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  1. Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich, Something Old, Something New: Extending the Classical View of Representation.
    Representation is a central part of models in cognitive science, but recently this idea has come under attack. Researchers advocating perceptual symbol systems, situated action, embodied cognition, and dynamical systems have argued against central assumptions of the classical representational approach to mind. We review the core assumptions of the dominant view of representation and the four suggested alternatives. We argue that representation should remain a core part of cognitive science, but that the insights from these alternative approaches must be incorporated (...)
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  2. Joshua Ian Davis & Arthur B. Markman (2012). Embodied Cognition as a Practical Paradigm: Introduction to the Topic, The Future of Embodied Cognition. Topics in Cognitive Science 4 (4):685-691.
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  3. Lisa R. Grimm, Jonathan R. Rein & Arthur B. Markman (2012). Determining Transformation Distance in Similarity: Considerations for Assessing Representational Changes a Priori. Thinking and Reasoning 18 (1):59 - 80.
    The representational distortion (RD) approach to similarity (e.g., Hahn, Chater, & Richardson, 2003) proposes that similarity is computed using the transformation distance between two entities. We argue that researchers who adopt this approach need to be concerned with how representational transformations can be determined a priori. We discuss several roadblocks to using this approach. Specifically we demonstrate the difficulties inherent in determining what transformations are psychologically salient and the importance of considering the directionality of transformations.
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  4. Micah B. Goldwater, Arthur B. Markman & C. Hunt Stilwell (2011). The Empirical Case for Role-Governed Categories. Cognition 118 (3):359-376.
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  5. Arthur B. Markman (2011). Can Developmental Psychology Provide a Blueprint for the Study of Adult Cognition? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (3):140-141.
    In order to develop sophisticated models of the core domains of knowledge that support complex cognitive processing in infants and children, developmental psychologists have mapped out the content of these knowledge domains. This research strategy may provide a blueprint for advancing research on adult cognitive processing. I illustrate this suggestion with examples from analogical reasoning and decision making.
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  6. Arthur B. Markman & A. Ross Otto (2011). Cognitive Systems Optimize Energy Rather Than Information. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (4):207.
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  7. A. Ross Otto, Eric G. Taylor & Arthur B. Markman (2011). There Are at Least Two Kinds of Probability Matching: Evidence From a Secondary Task. Cognition 118 (2):274-279.
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  8. Arthur B. Markman (2010). Where Are Nature's Joints? Finding the Mechanisms Underlying Categorization. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 33 (2-3):220-221.
    Machery argues that concepts are too heterogeneous to be a natural kind. I argue that the book does not go far enough. Theories of concepts assume that the task of categorizing warrants a unique set of cognitive constructs. Instead, cognitive science must look across tasks to find a fundamental set of cognitive mechanisms.
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  9. Arthur B. Markman (2009). The bRaIn. In John Symons Paco Calvo (ed.), The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology. Routledge. 373.
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  10. Arthur B. Markman, C. Miguel Brendl & Kyungil Kim (2009). From Goal-Activation to Action: How Does Preference and Use of Knowledge Intervene? In Ezequiel Morsella, John A. Bargh & Peter M. Gollwitzer (eds.), Oxford Handbook of Human Action. Oxford University Press.
     
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  11. Arthur B. Markman & Jeffrey P. Laux (2008). Analogical Inferences Are Central to Analogy. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (4):390-391.
    It is important to take a developmental approach to the problem of analogy. One limitation of this approach, however, is that it does not deal with the complexity of making analogical inferences. There are a few key principles of analogical inference that are not well captured by the analogical relational priming (ARP) model.
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  12. Arthur B. Markman & C. Hunt Stilwell (2008). An Amicus for the Defense: Relational Reasoning Magnifies the Behavioral Differences Between Humans and Nonhumans. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 31 (2):142-142.
    Relational representation abilities are a crucial cognitive difference between human and nonhuman animals. We argue that relational reasoning and representation supports the development of culture that increases in complexity. Thus, these abilities are a force that magnifies the apparent difference in cognitive abilities between humans and nonhumans.
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  13. Arthur B. Markman (2007). A Tribute to Larry Erlbaum. Cognitive Science 31 (1):1-1.
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  14. Arthur B. Markman (2007). The Limitations of Unification. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (1):33-34.
    There are two roadblocks to using game theory as a unified theory of the behavioral sciences. First, there may not be a single explanatory framework suitable for explaining psychological processing. Second, even if there is such a framework, game theory is too limited, because it focuses selectively on decision making to the exclusion of other crucial cognitive processes. (Published Online April 27 2007).
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  15. Arthur B. Markman (2006). Editorial Statement. Cognitive Science 30 (1):1-2.
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  16. Arthur B. Markman, Serge Blok, John Dennis, Micah Goldwater, Kyungil Kim, Jeff Laux, Lisa Narvaez & Jon Rein (2006). Money and Motivational Activation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (2):190-190.
    Different aspects of people's interactions with money are best conceptualized using the drug and tool theories. The key question is when these models of money are most likely to guide behavior. We suggest that the Drug Theory characterizes motivationally active uses of money and that the Tool Theory characterizes behavior in motivationally cool situations. (Published Online April 5 2006).
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  17. Arthur B. Markman, Thomas T. Hills, Michael P. Kaschak, Jenny R. Saffran, Jarrod Moss, Kenneth Kotovsky, Jonathan Cagan, Louise Connell, Mark T. Keane & Joyca Pw Lacroix (2006). Subject Index to Volume 30. Cognitive Science 30:1129-1132.
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  18. Levi B. Larkey & Arthur B. Markman (2005). Processes of Similarity Judgment. Cognitive Science 29 (6):1061-1076.
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  19. Arthur B. Markman, Serge Blok, John Dennis, Micah Goldwater, Kyungil Kim, Jeff Laux, Lisa Narvaez & Eric Taylor (2005). Culture and Individual Differences. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (6):831-831.
    Tests of economic theory often focus on choice outcomes and find significant individual differences in these outcomes. This variability may mask universal psychological processes that lead to different choices because of differences across cultures in the information people have available when making decisions. On this view, decision making research within and across cultures must focus on the processes underlying choice.
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  20. Arthur B. Markman, Sergey Blok, Kyungil Kim, Levi Larkey, Lisa R. Narvaez, C. Hunt Stilwell & Eric Taylor (2005). Digging Beneath Rules and Similarity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (1):29-30.
    Pothos suggests dispensing with the distinction between rules and similarity, without defining what is meant by either term. We agree that there are problems with the distinction between rules and similarity, but believe these will be solved only by exploring the representations and processes underlying cases purported to involve rules and similarity.
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  21. Arthur B. Markman & Dedre Gentner (2005). Nonintentional Similarity Processing. In Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman & John A. Bargh (eds.), The New Unconscious. Oxford University Press. 107--137.
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  22. Arthur B. Markman, Kyungil Kim, Levi B. Larkey, Lisa Narvaez & C. Hunt Stilwell (2004). One Alignment Mechanism or Many? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (2):204-205.
    Pickering & Garrod (P&G) suggest that communicators synchronize their processing at a number of linguistic levels. Whereas their explanation suggests that representations are being compared across individuals, there must be some representation of all conversation participants in each participant's head. At the level of the situation model, it is important to maintain separate representations for each participant. At other levels, it seems less crucial to have a separate representation for each participant. This analysis suggests that different mechanisms may synchronize representations (...)
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  23. Eric Dietrich, Arthur B. Markman & Michael Winkley (2003). The Prepared Mind: The Role of Representational Change in Chance Discovery. In Yukio Ohsawa Peter McBurney (ed.), Chance Discovery by Machines. Springer-Verlag, pp. 208-230..
    Analogical reminding in humans and machines is a great source for chance discoveries because analogical reminding can produce representational change and thereby produce insights. Here, we present a new kind of representational change associated with analogical reminding called packing. We derived the algorithm in part from human data we have on packing. Here, we explain packing and its role in analogy making, and then present a computer model of packing in a micro-domain. We conclude that packing is likely used in (...)
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  24. Dedre Gentner & Arthur B. Markman (2002). Analogy-Based Reasoning and Metaphor. In M. Arbib (ed.), The Handbook of Brain Theory and Neural Networks. Mit Press. 106--109.
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  25. Arthur B. Markman (2002). Knowledge Representation. In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley.
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  26. Arthur B. Markman & Douglas L. Medin (2002). Decision Making. In J. Wixted & H. Pashler (eds.), Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology. Wiley.
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  27. Eric Dietrich & Arthur B. Markman (2001). Dynamical Description Versus Dynamical Modeling. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 5 (8):332.
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  28. Arthur B. Markman (2001). Are Dynamical Systems the Answer? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):50-51.
    The proposed model is put forward as a template for the dynamical systems approach to embodied cognition. In order to extend this view to cognitive processing in general, however, two limitations must be overcome. First, it must be demonstrated that sensorimotor coordination of the type evident in the A-not-B error is typical of other aspects of cognition. Second, the explanatory utility of dynamical systems models must be clarified.
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  29. Arthur B. Markman (2001). Choice Output and Choice Processing: An Analogy to Similarity. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (3):423-424.
    The target article suggests that many practices of experimental economists are preferable to those used by psychologists studying judgment and decision making. The advantages of the psychological approach become clear when the focus of research shifts from choice output to choice processes. I illustrate this point with an example from research on similarity comparisons.
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  30. Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich (2000). Extending the Classical View of Representation. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (12):470-475.
    Representation is a central part of models in cognitive science, but recently this idea has come under attack. Researchers advocating perceptual symbol systems, situated action, embodied cognition, and dynamical systems have argued against central assumptions of the classical representational approach to mind. We review the core assumptions of the dominant view of representation and the four suggested alternatives. We argue that representation should remain a core part of cognitive science, but that the insights from these alternative approaches must be incorporated (...)
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  31. Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich (2000). In Defense of Representation. Cognitive Psychology 40 (2):138--171.
    The computational paradigm, which has dominated psychology and artificial intelligence since the cognitive revolution, has been a source of intense debate. Recently, several cognitive scientists have argued against this paradigm, not by objecting to computation, but rather by objecting to the notion of representation. Our analysis of these objections reveals that it is not the notion of representation per se that is causing the problem, but rather specific properties of representations as they are used in various psychological theories. Our analysis (...)
     
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  32. Arthur B. Markman & Eric Dietrich (1999). Whither Structured Representation? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 22 (4):626-627.
    The perceptual symbol system view assumes that perceptual representations have a role-argument structure. A role-argument structure is often incorporated into amodal symbol systems in order to explain conceptual functions like abstraction and rule use. The power of perceptual symbol systems to support conceptual functions is likewise rooted in its use of structure. On Barsalou's account, this capacity to use structure (in the form of frames) must be innate.
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  33. Eric Dietrich & Arthur B. Markman (1998). All Information Processing Entails Computation, or, If R. A. Fisher Had Been a Cognitive Scientist . . Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (5):637-638.
    We argue that the dynamical and computational hypotheses are compatible and in fact need each other: they are about different aspects of cognition. However, only computationalism is about the information-processing aspect. We then argue that any form of information processing relying on matching and comparing, as cognition does, must use discrete representations and computations defined over them.
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  34. Arthur B. Markman & Takashi Yamauchi (1998). Boundary Conditions and the Need for Multiple Forms of Representation. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):477-478.
    Multidimensional space representations like those posited in Edelman's target article are not sufficient to capture all similarity phenomena. We discuss phenomena that are compatible with models of similarity that assume structured relational representations. An adequate model of similarity and perception will require multiple approaches to representation.
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  35. Dedre Gentner, Sarah Brem, Ron Ferguson, Philip Wolff, Arthur B. Markman & Ken Forbus (1997). Analogy and Creativity in the Works of Johannes Kepler. In T. B. Ward, S. M. Smith & J. Viad (eds.), Creative Thought: An Investigation of Conceptual Structures and Processes. American Psychological Association.
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  36. Arthur B. Markman (1997). Constraints on Analogical Inference. Cognitive Science 21 (4):373-418.
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  37. Dedre Gentner & Arthur B. Markman (1996). Keith J. Holyoak and Paul Thagard, Mental Leaps: Analogy in Creative Thought. [REVIEW] Pragmatics and Cognition 4 (2):407-409.
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  38. G. Lindemann Patricia & Arthur B. Markman (1996). Alignability and Attribute Importance in Choice. In Garrison W. Cottrell (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum.
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  39. Patricia G. Lindemann & Arthur B. Markman (1996). Alignability and Attribute Importance in Choice. In Garrison W. Cottrell (ed.), Proceedings of the Eighteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Lawrence Erlbaum.
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