This study investigated effects of codes of ethics on perceptions of ethical behavior. Respondents from companies with codes of ethics (n = 465) rated role set members (top management, supervisors, peers, subordinates, self) as more ethical and felt more encouraged and supported for ethical behavior than respondents from companies without codes (n = 301). Key aspects of the organizational climate, such as supportiveness for ethical behavior, freedom to act ethically, and satisfaction with the outcome of ethical problems were impacted by (...) the presence of an ethics code. The mere presence of a code of ethics appears to have a positive impact on perceptions of ethical behavior in organizations, even when respondents cannot recall specific content of the code. (shrink)
Armen Alchian's article ?Uncertainty, evolution and economic theory? is widely acknowledged as a classic contribution to economics. Its prominence is due in part to Milton Friedman citing it as an influence on his thesis that processes of natural selection produce profit-maximising firms, and this in turn has been widely labelled ?The Alchian-Friedman Argument? or ?The Alchian thesis? in the economic literature. In fact, ?The Alchian thesis? - that natural selection produces profit-maximising firms - is one to which Alchian did (...) not subscribe. It was instead a doctrine which he carefully and clearly rejected. This paper provides a necessary corrective to the widespread misrepresentation of Alchian's views. It is suggested that the major reason for the misrepresentation is that Friedman's interpretation of Alchian views have been accepted at face value without proper attention being given to what Alchian actually said. (shrink)
The author describes problems facing Armenia in reorganization of the structure of science in the post-socialist era with the aim of utilizing limited state resources more efficiently by reducing the number of separate scientific institutes, concentrating on essential core subjects required by the nation and encouraging all other projects to compete in the international arena for grant sponsorship.