentalist Solution to the Moral Attitude Problem') was too long for OUP, so I had to change it. This is the final draft.
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  48. Katja Valli & Antti Revonsuo (2006). Recurrent Dreams: Recurring Threat Simulations? Consciousness and Cognition 15 (2):464-469.
  49.  18
    Maria Wilenius & Antti Revonsuo (2007). Timing of the Earliest ERP Correlate of Visual Awareness. Psychophysiology 44 (5):703-710.
  50.  31
    Mika Koivisto & Antti Revonsuo (2003). An ERP Study of Change Detection, Change Blindness, and Visual Awareness. Psychophysiology 40 (3):423-429.
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