Search results for 'Ape' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  71
    Stuart G. Shanker & Barbara J. King (2002). The Emergence of a New Paradigm in Ape Language Research. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):605-620.
    In recent years we have seen a dramatic shift, in several different areas of communication studies, from an information-theoretic to a dynamic systems paradigm. In an (...)information processing system, communication, whether between cells, mammals, apes, or humans, is said to occur when one organism encodes information into a signal that is transmitted to another organism that decodes the signal. In a dynamic system, all of the elements are continuously interacting with and changing in respect to one another, and an aggregate pattern emerges from this mutual co-action. Whereas the information-processing paradigm looks at communication as a linear, binary sequence of events, the dynamic systems paradigm looks at the relation between behaviors and how the whole configuration changes over time. One of the most dramatic examples of the significance of shifting from an information processing to a dynamic systems paradigm can be found in the debate over the interpretation of recent advances in ape language research (ALR). To some extent, many of the early ALR studies reinforced the stereotype that animal communication is functional and stimulus bound, precisely because they were based on an information-processing paradigm that promoted a static model of communicative development. But Savage-Rumbaugh's recent results with bonobos has introduced an entirely new dimension into this debate. Shifting the terms of the discussion from an information-processing to a dynamic systems paradigm not only highlights the striking differences between Savage-Rumbaugh's research and earlier ALR studies, but further, it sheds illuminating light on the factors that underpin the development of communication skills in great apes and humans, and the relationship between communicative development and the development of language. Key Words: apes; ape language research (ALR); brain development; co-regulation; communication; dynamic systems; language development; symbols. (shrink)
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  2. Marc Bekoff (1997). Deep Ethology, Animal Rights, and the Great Ape/Animal Project: Resisting Speciesism and Expanding the Community of Equals. [REVIEW] Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 10 (3):269-296.
    In this essay I argue that the evolutionary and comparative study of nonhuman animal (hereafter animal) cognition in a wide range of taxa by cognitive ethologists can (...)
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  3.  2
    Mary Trachsel (2010). Human Uniqueness in the Age of Ape Language Research. Society and Animals 18 (4):397-412.
    This paper summarizes the debate on human uniqueness launched by Charles Darwins publication of The Origin of Species in 1859. In the progress of this debate, (...)Noam Chomskys introduction of the Language-Acquisition Device in the mid-1960s marked a turn to the machine model of mind that seeks human uniqueness in uniquely human components of neural circuitry. A subsequent divergence from the machine model can be traced in the short history of ape language research . In the past fifty years, the focus of ALR has shifted from the search for behavioral evidence of syntax in the minds of individual apes to participant-observation of coregulated interactions between humans and nonhuman apes. Rejecting the computational machine model of mind, the laboratory methodologies of ALR scientists Tetsuro Matsuzawa and Sue Savage-Rumbaugh represent a worldview coherent with Darwins continuity hypothesis. (shrink)
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  4. Richard Moore (2013). Evidence and Interpretation in Great Ape Gestural Communication. Humana.Mente 24:27-51.
    Tomasello and colleagues have offered various arguments to explain why apes find the comprehension of pointing difficult. They have argued that: (i) apes fail to understand communicative (...)
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  5.  17
    Robert P. Farrell & C. A. Hooker (2007). Applying Self-Directed Anticipative Learning to Science I: Agency, Error, and the Interactive Exploration of Possibility Space in Early Ape-Langugae Research. Perspectives on Science 15 (1):87-124.
    : The purpose of this paper and its sister paper (Farrell and Hooker, b) is to present, evaluate and elaborate a proposed new model for the process of (...) scientific development: self-directed anticipative learning (SDAL). The vehicle for its evaluation is a new analysis of a well-known historical episode: the development of ape-language research. In this first paper we outline five prominent features of SDAL that will need to be realized in applying SDAL to science: 1) interactive exploration of possibility space; 2) self-directedness; 3) localization of success and error; 4) Synergistic increase in learning capacity; and 5) continuity of SDAL process across scientific change. In this paper we examine the first three features of SDAL in relation to the early history of ape-language research. We show that this history is readily explicated as a self-directed, ever-finer, delineation of possibility space that enables the localization of both success and error. Paper II examines the last two features against this history. (shrink)
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  6.  18
    Robert P. Farrell & C. A. Hooker (2007). Applying Self-Directed Anticipative Learning to Science II: Learning How to Learn Across a Revolution in Early Ape Language Research. Perspectives on Science 15 (2):222-255.
    : The purpose of this paper and its sister paper I (Farrell and Hooker, a) is to present, evaluate and elaborate a proposed new model for the process (...) of scientific development: self-directed anticipative learning. The vehicle for its evaluation is a new analysis of a well-known historical episode: the development of ape language research. Paper I examined the basic features of SDAL in relation to the early history of ape-language research. In this second paper we examine the reconceptualization of ape-language research following what many conceived to be Terrace's refutation of ape-language. We show that the apparent 'revolution' in our understanding of ape linguistic capacities was not based upon 'revolutionary' research different in kind from 'normal' research. The same processes of self-directed interactive exploration of possibility space, that enables a homing-in upon both error and success, is present in all phases of productive science. Moreover, conceiving science as an SDAL process explains how scientists learn how to learn about their research domain. (shrink)
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  7.  54
    Howard Sankey (2010). Descartes's Language Test and Ape Language Research. Teorema: International Journal of Philosophy 29 (2):111-123.
    Some philosophers (e.g. Descartes) argue that there is an evidential relationship between language and thought, such that presence of language is indicative of mind. Recent language (...)acquisition research with apes such as chimpanzees and bonobos attempts to demonstrate the capacity of these primates to acquire at least rudimentary linguistic capacity. This paper presents a case study of the ape language research and explores the consequences of the research with respect to the argument that animals lack mind because they fail to display linguistic capacity. (shrink)
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  8.  2
    Richard Moore (2016). Meaning and Ostension in Great Ape Gestural Communication. Animal Cognition 19 (1):223-231.
    It is sometimes argued that while human gestures are produced ostensively and intentionally, great ape gestures are produced only intentionally. If true, this would make the psychological (...)
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  9.  6
    David Bindman (2002). Ape to Apollo: Aesthetics and the Idea of Race in the 18th Century. Cornell University Press.
    Ape to Apollo is the first book to follow the development in the eighteenth century of the idea of race as it shaped and was shaped by (...)
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  10.  6
    Robert P. Farrell (2006). Rational Versus Anti-Rational Interpretations of Science: an Ape-Language Case-Study. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (1):83-100.
    Robert Nola has argued that anti-rationalist interpretations of science fail to adequately explain the process of science, since objective reasons can be causal factors in belief (...)formation. While I agree with Nola that objective reasons can be a cause of belief, in this paper I present a version of the strong programme in the sociology of knowledge, the Interests Thesis, and argue that the Interests Thesis provides a plausible explanation of an episode in the history of ape-language research. Specifically, I examine Terrace, Petitto, Sandess, & Bever illegitimate comparison of the signing of their chimpanzee, Nim, with data from human early childhood language development, and argue that Terrace et al.’s interests played a causal role in determining their sceptical beliefs concerning ape linguistic abilities. However, I go on to argue that Terrace et al.’s interests are not the only causal factors in determining their beliefs: objective reasons, associated with the institution of new methodologies, were also causally determinative of Terrace et al.’s sceptical beliefs. Consequently, I argue that belief formation in science is a multi-factorial affair wherein both interests and objective reasons have causal roles. I finish the paper with two conjectures concerning the proper locus of scientific rationality. (shrink)
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  11.  41
    Christopher Cosans (1994). Anatomy, Metaphysics, and Values: The Ape Brain Debate Reconsidered. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 9 (2):129-165.
    Conventional wisdom teaches that Thomas Huxley discredited Richard Owen in their debate over ape and human brains. This paper reexamines the dispute and uses it as a (...)
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  12.  48
    Kristin Andrews, Ape Autonomy? Social Norms and Moral Agency in Other Species.
    Once upon a time, not too long ago, the question about apes and ethics had to do with moral standingdo apes have interests or rights that (...)humans ought to respect? Given the fifty years of research on great ape cognition, life history, social organization, and behavior, the answer to that question seems obvious. Apes have emotions and projects, they can be harmed, and they have important social relationships. (shrink)
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  13.  47
    Kristin Andrews, The First Step in the Case for Great Ape Equality: The Argument for Other Minds.
    A defense of equality for great apes must begin with an understanding of the opposition and an acknowledgement of the most basic point of disagreement. For great (...)
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  14.  9
    Igor Hanzel (2012). Sue Savage-Rumbaugh's Research Into Ape LanguageScience and Methodology. Organon F: Medzinárodný Časopis Pre Analytickú Filozofiu 19 (2):201-226.
    The aim of the paper is to investigate, from the point of view of philosophy of science and philosophy of social science, the turn in the ape (...)
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  15.  6
    Anne E. Russon & David R. Begun (2002). Great Ape Communication: Cognitive and Evolutionary Approaches. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):638-638.
    There are good arguments for examining great ape communicative achievements for what they contribute to our understanding of great ape cognition and its evolution (Russon & Begun, in (...) press a). Our concern is whether Shanker & King's (S&K's) thesis advances communication studies from a broader cognitive and evolutionary perspective. (shrink)
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  16.  7
    Edward Kako (2002). What Ape Language Research Means for Representations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):629-629.
    Shanker & King (S&K) rightly stress that recent ape language research has important implications for language development and origins. But the evidence does not warrant their conclusion (...)
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  17.  1
    Marion Thomas (2006). Yerkes, Hamilton and the Experimental Study of the Ape Mind: From Evolutionary Psychiatry to Eugenic Politics. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 37 (2):273-294.
    Robert Yerkes is a pivotal figure in American psychology and primatology in the first half of the twentieth century. As is well known, Yerkes first studied ape (...)
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  18. Paola Cavalieri & Peter Singer (1993). The Great Ape Projectand Beyond. In Peter Singer & Paola Cavalieri (eds.), The Great Ape Project. St. Martin's Griffin 304--312.
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  19. Richard Byrne (1995). The Thinking Ape: Evolutionary Origins of Intelligence. Oxford University Press Uk.
    "Intelligence" has long been considered to be a feature unique to human beings, giving us the capacity to imagine, to think, to deceive, to make complex connections (...)
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  20. John S. Wilkins (2015). Gods Above: Naturalizing Religion in Terms of Our Shared Ape Social Dominance Behavior. Sophia 54 (1):77-92.
    To naturalize religion, we must identify what religion is, and what aspects of it we are trying to explain. In this paper, <span class='Hi'>religiousspan> social (...)span> features, including the high status afforded the <span class='Hi'>religiousspan>, and the high status afforded to deities, are an expression of this social dominance psychology in a context for which it did not evolve: high-density populations made possible by agriculture. (shrink)
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  21.  1
    E. S. Savage-Rumbaugh & E. Rubert (1992). Language Comprehension in Ape and Child: Evolutionary Implications. In Y. Christen & P. S. Churchland (eds.), Neurophilosophy and Alzheimer's Disease. Springer-Verlag 30--48.
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  22. Peter Singer & Paola Cavalieri (eds.) (1993). The Great Ape Project. St. Martin's Griffin.
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  23.  24
    Natacha Mendes, Hannes Rakoczy & Josep Call (2008). Ape Metaphysics: Object Individuation Without Language. Cognition 106 (2):730-749.
  24.  51
    R. J. A. Berry (1931). The Brain From Ape to Man. The Eugenics Review 23 (1):71.
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  25.  4
    Roger K. R. Thompson & David L. Oden (2000). Categorical Perception and Conceptual Judgments by Nonhuman Primates: The Paleological Monkey and the Analogical Ape. Cognitive Science 24 (3):363-396.
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  26.  12
    Adriana Novoa (2010). From Man to Ape: Darwinism in Argentina, 1870-1920. University of Chicago Press.
    Adriana Novoa and Alex Levine offer here a history and interpretation of the reception of Darwinism in Argentina, illuminating the ways culture shapes ...
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  27.  25
    E. G. N. Borg (2014). From Ape Empathy to Human Morality? Analysis 74 (4):577-587.
    The idea that empathy provides an important developmental precursor to moral decision-making possesses significant conceptual appeal. However, the idea of a necessary, diachronic relation between empathy (...)and morality has been rejected recently (by Prinz 2011, amongst others). This article reassesses the strength of the claim that empathy is developmentally necessary for (at least some forms of) morality and argues that the position remains a live possibility. (shrink)
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  28.  13
    Ralph Wendell Burhoe (1979). Religion's Role in Human Evolution: The Missing Link Between Ape-Man's Selfish Genes and Civilized Altruism. Zygon 14 (2):135-162.
  29. Barbara Smuts (2006). Emergence in Social Evolution: A Great Ape Example. In P. Davies & P. Clayton (eds.), The Re-Emergence of Emergence. Oxford University Press 166.
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  30.  2
    A. S. Le Souef (1934). Notes on Ape Mentality. Australasian Journal of Psychology and Philosophy 12 (1):73-76.
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  31.  36
    Jelle de Boer (2011). Moral Ape Philosophy. Biology and Philosophy 26 (6):891-904.
    Our closest relative the chimpanzee seems to display proto-moral behavior. Some scholars emphasize the similarities between humans and chimpanzees, others some key differences. This paper aims (...)is to formulate a set of intermediate conditions between a sometimes helpful chimpanzee and moral man. I specify these intermediate conditions as requirements for the chimpanzees, and for each requirement I take on a verificationist stance and ask what the empirical conditions that satisfy it would be. I ask what would plausibly count as the behavioral correlate of each requirement, when implemented. I take a philosophical look at morality using the chimpanzees as a prism. We will talk of propositional attitudes, rationality and reason in relation to the chimps. By means of the chimps I intend to arrive at a notion of objective morality as conceived from a first person point of view in terms of propositional attitudes and reasons. (shrink)
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  32.  3
    Justin Leiber (1983). Why It is Unsurprising That ApeLanguage TrainingEnhancesCompleting Incomplete Representations of Action”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 6 (1):151.
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  33.  13
    Sebastian Tempelmann, Juliane Kaminski & Katja Liebal (2013). When Apes Point the Finger: Three Great Ape Species Fail to Use a Conspecifics Imperative Pointing Gesture. Interaction Studies 14 (1):7-23.
    In contrast to apes' seemingly sophisticated skill at producing pointing gestures referentially, the comprehension of other individual's pointing gestures as a source of indexical information seems (...)to be less pronounced.One reason for apes' difficulty at comprehending pointing gestures might be that in former studies they were mainly confronted with human declarative pointing gestures, whereas apes have largely been shown to point imperatively and towards humans. In the present study bonobos, chimpanzees and orangutans were confronted with a conspecific's imperative pointing gesture in a competitive context, therefore mirroring former studies that have investigated apes' skills at producing these gestures.However, apes in the present study did not use their conspecific's pointing gestures. Apes have been shown to use indexical information when provided noncommunicatively and to interpret other individuals' actions in terms of motives. Thus, it is discussed whether apes treat a pointing gesture as intentional act of indexical reference. (shrink)
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  34.  7
    Tom Barbalet (2013). The Mind of the Noble Ape in Three Simulations. In Liz Swan (ed.), Origins of Mind. 383--397.
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  35. G. M. Burghardt (1997). The Great Ape Project: Equality Beyond Humanity by Paola Cavalieri and Peter Singer (Eds.). Society and Animals 5:83-85.
     
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  36.  9
    Lillian Unger Pancheri (1976). The Magnet, the Oyster, and the Ape, or Pierre Gassendi and the Principle of Plenitude. Modern Schoolman 53 (2):141-150.
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  37.  14
    Peter Singer, The Great Ape Debate.
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  38.  11
    D'Arcy W. Thompson (1939). The Ape in Antiquity W. C. McDermott: The Ape in Antiquity. (The Johns Hopkins University Studies in Archaeology, No. 27.) Pp. Vii + 338; 10 Plates. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press (London: Milford), 1938. Cloth, 22s. 6d. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 53 (02):81-.
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  39.  11
    P. G. Maxwell-Stuart (2001). F. Roscalla: Presenze simboliche dell'ape nella Grecia antica . (Pubblicazioni della Facoltà di Lettere e Filosofia dell'Università di Pavia 86.) Pp. 148, 16 ills. Pavia: La Nuova Italia Editrice, 1998. Paper, L. 50,000. ISBN: 88-221-2825-. [REVIEW] The Classical Review 51 (02):417-.
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  40.  4
    H. J. Rose & W. C. McDermott (1939). The Ape in Antiquity. Journal of Hellenic Studies 59:167.
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  41.  4
    Tom Quick (2013). Owen's Ape and Darwin's Bulldog: Beyond Darwinism and Creationism. Annals of Science 70 (1):105-107.
  42.  7
    Frank Schalow (2008). Essence and Ape. American Catholic Philosophical Quarterly 82 (3):445-462.
    This paper develops the question of Heideggers stance toward evolutionary theory. It shows that evolutionary theory harbors its own set of presuppositions,which in turn can be (...) explicated through Heideggers hermeneutic strategy offormal indication.” The paper concludes that Heideggers account of animal lifediverges from that of evolutionary theory, not simply due to the naturalistic claims of the latter, but rather because the former places the openness of inquiry aheadof any theoretical concerns. As a result, Heideggers hermeneutic phenomenology stakes out a unique territory which stands apart from either a traditionally religious or secular viewpoint, each of which risks falling into the trap of dogmatism. (shrink)
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  43.  1
    Richard Perkins (1986). How the Ape Becomes a Superman. Nietzsche-Studien 15 (1):180.
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  44.  1
    Vilmos Voigt (1990). Lessons in Ape Paintings. Semiotics:191-201.
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  45.  1
    Patrick J. J. Philliips (1998). Ape Language. Cogito 12 (1):17-23.
  46.  2
    Jacques Vauclair & Joël Fagot (1993). Can a Saussurian Ape Be Endowed with Episodic Memory Only? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 16 (4):772.
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  47.  2
    Lucilla Spini (2001). BonoboThe Forgotten Ape. By Frans de Waal & Frans Lanting. Pp. 210 (University of California Press, Berkeley, Los Angeles and London, 1997.) £24·95, ISBN 0520216512, Paperback. [REVIEW] Journal of Biosocial Science 33 (1):155-160.
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  48.  1
    Joseph J. Pear (2002). Does the New Paradigm in Ape-Language Research Ape Behaviorism? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (5):635-636.
    Although Shanker & King disregard the behavioral paradigm, their arguments are reminiscent of those in Skinner 's Verbal Behavior. Like S&K, Skinner maintained that communication is not (...)
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  49.  1
    Stuart G. Shanker & Talbot J. Taylor (2004). The Significance of Ape Language Research. In Christina E. Erneling (ed.), The Mind as a Scientific Object: Between Brain and Culture. Oxford University Press 367.
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  50.  1
    Marion W. Copeland (2012). The History of Ape Language Experimentation in Fiction: A Review Essay. Society and Animals 20 (3):316-323.
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