Search results for 'Anuj Shah' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jiaying Zhao, Anuj Shah & Daniel Osherson (2009). On the Provenance of Judgments of Conditional Probability. Cognition 113 (1):26-36.score: 120.0
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  2. H. Shah (2004). Profile In Courage: Dr. L. P. Shah. Mens Sana Monographs 2 (1):1.score: 120.0
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  3. Nishi Shah (2003). How Truth Governs Belief. Philosophical Review 112 (4):447-482.score: 30.0
    Why, when asking oneself whether to believe that p, must one immediately recognize that this question is settled by, and only by, answering the question whether p is true? Truth is not an optional end for first-personal doxastic deliberation, providing an instrumental or extrinsic reason that an agent may take or leave at will. Otherwise there would be an inferential step between discovering the truth with respect to p and determining whether to believe that p, involving a bridge premise that (...)
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  4. Nishi Shah (2006). A New Argument for Evidentialism. Philosophical Quarterly 56 (225):481–498.score: 30.0
    When we deliberate whether to believe some proposition, we feel immediately compelled to look for evidence of its truth. Philosophers have labelled this feature of doxastic deliberation 'transparency'. I argue that resolving the disagreement in the ethics of belief between evidentialists and pragmatists turns on the correct explanation of transparency. My hypothesis is that it reflects a conceptual truth about belief: a belief that p is correct if and only if p. This normative truth entails that only evidence can be (...)
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  5. Nishi Shah & J. David Velleman (2005). Doxastic Deliberation. Philosophical Review 114 (4):497-534.score: 30.0
    Believing that p, assuming that p, and imagining that p involve regarding p as true—or, as we shall call it, accepting p. What distinguishes belief from the other modes of acceptance? We claim that conceiving of an attitude as a belief, rather than an assumption or an instance of imagining, entails conceiving of it as an acceptance that is regulated for truth, while also applying to it the standard of being correct if and only if it is true. We argue (...)
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  6. Nadeem J. Z. Hussain & Nishi Shah (2006). Misunderstanding Metaethics: Korsgaard's Rejection of Realism. In Russ Shafer-Landau (ed.), Oxford Studies in Metaethics 1. Clarendon Press. 265-94.score: 30.0
    Contemporary Kantianism is often regarded as both a position within normative ethics and as an alternative to metaethical moral realism. We argue that it is not clear how contemporary Kantianism can distinguish itself from moral realism. There are many Kantian positions. For reasons of space we focus on the position of one of the most prominent, contemporary Kantians, Christine Korsgaard. Our claim is that she fails to show either that Kantianism is different or that it is better than realism. Our (...)
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  7. Nishi Shah (2008). How Action Governs Intention. Philosophers' Imprint 8 (5):1-19.score: 30.0
    Why can't deliberation conclude in an intention except by considering whether to perform the intended action? I argue that the answer to this question entails that reasons for intention are determined by reasons for action. Understanding this feature of practical deliberation thus allows us to solve the toxin puzzle.
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  8. Nadeem J. Z. Hussain & Nishi Shah (forthcoming). Metaethics and Its Discontents: A Case Study of Korsgaard. In Carla Bagnoli (ed.), Moral Constructivism: For and Against. Cambridge University Press.score: 30.0
    The maturing of metaethics has been accompanied by widespread, but relatively unarticulated, discontent that mainstream metaethics is fundamentally on the wrong track. The malcontents we have in mind do not simply champion a competitor to the likes of noncognitivism or realism; they disapprove of the supposed presuppositions of the existing debate. Their aim is not to generate a new theory within metaethics, but to go beyond metaethics and to transcend the distinctions it draws between metaethics and normative ethics and between (...)
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  9. Nishiten Shah, Research Overview.score: 30.0
    Tom has mounting evidence that he has incurable cancer, but he also believes that he would be happier, regardless of the truth, were he to believe that he is healthy. W.K.Clifford, who famously claimed, “It is wrong, always, everywhere, and for anyone, to believe anything upon insufficient evidence,” would, depending upon the sufficiency of Tom’s evidence, direct him to believe that he has incurable cancer, no matter the results for his happiness. The legendary pragmatist William James, on the other hand, (...)
     
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  10. Nishi Shah & Jeffrey Kasser (2006). The Metaethics of Belief: An Expressivist Reading of “The Will to Believe”. Social Epistemology 20 (1):1-17.score: 30.0
    Taylor and Francis Ltd TSEP_A_151217.sgm..
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  11. Nishi Shah (2010). The Limits of Normative Detachment. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 110 (3pt3):347-371.score: 30.0
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  12. Nishi Shah, The Philosophical Review, Vol. 113, No. 4 (October 2004).score: 30.0
    George, feeling stressed and anxious about the criminal investigation into his firm’s accounting practices, decides that it would do him good to get away and take a long, relaxing vacation in Bermuda. According to popular informed-desire accounts of a person’s good, if George would desire to take a vacation to Bermuda upon being made fully aware of what his experience of the vacation would be like and of all the consequences therein, then this course of action would benefit him. This (...)
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  13. Jeff Kasser & Nishi Shah (2006). The Metaethics of Belief: An Expressivist Reading of "the Will to Believe&Quot;. Social Epistemology 20 (1):1 – 17.score: 30.0
    We argue that an expressivist interpretation of "The Will to Believe" provides a fruitful way of understanding this widely-read but perplexing document. James approaches questions about our intellectual obligations from two quite different standpoints. He first defends an expressivist interpretation of judgments of intellectual obligation; they are "only expressions of our passional life". Only then does James argue against evidentialism, and both his criticisms of Clifford and his defense of a more flexible ethics of belief presuppose this independently-defended expressivism. James (...)
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  14. Mehul Shah (2008). The Logics of Discovery in Popper's Evolutionary Epistemology. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 39 (2):303 - 319.score: 30.0
    Popper is well known for rejecting a logic of discovery, but he is only justified in rejecting the same type of logic of discovery that is denied by consequentialism. His own account of hypothesis generation, based on a natural selection analogy, involves an error-eliminative logic of discovery and the differences he admits between biological and conceptual evolution suggest an error-corrective logic of discovery. These types of logics of discovery are based on principles of plausibility that are used in the generation (...)
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  15. Mehul Shah (2007). Is It Justifiable to Abandon All Search for a Logic of Discovery? International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 21 (3):253 – 269.score: 30.0
    In his influential paper, 'Why Was the Logic of Discovery Abandoned?', Laudan contends that there has been no philosophical rationale for a logic of discovery since the emergence of consequentialism in the 19th century. It is the purpose of this paper to show that consequentialism does not involve the rejection of all types of logic of discovery. Laudan goes too far in his interpretation of the historical shift from generativism to consequentialism, and his claim that the context of pursuit belongs (...)
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  16. Nishi Shah (2002). Clearing Space For Doxastic Voluntarism. The Monist 85 (3):436-445.score: 30.0
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  17. Kavita R. Shah (2012). Balancing Consciences: How Our Obsession with Autonomy Sacrifices Our Duty to Our Patients. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 16 (2):233-237.score: 30.0
    Healthcare in the United States is most often described and experienced as an immense, convoluted industry with a sum greater than its parts. However, it is important to remember that these parts are distinct, autonomous individuals and entities with their own beliefs, customs, and viewpoints. Moral issues surface abundantly in healthcare due to its interconnectedness with human life with enhanced proximity during life’s beginning and end. Therefore, these individual beliefs are prone to clashing as seen in three key relationships: between (...)
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  18. Matthew K. Wynia, Emily E. Anderson, Kavita Shah & Timothy D. Hotze (2011). “Doctor, Would You Prescribe a Pill to Help Me…?” A National Survey of Physicians on Using Medicine for Human Enhancement. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (1):3 - 13.score: 30.0
    Using medical advances to enhance human athletic, aesthetic, and cognitive performance, rather than to treat disease, has been controversial. Little is known about physicians? experiences, views, and attitudes in this regard. We surveyed a national sample of physicians to determine how often they prescribe enhancements, their views on using medicine for enhancement, and whether they would be willing to prescribe a series of potential interventions that might be considered enhancements. We find that many physicians occasionally prescribe enhancements, but doctors hold (...)
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  19. Timothy D. Hotze, Kavita Shah, Emily E. Anderson & Matthew K. Wynia (2011). Response to Open Peer Commentaries on “'Doctor, Would You Prescribe a Pill to Help Me…?'A National Survey of Physicians on Using Medicine for Human Enhancement”. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (1):W1 - W3.score: 30.0
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  20. Mohammad Khan & S. Shah (2011). Agricultural Development and Associated Environmental and Ethical Issues in South Asia. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (6):629-644.score: 30.0
    South Asia is one of the most densely populated regions of the world, where despite a slow growth, agriculture remains the backbone of rural economy as it employs one half to over 90 percent of the labor force. Both extensive and intensive policy measures for agriculture development to feed the massive population of the region have resulted in land degradation and desertification, water scarcity, pollution from agrochemicals, and loss of agricultural biodiversity. The social and ethical aspects portray even a grimmer (...)
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  21. Ajit Shah (2011). Mental Competence or Best Interests? Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (2):151-152.score: 30.0
    The anthropological approach to mental competence is very interesting. I shall reason that the issue of mental competence and the determination best interests in the decision making process has been integrated together in this anthropological approach. I use the relatively recent Mental Capacity Act 2005 (MCA) for England and Wales (Department of Constitutional Affairs 2005) to illustrate this line of reasoning. I have deliberately chosen the phrase decision-making capacity (DMC) in this commentary to separate it from the concept of determination (...)
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  22. Ajit Shah (2011). The Pragmatic Aspects of Assessing Mental Capacity. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (2):133-134.score: 30.0
  23. Ajit Shah (2011). The Paradox of the Assessment of Capacity Under the Mental Capacity Act 2005. Philosophy, Psychiatry, and Psychology 18 (2):111-115.score: 30.0
    The mental capacity Act 2005 (MCA; Department of Constitutional Affairs 2005) was partially implemented on April 1, 2007, and fully implemented on October 1, 2007, in England and Wales. The MCA provides a statutory framework for people who lack decision-making capacity (DMC) or who have capacity and want to plan for the future when they may lack DMC. Health care and social care providers need to be familiar with the MCA and the associated legal structures and processes. The MCA is (...)
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  24. Nishi Shah & J. David Velleman (2005). Doxastic Deliberation. Philosophical Review 114 (4):497 - 534.score: 30.0
    Believing that p, assuming that p, and imagining that p involve regarding p as true---or, as we shall call it, accepting p. What distinguishes belief from the other modes of acceptance? We claim that conceiving of an attitude as a belief, rather than an assumption or an instance of imagining, entails conceiving of it as an acceptance that is regulated for truth, while also applying to it the standard of being correct if and only if it is true. We argue (...)
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  25. Seema K. Shah, How Lethal Injection Reform Constitutes Impermissible Research on Prisoners.score: 30.0
    This essay exposes how recent attempts at lethal injection reform have involved unethical and illegal research on prisoners. States are varying the doses and types of drugs used, developing methods designed for non-medical professionals to administer medical procedures, and gathering data or making provisions for the gathering of data to learn from executions gone wrong. When individual prisoners are executed under these conditions, states are conducting research on them. Conducting research or experimentation on prisoners in the process of reform is (...)
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  26. Mehul Shah (2008). The Socratic Teaching Method. Teaching Philosophy 31 (3):267-275.score: 30.0
    This paper will show how the three principles of the Socratic teaching method—midwifery, recollection, and cross-examination—are utilized in the treatment of learning diseases, that is, attitudes that interfere with effective learning. The Socratic teaching method differs from the traditional lecture model of teaching, but it does not sacrifice the therapeutic for the informative task of teaching. Rather, by indirectly imparting content and uncovering implicit content through careful questioning, it provides a careful balance between the informative and therapeutic aspects of teaching. (...)
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  27. Kevin Warwick, Huma Shah & James Moor (2013). Some Implications of a Sample of Practical Turing Tests. Minds and Machines 23 (2):163-177.score: 30.0
    A series of imitation games involving 3-participant (simultaneous comparison of two hidden entities) and 2-participant (direct interrogation of a hidden entity) were conducted at Bletchley Park on the 100th anniversary of Alan Turing’s birth: 23 June 2012. From the ongoing analysis of over 150 games involving (expert and non-expert, males and females, adults and child) judges, machines and hidden humans (foils for the machines), we present six particular conversations that took place between human judges and a hidden entity that produced (...)
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  28. S. K. Shah, R. D. Truog & F. G. Miller (2011). Death and Legal Fictions. Journal of Medical Ethics 37 (12):719-722.score: 30.0
    Advances in life-saving technologies in the past few decades have challenged our traditional understandings of death. Traditionally, death was understood to occur when a person stops breathing, their heart stops beating and they are cold to the touch. Today, physicians determine death by relying on a diagnosis of ‘total brain failure’ or by waiting a short while after circulation stops. Evidence has emerged, however, that the conceptual bases for these approaches to determining death are fundamentally flawed and depart substantially from (...)
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  29. Seema Shah, Rebecca Wolitz & Ezekiel Emanuel (2013). Refocusing the Responsiveness Requirement. Bioethics 27 (3):151-159.score: 30.0
    Many guidelines for international research require that studies be responsive to host community health needs or health priorities. Although responsiveness possesses great intuitive and rhetorical appeal, existing conceptions are confusing and difficult to apply. Not only are there few examples of what research the responsiveness requirement permits and what it rejects, but its application can lead to contradictory results. Because of the practical difficulties in applying responsiveness and the danger that misapplying responsiveness could harm the interests of developing countries, we (...)
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  30. Seema Shah (2011). The Dangers of Using a Relative Risk Standard for Minimal Risk. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (6):22 - 23.score: 30.0
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 11, Issue 6, Page 22-23, June 2011.
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  31. S. Akhtar Ali Shah (2011). Food Insecurity in Pakistan: Causes and Policy Response. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 24 (5):493-509.score: 30.0
    There is evidence of continued food insecurity and malnutrition in Pakistan despite significant progress made in terms of food production in recent years. According to “Vision 2030” of the Planning Commission of Pakistan, about half of the population in the country suffers from absolute to moderate malnutrition, with the most vulnerable being children, women, and elderly among the lowest income group. The Government of Pakistan has been taking a series of policy initiatives and strategic measures to combat food insecurity issues. (...)
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  32. Mohd Hazim Shah (2007). The Rise of Paradigmatic Monism and Its Cultural Implications. The Proceedings of the Twenty-First World Congress of Philosophy 7:81-86.score: 30.0
    In this paper I shall be looking at the state of science before and after the 17th century especially with regard to the question of the nature of scientific knowledge, specifically scientific paradigms. I will argue that some of the major differences between modern science and pre-modern science are due to (i) methodological changes, (ii) the rise of paradigmatic monism in modern science as opposed to paradigmatic pluralism in pre-modern science, (iii) the integration of science with technology after the 17th (...)
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  33. David Wendler & Seema Shah (2003). Should Children Decide Whether They Are Enrolled in Nonbeneficial Research? American Journal of Bioethics 3 (4):1 – 7.score: 30.0
    The U.S. federal regulations require investigators conducting nonbeneficial research to obtain the assent of children who are capable of providing it. Unfortunately, there has been no analysis of which children are capable of assent or even what abilities ground the capacity to give assent. Why should investigators be required to obtain the positive agreement of some children, but not others, before enrolling them in research that does not offer a compensating potential for direct benefit? We argue that the scope of (...)
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  34. Nirav Shah, Jeffrey Anderson & Holly J. Humphrey (2008). Teaching Professionalism: A Tale of Three Schools. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 51 (4):535-546.score: 30.0
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  35. Priti Shah & Eric G. Freedman (2011). Bar and Line Graph Comprehension: An Interaction of Top‐Down and Bottom‐Up Processes. Topics in Cognitive Science 3 (3):560-578.score: 30.0
    This experiment investigated the effect of format (line vs. bar), viewers’ familiarity with variables, and viewers’ graphicacy (graphical literacy) skills on the comprehension of multivariate (three variable) data presented in graphs. Fifty-five undergraduates provided written descriptions of data for a set of 14 line or bar graphs, half of which depicted variables familiar to the population and half of which depicted variables unfamiliar to the population. Participants then took a test of graphicacy skills. As predicted, the format influenced viewers’ interpretations (...)
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  36. Seema Shah & David Wendler (2010). Interpretation of the Subjects' Condition Requirement: A Legal Perspective. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 38 (2):365-373.score: 30.0
    The U.S. Federal regulations allow institutional review boards (IRBs) to approve non-beneficial pediatric research when the risks are a minor increase over minimal, provided that the research is likely to develop generalizable knowledge about the subjects' disorder or condition. This “subjects' condition” requirement is quite controversial; commentators have argued for a variety of interpretations. Despite this considerable disagreement in the literature, there have not been any attempts to apply principles of legal interpretation to determine how the subjects' condition requirement should (...)
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  37. S. Shah & R. K. Lie (2013). Aiming at a Moving Target: Research Ethics in the Context of Evolving Standards of Care and Prevention. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (11):699-702.score: 30.0
    In rapidly evolving medical fields where the standard of care or prevention changes frequently, guidelines are increasingly likely to conflict with what participants receive in research. Although guidelines typically set the standard of care, there are some cases in which research can justifiably deviate from guidelines. When guidelines conflict with research, an ethical issue only arises if guidelines are rigorous and should be followed. Next, it is important that the cumulative evidence and the conclusions reached by the guidelines do not (...)
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  38. Huma Shah & Kevin Warwick (2010). Hidden Interlocutor Misidentification in Practical Turing Tests. Minds and Machines, Vol. 20. No. 3 20 (3):441-454.score: 30.0
    Response to Floridi et al, 2008/2009. Based on insufficient evidence, and inadequate research, Floridi and his students report inaccuracies and draw false conclusions in their Minds and Machines evaluation, which this paper aims to clarify. Acting as invited judges, Floridi et al. participated in nine, of the ninety-six, Turing tests staged in the finals of the 18th Loebner Prize for Artificial Intelligence in October 2008. From the transcripts it appears that they used power over solidarity as an interrogation technique. As (...)
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  39. Matthew Evans & Nishi Shah (2012). Mental Agency and Metaethics. Oxford Studies in Metaethics 7:80-109.score: 30.0
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  40. Dale Gardiner, Paul Murphy, Alex Manara, Noam Stadlan, Paul Shore & Asim Shah (2013). A Brief Response to Religious and Secular Death: A Parting of the Ways. Bioethics 27 (7):409-409.score: 30.0
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  41. Kavita R. Shah (2010). Selecting Barrenness: The Use of Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis by Congenitally Infertile Women to Select for Infertility. Human Reproduction and Genetic Ethics 16 (1):7-21.score: 30.0
    Congenitally infertile woman such as those with Turner syndrome or Mayer Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome have available the technologies of oocyte harvestation, cryropreservation, in-vitro fertilization, and gestational surrogacy in order to have genetically related offspring. Since congenital infertility results in a variety of experiences that impacts on nearly every aspect of a person’s life, in the future it is possible that these women might desire a congenitally infertile child through the use of preimplantation genetic diagnosis so as to share this common bond. (...)
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  42. Nishi Shah (2013). Why We Reason the Way We Do. Philosophical Issues 23 (1):311-325.score: 30.0
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  43. J. C. Lindsey, S. K. Shah, G. K. Siberry, P. Jean‐Philippe & M. J. Levin (2013). Ethical Tradeoffs in Trial Design: Case Study of an HPV Vaccine Trial in HIV‐Infected Adolescent Girls in Lower Income Settings. Developing World Bioethics 13 (2):95-104.score: 30.0
    The Declaration of Helsinki and the Council of the International Organization of Medical Sciences provide guidance on standards of care and prevention in clinical trials. In the current and increasingly challenging research environment, the ethical status of a trial design depends not only on protection of participants, but also on social value, feasibility, and scientific validity. Using the example of a study assessing efficacy of a vaccine to prevent human papilloma virus in HIV-1 infected adolescent girls in low resource countries (...)
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  44. Huma Shah & Kevin Warwick (2010). Testing Turing's Parallel-Paired Imitation Game. Kybernetes 39 (3).score: 30.0
    The purpose of this paper is to consider Turing's two tests for machine intelligence: the parallel-paired, three-participants game presented in his 1950 paper, and the “jury-service” one-to-one measure described two years later in a radio broadcast. Both versions were instantiated in practical Turing tests during the 18th Loebner Prize for artificial intelligence hosted at the University of Reading, UK, in October 2008. This involved jury-service tests in the preliminary phase and parallel-paired in the final phase.
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  45. P. Thomas, A. Shah & T. Thornton (2009). Language, Games and the Role of Interpreters in Psychiatric Diagnosis: A Wittgensteinian Thought Experiment. Medical Humanities 35 (1):13-18.score: 30.0
    British society is becoming increasingly culturally and linguistically diverse. This poses a major challenge to mental health services charged with the responsibility to work in ways that respect cultural and linguistic difference. In this paper we investigate the problems of interpretation in the diagnosis of depression using a thought experiment to demonstrate important features of language-games, an idea introduced by Ludwig Wittgenstein in his late work, Philosophical investigations. The thought experiment draws attention to the importance of culture and contexts in (...)
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  46. Huma Shah & Kevin Warwick (2010). From the Buzzing in Turing’s Head to Machine Intelligence Contests. In TCIT 2010 / AISB 2010 Convention.score: 30.0
    This paper presents an analysis of three major contests for machine intelligence. We conclude that a new era for Turing’s test requires a fillip in the guise of a committed sponsor, not unlike DARPA, funders of the successful 2007 Urban Challenge.
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  47. Kavita R. Shah (2012). Increasing Cesarean Rates: The Balance of Technology, Autonomy, and Beneficence. American Journal of Bioethics 12 (7):58-59.score: 30.0
    The American Journal of Bioethics, Volume 12, Issue 7, Page 58-59, July 2012.
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  48. Nishi Shah & Katia Vavova (2014). Kornblith , Hilary . On Reflection . Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. Pp. 192. $45.00 (Cloth). Ethics 124 (3):632-636.score: 30.0
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  49. Seema K. Shah (2013). Outsourcing Ethical Obligations: Should the Revised Common Rule Address the Responsibilities of Investigators and Sponsors? Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 41 (2):397-410.score: 30.0
    The Common Rule creates a division of moral labor in research. It implies that investigators and sponsors can outsource their ethical obligations to IRBs and participants, thereby fostering a culture of compliance, rather than one of responsibility. The proposed revisions to the Common Rule are likely to exacerbate this problem. To harness the expressive power of the law, I propose the Common Rule be revised to include the ethical responsibilities of investigators and sponsors.
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