Search results for 'Arms control' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jürgen Altmann (2013). Arms Control for Armed Uninhabited Vehicles: An Ethical Issue. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):137-152.score: 240.0
    Arming uninhabited vehicles (UVs) is an increasing trend. Widespread deployment can bring dangers for arms-control agreements and international humanitarian law (IHL). Armed UVs can destabilise the situation between potential opponents. Smaller systems can be used for terrorism. Using a systematic definition existing international regulation of armed UVs in the fields of arms control, export control and transparency measures is reviewed; these partly include armed UVs, but leave large gaps. For preventive arms control a (...)
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  2. Wendell Wallach & Colin Allen (2013). Framing Robot Arms Control. Ethics and Information Technology 15 (2):125-135.score: 240.0
    The development of autonomous, robotic weaponry is progressing rapidly. Many observers agree that banning the initiation of lethal activity by autonomous weapons is a worthy goal. Some disagree with this goal, on the grounds that robots may equal and exceed the ethical conduct of human soldiers on the battlefield. Those who seek arms-control agreements limiting the use of military robots face practical difficulties. One such difficulty concerns defining the notion of an autonomous action by a robot. Another challenge (...)
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  3. Robert Sparrow (2009). Predators or Ploughshares? Arms Control of Robotic Weapons. IEEE Technology and Society 28 (1):25-29.score: 210.0
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  4. Chang-hee Nam (2008). Hado-Nakseo Model and Nuclear Arms Control. Proceedings of the Xxii World Congress of Philosophy 29:87-97.score: 180.0
    The theory of Yin and Yang and the Five Movements is based on the concept of cyclical time. This ancient cosmological model postulates that when expansive energy reaches its apex, mutual life-saving relations prevail over mutually conflictual societal relations, and that this cycle repeats. This cosmic change model was first presented in ancient Korea and China, by Hado-Nakseo, via numerological configurations and symbols. The Hado diagram was drawn by a Korean thinker, Bok-hui (?-BC3413), also known as Great Empeor Fuzi or (...)
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  5. J. Donaghy (1984). John Donaghy -- The Ideology of Arms Control: Living with Nuclear Weapons. Philosophy and Social Criticism 10 (3-4):181-188.score: 150.0
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  6. Robert L. Pfaltzgraff (1985). Nuclear Deterrence and Arms Control: Ethical Issues for the 1980s. Social Philosophy and Policy 3 (01):74-.score: 150.0
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  7. Nina Tannenwald (2001). U.S. Arms Control Policy in a Time Warp. Ethics and International Affairs 15 (1):51–70.score: 150.0
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  8. Jürgen Altmann & Mark A. Gubrud (2004). Military, Arms Control, and Security Aspects of Nanotechnology. In Baird D. (ed.), Discovering the Nanoscale. Ios. 269--277.score: 150.0
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  9. Barton J. Bernstein (1987). Toward a Livable World: Leo Szilard and the Crusade for Nuclear Arms Control. The Mit Press.score: 150.0
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  10. R. B. Brown (2003). Contemporary Nuclear Debates: Missile Defense, Arms Control, and Arms Races in the Twenty-First Century. Edited by Alexander TJ Lennon. The European Legacy 8 (3):359-359.score: 150.0
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  11. Alvin M. Weinberg (1987). The Strategic Defense Initiative, Arms Control, and the Ethos of the University. Minerva 25 (4):486-501.score: 150.0
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  12. Inmaculada de Melo-Martin (2011). When Ethics Constrains Clinical Research: Trial Design of Control Arms in "Greater Than Minimal Risk" Pediatric Trials. Human Gene Therapy 22 (9):1121-27.score: 120.0
     
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  13. Tarald O. Kvalseth (1974). A Preview-Constraint Model of Rotary Arm Control as an Extension of Fitts's Law. Journal of Experimental Psychology 102 (4):696-699.score: 84.0
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  14. Robert Ayson (2012). Hedley Bull and the Accommodation of Power. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 60.0
    Offering a comprehensive account of the work of Hedley Bull, Ayson analyses the breadth of Bull's work as a Foreign Office official for Harold Wilson's government, the complexity of his views, including Bull's unpublished papers, and ...
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  15. Brian Rappert (ed.) (2010). Education and Ethics in the Life Sciences: Strengthening the Prohibition of Biological Weapons. Anu E Press.score: 60.0
    At the start of the twenty-first century, warnings have been raised in some quarters about how - by intent or by mishap - advances in biotechnology and related ...
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  16. Jürgen Altmann (2008). Military Uses of Nanotechnology—Too Much Complexity for International Security? Complexity 14 (1):62-70.score: 60.0
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  17. Howard B. Degenholtz, Lisa S. Parker & Charles F. Reynolds (2002). Trial Design and Informed Consent for a Clinic-Based Study with a Treatment as Usual Control Arm. Ethics and Behavior 12 (1):43 – 62.score: 54.0
    Employing the National Institute of Mental Health-funded Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly Collaborative Trial as a case study, we discuss 2 sets of ethical issues: obtaining informed consent for a clinic-based intervention study and using treatment as usual (TAU) as the control condition. We then address these ethical issues in the context of the debate about the quality improvement efforts of health care organizations. Our analysis reveals the tension between ethics and scientific integrity involved with using TAU (...)
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  18. B. Ann Tlusty (2011). The Martial Ethic in Early Modern Germany: Civic Duty and the Right of Arms. Palgrave Macmillan.score: 54.0
    Machine generated contents note: -- Introduction -- Keeping the Peace: Household, Citizenship, and Defense -- Duty and Disorder -- Negotiating Armed Power: The Control of Arms and Violence -- The Age of the Sword: Norms of Honor and Fashion -- Keeping and Bearing Arms: Norms of Status and Gender -- In and Out of the Commune: The Social Boundaries of Citizenship -- Martial Sports and the Technological Challenge -- Communities in Conflict: Competing Jurisdictions in the Empire -- (...)
     
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  19. A. M. Gordon & D. A. Rosenbaum (1984). Conscious and Subconscious Arm Movements: Application of Signal Detection Theory to Motor Control. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 22 (3):214-216.score: 50.0
  20. C. Torras (2002). Robot Arm Control. In M. Arbib (ed.), The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Mit Press. 979--983.score: 50.0
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  21. Jacques G. Richardson (2004). The Bane of “Inhumane” Weapons and Overkill: An Overview of Increasingly Lethal Arms and the Inadequacy of Regulatory Controls. Science and Engineering Ethics 10 (4):667-692.score: 40.0
    Weapons of both defense and offense have grown steadily in their effectiveness—especially since the industrial revolution. The mass destruction of humanity, by parts or in whole, became reality with the advent of toxic agents founded on chemistry and biology or nuclear weapons derived from physics. The military’s new non-combat roles, combined with a quest for non-lethal weapons, may change the picture in regard to conventional defense establishments but are unlikely to deter bellicose tyrants or the new terrorists from using the (...)
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  22. Howard B. Degenholtz, Lisa S. Parker & I. I. I. Charles F. Reynolds (2002). Trial Design and Informed Consent for a Clinic-Based Study with a Treatment as Usual Control Arm. Ethics and Behavior 12 (1):43-62.score: 40.0
  23. John Last (2008). Two Challenges Tower Above All Others Confronting Us. Putting an End to Violent Armed Conflicts That Kill and Maim Millions is the Lesser; the Accelerating Crisis of Global Climate Change is the Greater of the Two. Unless We Control Both, the Future for Humanity is Bleak. [REVIEW] In Neil Arya & Joanna Santa Barbara (eds.), Peace Through Health: How Health Professionals Can Work for a Less Violent World. Kumarian Press.score: 40.0
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  24. Leigh R. Hochberg, Daniel Bacher, Beata Jarosiewicz, Nicolas Y. Masse, John D. Simeral, Joern Vogel, Sami Haddadin, Jie Liu, Sydney S. Cash & Patrick van der Smagt (2012). Reach and Grasp by People with Tetraplegia Using a Neurally Controlled Robotic Arm. In Jeffrey Kastner (ed.), Nature. Mit Press. 372-375.score: 40.0
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  25. Fattori Patrizia, Hadjidimitrakis Kostas, Breveglieri Rossella, Bosco Annalisa & Galletti Claudio (2013). The Medial Posterior Parietal Area V6A and the Control of Arm Actions in Depth. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 40.0
  26. Stefan Schaal (2002). Arm and Hand Movement Control. In M. Arbib (ed.), The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Mit Press. 2--110.score: 40.0
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  27. Leigh Tesfatsion (1982). A Dual Approach to Bayesian Inference and Adaptive Control. Theory and Decision 14 (2):177-194.score: 38.0
    Probability updating via Bayes' rule often entails extensive informational and computational requirements. In consequence, relatively few practical applications of Bayesian adaptive control techniques have been attempted. This paper discusses an alternative approach to adaptive control, Bayesian in spirit, which shifts attention from the updating of probability distributions via transitional probability assessments to the direct updating of the criterion function, itself, via transitional utility assessments. Results are illustrated in terms of an adaptive reinvestment two-armed bandit problem.
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  28. Srikantan S. Nagarajan John F. Houde (2011). Speech Production as State Feedback Control. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 38.0
    Spoken language exists because of a remarkable neural process. Inside a speaker’s brain, an intended message gives rise to neural signals activating the muscles of the vocal tract. The process is remarkable because these muscles are activated in just the right way that the vocal tract produces sounds a listener understands as the intended message. What is the best approach to understanding the neural substrate of this crucial motor control process? One of the key recent modeling developments in neuroscience (...)
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  29. Noelle R. Leonard, Amishi P. Jha, Bethany Casarjian, Merissa Goolsarran, Cristina Garcia, Charles M. Cleland, Marya V. Gwadz & Zohar Massey (2013). Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 34.0
    We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT) on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in (...)
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  30. P. C. W. van Wieringen & P. J. Beek (1997). Distance Versus Position Information in the Control of Aiming Movements. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 20 (2):323-324.score: 30.0
    Information about positions, from which differences in position are computed (as proposed in the vector-integration-to-endpoint model), provides a more plausible perceptual basis for the control of goal-directed arm movements than information about distance (as proposed in the kinematic model).
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  31. Lei Wang, Christine Sutter, Ronald Josef Zvonimir Dangel, Jochen Musseler & Catherine Disselhorst-Klug (2012). Perceiving One's Own Limb Movements with Conflicting Sensory Feedback: The Role of Mode of Movement Control and Age. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 30.0
    Previous studies have demonstrated a great uncertainty in evaluating one's own voluntary actions when visual feedback is suspended. We now compare these limitations in younger and older adults during active or passive limb movements. Participants put their dominant hand on a robot arm and performed movements actively or the relaxed limb was moved passively. Either a distorted visual feedback or no visual feedback at all was provided during the movement. Perception of limb movements was attenuated through visual feedback. This effect (...)
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  32. Robert Audi (2008). The Ethics of Belief: Doxastic Self-Control and Intellectual Virtue. Synthese 161 (3):403 - 418.score: 24.0
    Most of the literature on doxastic voluntarism has concentrated on the question of the voluntariness of belief and the issue of how our actual or possible control of our beliefs bears on our justification for holding them and on how, in the light of this control, our intellectual character should be assessed. This paper largely concerns a related question on which less philosophical work has been done: the voluntariness of the grounding of belief and the bearing of various (...)
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  33. Angela M. Smith (2008). Control, Responsibility, and Moral Assessment. Philosophical Studies 138 (3):367 - 392.score: 24.0
    Recently, a number of philosophers have begun to question the commonly held view that choice or voluntary control is a precondition of moral responsibility. According to these philosophers, what really matters in determining a person’s responsibility for some thing is whether that thing can be seen as indicative or expressive of her judgments, values, or normative commitments. Such accounts might therefore be understood as updated versions of what Susan Wolf has called “real self views,” insofar as they attempt to (...)
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  34. John Martin Fischer & Mark Ravizza (1998). Responsibility and Control: A Theory of Moral Responsibility. Cambridge University Press.score: 24.0
    This book provides a comprehensive, systematic theory of moral responsibility. The authors explore the conditions under which individuals are morally responsible for actions, omissions, consequences, and emotions. The leading idea in the book is that moral responsibility is based on 'guidance control'. This control has two components: the mechanism that issues in the relevant behavior must be the agent's own mechanism, and it must be appropriately responsive to reasons. The book develops an account of both components. The authors (...)
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  35. Natalie Gold (2013). Team Reasoning, Framing and Self-Control: An Aristotelian Account. In Neil Levy (ed.), Addiction and SelfControl.score: 24.0
    Decision theory explains weakness of will as the result of a conflict of incentives between different transient agents. In this framework, self-control can only be achieved by the I-now altering the incentives or choice-sets of future selves. There is no role for an extended agency over time. However, it is possible to extend game theory to allow multiple levels of agency. At the inter-personal level, theories of team reasoning allow teams to be agents, as well as individuals. I apply (...)
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  36. Jesús H. Aguilar & Andrei A. Buckareff (2009). Agency, Consciousness, and Executive Control. Philosophia 37 (1):21-30.score: 24.0
    On the Causal Theory of Action (CTA), internal proper parts of an agent such as desires and intentions are causally responsible for actions. CTA has increasingly come under attack for its alleged failure to account for agency. A recent version of this criticism due to François Schroeter proposes that CTA cannot provide an adequate account of either the executive control or the autonomous control involved in full-fledged agency. Schroeter offers as an alternative a revised understanding of the proper (...)
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  37. Elisabeth Pacherie (2007). The Sense of Control and the Sense of Agency. Psyche 13 (1):1 - 30.score: 24.0
    The now growing literature on the content and sources of the phenomenology of first-person agency highlights the multi-faceted character of the phenomenology of agency and makes it clear that the experience of agency includes many other experiences as components. This paper examines the possible relations between these components of our experience of acting and the processes involved in action specification and action control. After a brief discussion of our awareness of our goals and means of action, it will focus (...)
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  38. Alfred R. Mele (1987). Irrationality: An Essay on Akrasia, Self-Deception, and Self-Control. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    Although much human action serves as proof that irrational behavior is remarkably common, certain forms of irrationality--most notably, incontinent action and self-deception--pose such difficult theoretical problems that philosophers have rejected them as logically or psychologically impossible. Here, Mele shows that, and how, incontinent action and self-deception are indeed possible. Drawing upon recent experimental work in the psychology of action and inference, he advances naturalized explanations of akratic action and self-deception while resolving the paradoxes around which the philosophical literature revolves. In (...)
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  39. Christian Barry & Holly Lawford-Smith (2012). Introduction. In Christian Barry & Holly Lawford-Smith (eds.), Global Justice. Ashgate.score: 24.0
    This volume brings together a range of influential essays by distinguished philosophers and political theorists on the issue of global justice. Global justice concerns the search for ethical norms that should govern interactions between people, states, corporations and other agents acting in the global arena, as well as the design of social institutions that link them together. The volume includes articles that engage with major theoretical questions such as the applicability of the ideals of social and economic equality to the (...)
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  40. Joshua Shepherd (forthcoming). Conscious Control Over Action. Mind and Language.score: 24.0
    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this paper I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges – challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control (...)
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  41. Joshua Shepherd (2014). The Contours of Control. Philosophical Studies 170 (3):395-411.score: 24.0
    Necessarily, if S lacks the ability to exercise (some degree of) control, S is not an agent. If S is not an agent, S cannot act intentionally, responsibly, or rationally, nor can S possess or exercise free will. In spite of the obvious importance of control, however, no general account of control exists. In this paper I reflect on the nature of control itself. I develop accounts of control’s exercise and control’s possession that illuminate (...)
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  42. Roy F. Baumeister, A. William Crescioni & Jessica L. Alquist (2011). Free Will as Advanced Action Control for Human Social Life and Culture. Neuroethics 4 (1):1-11.score: 24.0
    Free will can be understood as a novel form of action control that evolved to meet the escalating demands of human social life, including moral action and pursuit of enlightened self-interest in a cultural context. That understanding is conducive to scientific research, which is reviewed here in support of four hypotheses. First, laypersons tend to believe in free will. Second, that belief has behavioral consequences, including increases in socially and culturally desirable acts. Third, laypersons can reliably distinguish free actions (...)
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  43. Randy K. Chiu (2003). Ethical Judgment and Whistleblowing Intention: Examining the Moderating Role of Locus of Control. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 43 (1-2):65 - 74.score: 24.0
    The growing body of whistleblowing literature includes many studies that have attempted to identify the individual level antecedents of whistleblowing behavior. However, cross-cultural differences in perceptions of the ethicality of whistleblowing affect the judgment of whistleblowing intention. This study ascertains how Chinese managers/professionals decide to blow the whistle in terms of their locus of control and subjective judgment regarding the intention of whistleblowing. Hypotheses that are derived from these speculations are tested with data on Chinese managers and professionals (n (...)
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  44. Jules Holroyd & Dan Kelly (forthcoming). Implicit Bias, Character and Control. In Jonathan Webber & Alberto Masala (eds.), From Personality to Virtue.score: 24.0
    Our focus here is on whether, when influenced by implicit biases, those behavioural dispositions should be understood as being a part of that person’s character: whether they are part of the agent that can be morally evaluated.[4] We frame this issue in terms of control. If a state, process, or behaviour is not something that the agent can, in the relevant sense, control, then it is not something that counts as part of her character. A number of theorists (...)
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  45. Alfred R. Mele (1995). Autonomous Agents: From Self-Control to Autonomy. Oxford University Press.score: 24.0
    This book addresses two related topics: self-control and individual autonomy. In approaching these issues, Mele develops a conception of an ideally self-controlled person, and argues that even such a person can fall short of personal autonomy. He then examines what needs to be added to such a person to yield an autonomous agent and develops two overlapping answers: one for compatibilist believers in human autonomy and one for incompatibilists. While remaining neutral between those who hold that autonomy is compatible (...)
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  46. Jeanette Kennett & Steve Matthews (2002). Identity, Control and Responsibility: The Case of Dissociative Identity Disorder. Philosophical Psychology 15 (4):509-526.score: 24.0
    Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) (formerly known as Multiple Personality Disorder) is a condition in which a person appears to possess more than one personality, and sometimes very many. Some recent criminal cases involving defendants with DID have resulted in "not guilty" verdicts, though the defense is not always successful in this regard. Walter Sinnott-Armstrong and Stephen Behnke have argued that we should excuse DID sufferers from responsibility, only if at the time of the act the person was insane (typically delusional); (...)
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  47. Michael McKenna (2008). Putting the Lie on the Control Condition for Moral Responsibility. Philosophical Studies 139 (1):29 - 37.score: 24.0
    In “Control, Responsibility, and Moral Assessment” Angela Smith defends her nonvoluntarist theory of moral responsibility against the charge that any such view is shallow because it cannot capture the depth of judgments of responsibility. Only voluntarist positions can do this since only voluntarist positions allow for control. I argue that Smith is able to deflect the voluntarists’ criticism, but only with further resources. As a voluntarist, I also concede that Smith’s thesis has force, and I close with a (...)
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  48. Neil Levy (2008). Restoring Control: Comments on George Sher. [REVIEW] Philosophia 36 (2):213-221.score: 24.0
    In a recent article, George Sher argues that a realistic conception of human agency, which recognizes the limited extent to which we are conscious of what we do, makes the task of specifying a conception of the kind of control that underwrites ascriptions of moral responsibility much more difficult than is commonly appreciated. Sher suggests that an adequate account of control will not require that agents be conscious of their actions; we are responsible for what we do, in (...)
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  49. Pete Mandik (2010). Control Consciousness. Topics in Cognitive Science 2 (4):643-657.score: 24.0
    Control consciousness is the awareness or experience of seeming to be in control of one’s actions. One view, which I will be arguing against in the present paper, is that control consciousness is a form of sensory consciousness. In such a view, control consciousness is exhausted by sensory elements such as tactile and proprioceptive information. An opposing view, which I will be arguing for, is that sensory elements cannot be the whole story and must be supplemented (...)
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