Search results for 'Arroyo-Santos Alfonso' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  8
    Xavier de Donato Rodríguez & Alfonso Arroyo Santos (2012). The Structure of Idealization in Biological Theories: The Case of the Wright-Fisher Model. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 43 (1):11-27.
  2.  29
    Donato Rodriguez Xavier & Arroyo-Santos Alfonso (2012). The Structure of Idealization in Biological Theories: The Case of the Wright-Fisher Model. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie.
    In this paper we present a new framework of idealization in biology. We characterize idealizations as a network of counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals that can exhibit different “degrees of contingency”. We use this idea to say that, in departing more or less from the actual world, idealizations can serve numerous epistemic, methodological or heuristic purposes within scientific research. We defend that, in part, this structure explains why idealizations, despite being deformations of reality, are so successful in scientific practice. For illustrative (...)
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  3.  9
    Xavier de Donato Rodríguez & Alfonso Arroyo Santos (2012). The Structure of Idealization in Biological Theories: The Case of the Wright-Fisher Model. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 43 (1):11 - 27.
    In this paper we present a new framework of idealization in biology. We characterize idealizations as a network of counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals that can exhibit different "degrees of contingency". We use this idea to say that, in departing more or less from the actual world, idealizations can serve numerous epistemic, methodological or heuristic purposes within scientific research. We defend that, in part, this structure explains why idealizations, despite being deformations of reality, are so successful in scientific practice. For illustrative (...)
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  4.  7
    Fábio Alves dos Santos (2013). Registro sintético de uma vida: entrevista com Fábio Alves dos Santos (Synthetic record of a life - Interview with Fabio Alves dos Santos). Horizonte 11 (32):1637-1649.
    Fábio Alves dos Santos (1954-2013) cursou Pedagogia, Ciências Sociais e Teologia, era Especialista em Filosofia da Religião (PUC Minas), Advogado (PUC Minas) e Mestre em Direito Constitucional (UFMG). Lecionou na PUC Minas como professor de Cultura Religiosa e depois como professor no Curso de Direito, atuando principalmente no Serviço de Assistência Judiciária – SAJ, especialmente cuidado de causas populares como as da ASMARE (Associação dos Catadores de Papel, Papelão e Material Reaproveitável de Belo Horizonte), da Pastoral de Rua, da Pastoral (...)
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  5. X. Alfonso (forthcoming). Partida Segunda de Alfonso X El Sabio. Manuscrito:101-102.
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  6. Cristiana Soveral & Delfim Santos (eds.) (2008). Delfim Santos E a Escola Do Porto: Actas Do Congresso Internacional. Imprensa Nacional-Casa da Moeda.
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  7. Mark E. Olson & Alfonso Arroyo-Santos (2015). How to Study Adaptation (and Why to Do It That Way). Quarterly Review of Biology 90 (2):167-191.
    Some adaptationist explanations are regarded as maximally solid and others fanciful just-so stories. Just-so stories are explanations based on very little evidence. Lack of evidence leads to circular-sounding reasoning: “this trait was shaped by selection in unseen ancestral populations and this selection must have occurred because the trait is present.” Well-supported adaptationist explanations include evidence that is not only abundant but selected from comparative, populational, and optimality perspectives, the three adaptationist subdisciplines. Each subdiscipline obtains its broad relevance in evolutionary biology (...)
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  8. Alfonso Arroyo-Santos, Mark E. Olson & Francisco Vergara-Silva (2015). Practice Oriented Controversies and Borrowed Epistemic Support in Current Evolutionary Biology. The Case of Phylogeography. Perspectives on Science 23 (3):310-334.
    Philosophical treatments of scientific controversies usually focus on theory, excluding important practice related aspects. However, scientists in conflict often appeal to extra-theoretical and extra-empirical elements. To understand better the role that non-empirical elements play in scientific controversies, we introduce the notion of borrowed epistemic credibility, illustrating our proposal with a recent controversy in a field of evolutionary biology known as phylogeography. Our analysis shows how scientific controversies that spring from disagreements about methodological issues potentially involve deeperdebates regarding whatconstitutes good science, (...)
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  9.  52
    Agustín Mercado-Reyes, Pablo Padilla Longoria & Alfonso Arroyo-Santos (forthcoming). Objects and Processes: Two Notions for Understanding Biological Information. Journal of Theoretical Biology.
    In spite of being ubiquitous in life sciences, the concept of information is harshly criticized. Uses of the concept other than those derived from Shannon's theory are denounced as pernicious metaphors. We perform a computational experiment to explore whether Shannon's information is adequate to describe the uses of said concept in commonplace scientific practice. Our results show that semantic sequences do not have unique complexity values different from the value of meaningless sequences. This result suggests that quantitative theoretical frameworks do (...)
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  10.  55
    Alfonso Arroyo-Santos, Mark E. Olson & Francisco Vergara-Silva (2013). The Phylogeography Debate and the Epistemology of Model-Based Evolutionary Biology. Biology and Philosophy 29 (6):833-850.
    Phylogeography, a relatively new subdicipline of evolutionary biology that attempts to unify the fields of phylogenetics and population biology in an explicit geographical context, has hosted in recent years a highly polarized debate related to the purported benefits and limitations that qualitative versus quantitative methods might contribute or impose on inferential processes in evolutionary biology. Here we present a friendly, non-technical introduction to the conflicting methods underlying the controversy, and exemplify it with a balanced selection of quotes from the primary (...)
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  11.  10
    Alfonso Arroyo-Santos, Mark E. Olson & Francisco Vergara-Silva (2015). Practice-Oriented Controversies and Borrowed Epistemic Credibility in Current Evolutionary Biology: Phylogeography as a Case Study. Perspectives on Science 25 (3):310-334.
    Philosophical treatments of scientific controversies usually focus on theory, excluding important practice related aspects. However, scientists in conflict often appeal to extra-theoretical and extra-empirical elements. To understand better the role that non-empirical elements play in scientific controversies, we introduce the notion of borrowed epistemic credibility, illustrating our proposal with a recent controversy in a field of evolutionary biology known as phylogeography. Our analysis shows how scientific controversies that spring from disagreements about methodological issues potentially involve deeper debates regarding what constitutes (...)
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  12.  9
    Alfonso Arroyo-Santos & Mark E. Olson, Metaphors as Surrogate Variables. The Case of Adaptive Radiation.
    We develop a new metaphor account where metaphors become surrogate variables for different but related phenomena. As we will argue, subrogation is the result of the interplay between the things inspired by the metaphor and the empirical dynamics that result from such inspiration. In particular, we focus on adaptive radiation, a major concept of evolutionary biology. Our study suggests that there is no distinct phenomenon, process, or pattern in nature than can be identified as adaptive radiation. What we have instead (...)
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  13.  9
    Alfonso Arroyo-Santos, Mark E. Olson & Francisco Vergara-Silva (2014). Practice-Oriented Controversies and Borrowed Epistemic Support in Current Evolutionary Biology: Phylogeography as a Case Study. Biology and Philosophy 29:833-850.
    Although there is increasing recognition that theory and practice in science are often inseparably intertwined, discussions of scientific controversies often continue to focus on theory, and not practice or methodologies. As a contribution to constructing a framework towards understanding controversies linked to scientific practices, we introduce the notion of borrowed epistemic credibility, to describe the situation in which scientists exploit fallacious similarities between accepted tenets in other fields to garner support for a given position in their own field. Our proposal (...)
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  14.  26
    Mark Olson & Alfonso Arroyo-Santos (2009). Thinking in Continua: Beyond the Adaptive Radiation Metaphor. Bioessays 31 (12):1337-1346.
    ‘‘Adaptive radiation’’ is an evocative metaphor for explosive evolutionary divergence, which for over 100 years has given a powerful heuristic to countless scientists working on all types of organisms at all phylogenetic levels. However, success has come at the price of making ‘‘adaptive radiation’’ so vague that it can no longer reflect the detailed results yielded by powerful new phylogeny-based techniques that quantify continuous adaptive radiation variables such as speciation rate, phylogenetic tree shape, and morphological diversity. Attempts to shoehorn (...)
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  15. Alfonso Arroyo-Santos & Xavier de Donato-Rodríguez, Idealization and the Structure of Theories in Biololgy.
    In this paper we present a new framework of idealization in biology. We characterize idealizations as a network of counterfactual conditionals that can exhibit different degrees of contingency. We use the idea of possible worlds to say that, in departing more or less from the actual world, idealizations can serve numerous epistemic, methodological or heuristic purposes within scientific research. We defend that, in part, it is this structure what helps explain why idealizations, despite being deformations of reality, are so successful (...)
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  16.  23
    Xavier Donato Rodríguez & Alfonso Arroyo Santos (2012). The Structure of Idealization in Biological Theories: The Case of the Wright-Fisher Model. [REVIEW] Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 43 (1):11-27.
    In this paper we present a new framework of idealization in biology. We characterize idealizations as a network of counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals that can exhibit different “degrees of contingency”. We use this idea to say that, in departing more or less from the actual world, idealizations can serve numerous epistemic, methodological or heuristic purposes within scientific research. We defend that, in part, this structure explains why idealizations, despite being deformations of reality, are so successful in scientific practice. For illustrative (...)
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  17.  3
    Xavier De Donato-Rodríguez & Alfonso Arroyo-Santos (2012). The Structure of Idealization in Biological Theories: The Case of the Wright-Fisher Model. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 43 (1):11-27.
    In this paper we present a new framework of idealization in biology. We characterize idealizations as a network of counterfactual and hypothetical conditionals that can exhibit different “degrees of contingency”. We use this idea to say that, in departing more or less from the actual world, idealizations can serve numerous epistemic, methodological or heuristic purposes within scientific research. We defend that, in part, this structure explains why idealizations, despite being deformations of reality, are so successful in scientific practice. For illustrative (...)
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  18.  6
    Ariadna de Oliveira Santos (2013). Discurso pentecostal e diálogo inter-religioso: um estudo sob a perspectiva da metáfora conceptual. 2011. Horizonte 11 (29):407-408.
    DISSERTAÇÃO DE MESTRADO SANTOS, Ariadna de Oliveira. Discurso pentecostal e diálogo inter-religioso: um estudo sob a perspectiva da metáfora conceptual. 2011. 111 folhas. Dissertação (Mestrado) – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Belo Horizonte.
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  19.  1
    Nicholas Jc Santos, Gene R. Laczniak & Tina M. Facca-Miess (2013). The “Integrative Justice Model” as Transformative Justice for Base-of-the-Pyramid Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics 126 (4):1-11.
    Writing in the Business and Politics, Santos and Laczniak (Business and Politics 14(1) 2012) formulated a normative, ethical approach to be followed when marketers e ngage impoverished market segments. It is labeled the integrative justice model (IJM). As noted below, that approach called for authentic engagement, co-creation, and customer interest representation, among other elements, when transacting with vulnerable market segments. Basically, the IJM derived certain operational virtues, implied by moral philosophy, to be used when marketing to the poor. But this (...)
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  20. Tina Facca-Miess, Gene Laczniak & Nicholas Santos (2015). The “Integrative Justice Model” as Transformative Justice for Base-of-the-Pyramid Marketing. Journal of Business Ethics 126 (4):697-707.
    Writing in the Business and Politics, Santos and Laczniak 2012) formulated a normative, ethical approach to be followed when marketers e ngage impoverished market segments. It is labeled the integrative justice model. As noted below, that approach called for authentic engagement, co-creation, and customer interest representation, among other elements, when transacting with vulnerable market segments. Basically, the IJM derived certain operational virtues, implied by moral philosophy, to be used when marketing to the poor. But this well-intentioned approach raises a significant (...)
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  21. George Harrison Sena Santos (2015). Religiosidade e Educação: Rap mineiro em perspectiva de libertação. Horizonte 12 (36):1417-1418.
    Dissertação: SANTOS, George Harrison Sena. Religiosidade e Educação: Rap mineiro em perspectiva de libertação. 2014. Dissertação , Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Religião, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte.
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  22. Glauce Souza Santos (2012). Intelectuais negras. Saberes Em Perspectiva 2 (1):141-144.
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  23. Mr Pablo Diniz Batista, Marcelo Mulato & Paulo Santos (unknown). Single-Photon Detector Based on Acoustic Transport. Substance 7 (8).
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  24.  21
    Filipe M. Santos (2012). A Positive Theory of Social Entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics 111 (3):335-351.
    I propose a theory aimed at advancing scholarly research in social entrepreneurship. By highlighting the key trade-off between value creation and value capture and explaining when situations of simultaneous market and government failure may arise, I suggest that social entrepreneurship is the pursuit of sustainable solutions to neglected problems with positive externalities. I further discuss the situations in which problems with externalities are likely to be neglected and derive the central goal and logic of action of social entrepreneurs, in contrast (...)
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  25.  27
    Javier Gil-Bazo, Pablo Ruiz-Verdú & André A. P. Santos (2010). The Performance of Socially Responsible Mutual Funds: The Role of Fees and Management Companies. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 94 (2):243 - 263.
    In this article, we shed light on the debate about the financial performance of socially responsible investment (SRI) mutual funds by separately analyzing the contributions of before-fee performance and fees to SRI funds' performance, and by investigating the role played by fund management companies in the determination of those variables. We apply the matching estimator methodology to obtain our results and find that in the period 1997–2005, US SRI funds had better beforeand after-fee performance than conventional funds with similar characteristics. (...)
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  26.  82
    Boaventura de Sousa Santos (1990). Reviews : Milner S. Ball, Lying Down Together: Law, Metaphor, and Theology, Madison, Wisc., University of Wisconsin Press, 1985, $24.00, Xiv + 198 Pp. James Boyd White, Heracles' Bow, Essays on the Rhetoric of the Law, Madison, Wisc., University of Wisconsin Press, 1985, £22.50, Xviii + 251 Pp. [REVIEW] History of the Human Sciences 3 (3):467-474.
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  27.  11
    Gil C. Santos (2013). Philosophy and Complexity. Foundations of Science 18 (4):681-686.
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  28. Ana Cecilia Santos (2007). Die Lehre des Erscheinens bei Jan Patočka. Studia Phaenomenologica 7:303-329.
    In this article the author attempts to establish whether we can find a “theory of appearance” in the philosophy of Jan Patočka. The “appearance” for Patočka is basically composed of two elements. First there is a “primeval movement” which accounts for an infinite possibility of phenomena. The second element is the relation of this movement with an “addressee”, the subjectivity. If we begin to analyse the unity of these two elements we fundamentally come across three problems: what is it that (...)
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  29.  98
    Emilio Santos (2004). The Failure to Perform a Loophole-Free Test of Bell's Inequality Supports Local Realism. Foundations of Physics 34 (11):1643-1673.
    It is argued that the long standing failure to show an uncontroversial, loophole-free, empirical violation of a Bell inequality should be interpreted as a support to local realism. After defining realism and locality, this as relativistic causality, the performed experimental tests of Bell’s inequalities are commented. It is pointed out that, without any essential modification of quantum mechanics, the theory might be compatible with local realism.
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  30.  85
    Miguel Ferrero & Emilio Santos (1997). Empirical Consequences of the Scientific Construction: The Program of Local Hidden-Variables Theories in Quantum Mechanics. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 27 (6):765-800.
    We claim that physics has been constructed because three “philosophical” principles have been respected, namely, realism, locality, and consistency. These principles lead to an interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) in terms of local hidden-variables theories (LHV). In order to prove that LHV have not been refuted, we analyze the empirical proofs of Bell's inequalities and we argue that none is loophole-free. Then we propose a restricted QM that does not contain measurement postulates and that does not claim that all state (...)
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  31. Boaventura de Sousa Santos (ed.) (2007). Another Knowledge is Possible: Beyond Northern Epistemologies. Verso.
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  32.  35
    K. Shutts, L. Markson, E. S. Spelke, B. Hood & L. Santos (2009). The Developmental Origins of Animal and Artifact Concepts. In Bruce M. Hood & Laurie Santos (eds.), The Origins of Object Knowledge. Oxford University Press
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  33. Emilio Santos (2005). Bell's Theorem and the Experiments: Increasing Empirical Support for Local Realism? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 36 (3):544-565.
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  34.  20
    Nicholas J. C. Santos & Gene R. Laczniak (2009). "Just" Markets From the Perspective of Catholic Social Teaching. Journal of Business Ethics 89 (1):29 - 38.
    The "justice of markets" is intricately connected to the treatment of the poor and the disadvantaged in market economies. The increased interest of multinational corporations in low-income market segments affords, on one hand, the opportunity for a more inclusive capitalism, and on the other, the threat of greater exploitation of poor and disadvantaged consumers. This article traces the contributions of Catholic Social Teaching and its basic principles toward providing insight into what constitutes "justice" in such "marketing to the impoverished" situations.
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  35.  15
    Martin Mueller, Virginia Gomes dos Santos & Stefan Seuring (2009). The Contribution of Environmental and Social Standards Towards Ensuring Legitimacy in Supply Chain Governance. Journal of Business Ethics 89 (4):509 - 523.
    Increasingly, companies implement social and environmental standards as instruments towards corporate social responsibility (CSR) in supply chains. This is based on the assumption that such standards increase legitimacy among stakeholders. Yet, a wide variety of standards with different requirement levels exist and companies might tend to introduce the ones with low exigencies, using them as a legitimacy front. This strategy jeopardizes the reputation of social and environmental standards among stakeholders and their long-term trust in these instruments (...)
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  36.  27
    Gonçalo Santos (2013). Numbers and Everything. Philosophia Mathematica 21 (3):297-308.
    I begin by drawing a parallel between the intuitionistic understanding of quantification over all natural numbers and the generality relativist understanding of quantification over absolutely everything. I then argue that adoption of an intuitionistic reading of relativism not only provides an immediate reply to the absolutist's charge of incoherence but it also throws a new light on the debates surrounding absolute generality.
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  37.  16
    Clare Am Sutherland, Julian A. Oldmeadow, Isabel M. Santos, John Towler, D. Michael Burt & Andrew W. Young (2013). Social Inferences From Faces: Ambient Images Generate a Three-Dimensional Model. Cognition 127 (1):105-118.
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  38.  15
    Derek E. Lyons & Laurie R. Santos (2006). Ecology, Domain Specificity, and the Origins of Theory of Mind: Is Competition the Catalyst? Philosophy Compass 1 (5):481–492.
  39.  70
    Adonai S. Sant'Anna & Alexandre M. S. Santos (2000). Quasi-Set-Theoretical Foundations of Statistical Mechanics: A Research Program. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 30 (1):101-120.
    Quasi-set theory provides us a mathematical background for dealing with collections of indistinguishable elementary particles. In this paper, we show how to obtain the usual statistics (Maxwell–Boltzmann, Bose–Einstein, and Fermi–Dirac) into the scope of quasi-set theory. We also show that, in order to derive Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics, it is not necessary to assume that the particles are distinguishable or individuals. In other words, Maxwell–Boltzmann statistics is possible even in an ensamble of indistinguishable particles, at least from the theoretical point of view. (...)
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  40.  7
    José Atilano Pena López & José Manuel Sánchez Santos (2013). Does Corruption Have Social Roots? The Role of Culture and Social Capital. Journal of Business Ethics 122 (4):1-12.
    The aim of this work is to analyse the influence of sociocultural factors on corruption levels. Taking as starting point Husted (J Int Bus Studies 30:339–359, 1999) and Graeff (In: Lambsdorff J, Taube M, Schramm M (eds) The new institutional economics of corruption. Routledge, London, 2005) proposals, we consider both the interrelation between cultural dimensions and the diverse expressions of social capital with corruption. According to our results, the universalistic trust (linking and bridging social capital) constitutes a positive social capital (...)
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  41.  47
    Christopher Arroyo (2011). Freedom and the Source of Value: Korsgaard and Wood on Kant's Formula of Humanity. Metaphilosophy 42 (4):353-359.
    Abstract: This essay examines two interpretations of Kant's argument for the formula of humanity. Christine M. Korsgaard defends a constructivist reading of Kant's argument, maintaining that humans must view themselves as having absolute value because their power for rational choice confers value on their ends. Allen Wood, however, defends a realist interpretation of Kant's argument, maintaining that humans actually are absolutely valuable and that their choices do not confer value but rather reflect their understanding of how the objects of their (...)
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  42. T. M. B. Machado, T. F. Bomfim, L. V. Souza, N. Soares, F. L. Santos, A. X. Acosta & K. Abe-Sandes (2013). Types of Marriages, Population Structure and Genetic Disease. Journal of Biosocial Science 45 (4):461-470.
  43.  6
    N. SaNtos, N. David, G. Bente & K. Vogeley (2008). Parametric Induction of Animacy Experience. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (2):425-437.
    Graphical displays of simple moving geometrical figures have been repeatedly used to study the attribution of animacy in human observers. Yet little is known about the relevant movement characteristics responsible for this experience. The present study introduces a novel parametric research paradigm, which allows for the experimental control of specific motion parameters and a predictable influence on the attribution of animacy. Two experiments were conducted using 3D computer animations of one or two objects systematically introducing variations in the following aspects (...)
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  44.  4
    Ana C. Santos (2007). The 'Materials' of Experimental Economics: Technological Versus Behavioral Experiments. Journal of Economic Methodology 14 (3):311-337.
    In the natural sciences there is a general consensus on the epistemic value conferred by the participation of the ?material world? in the experimental process of knowledge production. This is no different in experimental economics. However, an inquiry into the epistemic role of the ?materials? of economics is still underdeveloped. The present paper is meant as a contribution to this inquiry. Two categories of experiments are identified according to the differentiated role of the ?materials? of economics. It is argued that (...)
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  45.  12
    Bento Silva Santos (2007). Plato' Ethics: Semantic Premises. Anales Del Seminario de Historia de la Filosofía 24:43-65.
    The article examines some Greek terms in relation to the moral values of ancient Greece. The ethical tradition, generally composed of authors who were not exactly professional philosophers, supplied basic and abundant material for the elaboration of platonic ethics. When dealing with the ancient ethics, it is essential to determine the value and the semantic complexity of the more important values (“competitive” and “collaborative” or “peaceful”) together with the respective implications: the axiologic terms have deeply diverse criteria of application, and (...)
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  46.  27
    Ricardo Santos (2004). Tarskian Truth and the Two Provinces of Semantics. Disputatio 16:26-37.
    In this paper, I argue that the cleavage between the theory of reference and the theory of meaning, which under the influence of Quine has dominated a large part of the philosophy of language of the last fifty years, is based on a misrepresentation of Tarski's achievement and on an overestimation of the scope and value of disquotation. In particular, I show that, if we accept Davidson's critique of disquotation, the same kind of reasons that Quine offered in opposition to (...)
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  47.  37
    Emilio Santos (1992). The Physical Meaning of Quantization. Foundations of Physics 22 (3):371-379.
    After analyzing the difficulties for a local realistic interpretation of quantum theory, it is argued that such an interpretation might be possible if some new postulates are added to the standard ones. We propose a stochastic interpretation of quantum theory, which involves the need of joint probability distributions for all relevant observables. The well known problems for the existence of joint distributions are solved by assuming that neither all Hermitian operators correspond to observables nor all density matrices represent physical states. (...)
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  48.  53
    Christopher Arroyo (2011). Same-Sex Marriage, 'Homosexual Desire,' and the Capacity to Love. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 25 (2):171-186.
    The issue of same-sex marriage continues to be controversial in the United States. Opponents of same-sex marriage offer a variety of objections in defense of their position. One such objection (which I identify as the Inability to Love objection, or ILO) is that legalizing same-sex marriage would promote a counterfeit good (homosexual marriage) as a genuine good (heterosexual marriage), since homosexuals are incapable of genuine, full erotic love. Proponents of ILO argue that homosexuals are incapable of genuine erotic love because (...)
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  49.  3
    Christopher Arroyo (2005). Unselfish Salvation. Faith and Philosophy 22 (2):160-172.
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  50.  19
    Christopher Arroyo (2003). Specter's of the Humean Self. Philosophy Today 47 (5):79-88.
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