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Profile: Armin W. Schulz (London School of Economics)
  1. Armin W. Schulz (forthcoming). Firms, Agency, and Evolution. Journal of Economic Methodology:1-20.
    A recent trend in economics has been to appeal to evolutionary theory when addressing various open questions in the subject. I here further investigate one particular such appeal to evolutionary biology: the argument that, since markets select firms as coherent units, firms should be seen to be genuine economic agents. To assess this argument, I present a model of firm/office selection in a competitive market, and show that there are cases where markets can select for firms/offices as collective units – (...)
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  2. Armin W. Schulz (forthcoming). The Heuristic Defense of Scientific Models: An Incentive-Based Assessment. Perspectives on Science:424-442.
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  3. Armin W. Schulz (2015). Interdisciplinary Thinking About Mechanisms and Causes. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 50:94-97.
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  4. Armin W. Schulz (2014). Kim Sterelny, Richard Joyce, Brett Calcott, and Ben Fraser (Eds) Cooperation and its Evolution. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 65 (4):893-897.
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  5. Armin W. Schulz (2014). Niche Construction, Adaptive Preferences, and the Differences Between Fitness and Utility. Biology and Philosophy 29 (3):315-335.
    A number of scholars have recently defended the claim that there is a close connection between the evolutionary biological notion of fitness and the economic notion of utility: both are said to refer to an organism’s success in dealing with its environment, and both are said to play the same theoretical roles in their respective sciences. However, an analysis of two seemingly disparate but in fact structurally related phenomena—‘niche construction’ (the case where organisms change their environment to make it fit (...)
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  6. Armin W. Schulz (2013). Overextension: The Extended Mind and Arguments From Evolutionary Biology. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 3 (2):241-255.
    I critically assess two widely cited evolutionary biological arguments for two versions of the ‘Extended Mind Thesis’ (EMT): namely, an argument appealing to Dawkins’s ‘Extended Phenotype Thesis’ (EPT) and an argument appealing to ‘Developmental Systems Theory’ (DST). Specifically, I argue that, firstly, appealing to the EPT is not useful for supporting the EMT (in either version), as it is structured and motivated too differently from the latter to be able to corroborate or elucidate it. Secondly, I extend and defend Rupert’s (...)
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  7. Armin W. Schulz (2013). Selection, Drift, and Independent Contrasts: Defending the Methodological Foundations of the FIC. [REVIEW] Biological Theory 7 (1):38-47.
    Felsenstein’s method of independent contrasts (FIC) is one of the most widely used approaches to the study of correlated evolution. However, it is also quite controversial: numerous researchers have called various aspects of the method into question. Among these objections, there is one that, for two reasons, stands out from the rest: first, it is rather philosophical in nature; and second, it has received very little attention in the literature thus far. This objection concerns Sober’s charge that the FIC is (...)
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  8. Armin W. Schulz (2012). Signals: Evolution, Learning, and Information. Journal of Economic Methodology 19 (1):84-88.
    Journal of Economic Methodology, Volume 19, Issue 1, Page 84-88, March 2012.
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  9. Armin W. Schulz (2011). Gigerenzer's Evolutionary Arguments Against Rational Choice Theory: An Assessment. Philosophy of Science 78 (5):1272-1282.
  10. Armin W. Schulz (2011). Simulation, Simplicity, and Selection: An Evolutionary Perspective on High-Level Mindreading. [REVIEW] Philosophical Studies 152 (2):271 - 285.
    In this paper, I argue that a natural selection-based perspective gives reasons for thinking that the core of the ability to mindread cognitively complex mental states is subserved by a simulationist process—that is, that it relies on nonspecialised mechanisms in the attributer's cognitive architecture whose primary function is the generation of her own decisions and inferences. In more detail, I try to establish three conclusions. First, I try to make clearer what the dispute between simulationist and non-simulationist theories of mindreading (...)
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  11. Armin W. Schulz (2011). Sober & Wilson's Evolutionary Arguments for Psychological Altruism: A Reassessment. Biology and Philosophy 26 (2):251-260.
    In their book Unto Others, Sober and Wilson argue that various evolutionary considerations (based on the logic of natural selection) lend support to the truth of psychological altruism. However, recently, Stephen Stich has raised a number of challenges to their reasoning: in particular, he claims that three out of the four evolutionary arguments they give are internally unconvincing, and that the one that is initially plausible fails to take into account recent findings from cognitive science and thus leaves open a (...)
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  12. Armin W. Schulz (2010). It Takes Two: Sexual Strategies and Game Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 41 (1):41-49.
    David Buss’s Sexual Strategies Theory is one of the major evolutionary psychological research programmes, but, as I try to show in this paper, its theoretical and empirical foundations cannot yet be seen to be fully compelling. This lack of cogency comes about due to Buss’s failure to attend to the interactive nature of his subject matter, which leads him to overlook two classic and well known issues of game theoretic and evolutionary biological analysis. Firstly, Buss pays insufficient attention to the (...)
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  13. Armin W. Schulz (2009). Condorcet and Communitarianism: Boghossian's Fallacious Inference. Synthese 166 (1):55 - 68.
    This paper defends the communitarian account of meaning against Boghossian’s (Wittgensteinian) arguments. Boghossian argues that whilst such an account might be able to accommodate the infinitary characteristic of meaning, it cannot account for its normativity: he claims that, since the dispositions of a group must mirror those of its members, the former cannot be used to evaluate the latter. However, as this paper aims to make clear, this reasoning is fallacious. Modelling the issue with four (justifiable) assumptions, it shows that (...)
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  14. Armin W. Schulz (2008). Structural Flaws: Massive Modularity and the Argument From Design. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 59 (4):733-743.
    recent defence of the massive modularity thesis. However, as this paper seeks to show, there are major flaws in its structure. If construed deductively, it is unsound: modular mental architecture is not necessarily the best architecture, and even if it were, this alone would not show that this architecture evolved. If construed inductively, it is not much more convincing, as it then appears to be too weak to support the kind of modularity Carruthers is concerned with. The upshot of this (...)
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  15. Armin W. Schulz (2008). Risky Business: Evolutionary Theory and Human Attitudes Toward Risk—a Reply to Okasha. Journal of Philosophy 105 (3):156-165.
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