Search results for 'Artifact' (try it on Scholar)

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Bibliography: Artifacts in Metaphysics
  1.  2
    Literary Artifact (2001). Hayden White. In Geoffrey Roberts (ed.), The History and Narrative Reader. Routledge 221.
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  2.  81
    Jeroen de Ridder (2006). Mechanistic Artefact Explanation. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (1):81-96.
    One thing about technical artefacts that needs to be explained is how their physical make-up, or structure, enables them to fulfil the behaviour associated with their function, or, more colloquially, how they work. In this paper I develop an account of such explanations based on the familiar notion of mechanistic explanation. To accomplish this, I (1) outline two explanatory strategies that provide two different types of insight into an artefact’s functioning, and (2) show how human action inevi- tably plays a (...)
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  3.  3
    Werner Ceusters & Barry Smith (2015). Aboutness: Towards Foundations for the Information Artifact Ontology. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Biomedical Ontology (ICBO). CEUR Vol. 1515 1-5.
    The Information Artifact Ontology (IAO) was created to serve as a domain‐neutral resource for the representation of types of information content entities (ICEs) such as documents, data‐bases, and digital im‐ages. We identify a series of problems with the current version of the IAO and suggest solutions designed to advance our understanding of the relations between ICEs and associated cognitive representations in the minds of human subjects. This requires embedding IAO in a larger framework of ontologies, including most importantly the (...)
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  4.  23
    Jesse Hughes (2009). An Artifact is to Use: An Introduction to Instrumental Functions. [REVIEW] Synthese 168 (1):179 - 199.
    Because much of the recent philosophical interest in functions has been motivated by their application in biology and other sciences, most of the ensuing discussions have focused on functional explanations to the neglect of the practical role of functional knowledge. This practical role is essential for understanding how users form plans involving artifacts. We introduce the concept of instrumental function which is intended to capture the features of functional claims that are relevant to practical—in particular, instrumental—reasoning. We discuss the four (...)
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  5.  13
    Maarit Mäkelä (2007). Knowing Through Making: The Role of the Artefact in Practice-Led Research. Knowledge, Technology and Policy 20 (3):157-163.
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  6.  90
    Kenneth M. Ehrenberg (2016). Law as Plan and Artefact. Jurisprudence 7 (2):325-340.
    Scott Shapiro’s theory that law is a social plan is helpful in seeing law essentially as a tool of human creation and as such is sympathetic to understanding law in terms of the social functions it performs, a method I argue for elsewhere. I focus here on two problems with the theory as presented. The planning theory does not adequately explain the persistence of law beyond the utility of those who implement it. Generally, plans can cease to exist as soon (...)
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  7. Nurbay Irmak (2012). Software is an Abstract Artifact. Grazer Philosophische Studien 86 (1):55-72.
    Software is a ubiquitous artifact, yet not much has been done to understand its ontological nature. There are a few accounts offered so far about the nature of software. I argue that none of those accounts give a plausible picture of the nature of software. I draw attention to the striking similarities between software and musical works. These similarities motivate to look more closely on the discussions regarding the nature of the musical works. With the lessons drawn from the (...)
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  8. Richard Heersmink (2012). Mind and Artifact: A Multidimensional Matrix for Exploring Cognition-Artifact Relations. In J. M. Bishop & Y. J. Erden (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th AISB Symposium on Computing and Philosophy (pp. 54-61).
    What are the possible varieties of cognition-artifact relations, and which dimensions are relevant for exploring these varieties? This question is answered in two steps. First, three levels of functional and informational integration between human agent and cognitive artifact are distinguished. These levels are based on the degree of interactivity and direction of information flow, and range from monocausal and bicausal relations to continuous reciprocal causation. In these levels there is a hierarchy of integrative processes in which there is (...)
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  9.  9
    Luka Burazin (2016). Can There Be an Artifact Theory of Law? Ratio Juris 29 (3):385-401.
    The idea that particular legal institutions are artifacts is not new. However, the idea that the “law” or “legal system” is itself an artifact has seldom been directly put forward, due perhaps to the ambiguities surrounding philosophical inquiries into law. Nevertheless, such an idea has recently been invoked more often, though not always developed in detail in terms of what the characterization of the “law” or “legal system” as an artifact entails ontologically, and what consequences, if any, this (...)
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  10.  24
    Wybo Houkes (2006). Knowledge of Artefact Functions. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 37 (1):102-113.
    I argue that technological functions warrant specific epistemological attention, which they have not received thus far. From a user’s perspective, knowledge about the possible functions of an artefact is not provided exclusively by beliefs about its physical characteristics; it is primarily provided by know-how related to its use. Analysing the latter shows that standards of practical and not just theoretical reasoning are involved. Moreover, knowledge of the function of artefacts is primarily based on testimony and a social division of labour (...)
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  11.  13
    Maarten Franssen, Peter Kroes, Pieter Vermaas & Thomas A. C. Reydon (eds.) (2013). Artefact Kinds: Ontology and the Human-Made World. Synthese Library.
    One way to address such questions about artifact kinds is to look for clues in the available literature on parallel questions that have been posed with respect to kinds in the natural domain. Philosophers have long been concerned with the ...
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  12.  84
    Zsófia Zvolenszky, Abstract Artifact Theory About Fictional Characters Defended — Why Sainsbury’s Category-Mistake Objection is Mistaken. Proceedings of the European Society for Aesthetics Vol. 5/2013.
    In this paper, I explore a line of argument against one form of realism about fictional characters : abstract artifact theory, the view according to which fictional characters like Harry Potter are part of our reality, but, they are abstract objects created by humans, akin to the institution of marriage and the game of soccer. I will defend artifactualism against an objection that Mark Sainsbury considers decisive against it: the category-mistake objection. The objection has it that artifactualism attributes to (...)
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  13.  27
    Krist Vaesen & Melissa van Amerongen (2008). Optimality Vs. Intent: Limitations of Dennett's Artifact Hermeneutics. Philosophical Psychology 21 (6):779 – 797.
    Dennett has argued that when people interpret artifacts and other designed objects ( such as biological items ) they rely on optimality considerations , rather than on designer's intentions. On his view , we infer an item's function by finding out what it is best at; and such functional attribution is more reliable than when we depend on the intention it was developed with. This paper examines research in cognitive psychology and archaeology , and argues that Dennett's account is implausible. (...)
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  14.  9
    M. Wheeler (2004). Is Language the Ultimate Artifact? Language Sciences 26 (6):688-710.
    Andy Clark has argued that language is “in many ways the ultimate artifact” (Clark 1997, p.218). Fuelling this conclusion is a view according to which the human brain is essentially no more than a patterncompleting device, while language is an external resource which is adaptively fitted to the human brain in such a way that it enables that brain to exceed its unaided (pattern-completing) cognitive capacities, in much the same way as a pair of scissors enables us to “exploit (...)
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  15.  90
    Alexandre Korolev, The Norton-Type Lipschitz-Indeterministic Systems and Elastic Phenomena: Indeterminism as an Artefact of Infinite Idealizations.
    The singularity arising from the violation of the Lipschitz condition in the simple Newtonian system proposed recently by Norton (2003) is so fragile as to be completely and irreparably destroyed by slightly relaxing certain (infinite) idealizations pertaining to elastic phenomena in this model. I demonstrate that this is also true for several other Lipschitz-indeterministic systems, which, unlike Norton's example, have no surface curvature singularities. As a result, indeterminism in these systems should rather be viewed as an artefact of certain infinite (...)
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  16.  56
    Tarja Knuuttila & Atro Voutilainen (2003). A Parser as an Epistemic Artifact: A Material View on Models. Philosophy of Science 70 (5):1484-1495.
    The purpose of this paper is to suggest that models in scientific practice can be conceived of as epistemic artifacts. Approaching models this way accommodates many such things that working scientists themselves call models but that the semantic conception of models does not duly recognize as such. That models are epistemic artifacts implies, firstly, that they cannot be understood apart from purposeful human activity; secondly, that they are somehow materialized inhabitants of the intersubjective field of that activity; and thirdly, that (...)
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  17.  32
    Corrado Roversi, Anna M. Borghi & Luca Tummolini (2013). A Marriage is an Artefact and Not a Walk That We Take Together: An Experimental Study on the Categorization of Artefacts. [REVIEW] Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):527-542.
    Artefacts are usually understood in contrast with natural kinds and conceived as a unitary kind. Here we propose that there is in fact a variety of artefacts: from the more concrete to the more abstract ones. Moreover, not every artefact is able to fulfil its function thanks to its physical properties: Some artefacts, particularly what we call “institutional” artefacts, are symbolic in nature and require a system of rules to exist and to fulfil their function. Adopting a standard method to (...)
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  18.  29
    Bence Nanay (2013). Artifact Categorization and the Modal Theory of Artifact Function. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):515-526.
    Philosophers and psychologists widely hold that artifact categories – just like biological categories – are individuated by their function. But recent empirical findings in psychology question this assumption. My proposal is to suggest a way of squaring these findings with the central role function should play in individuating artifact categories. But in order to do so, we need to give up on the standard account of artifact function, according to which function is fixed by design, and replace (...)
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  19.  37
    Andrés Vaccari (2013). Artifact Dualism, Materiality, and the Hard Problem of Ontology: Some Critical Remarks on the Dual Nature of Technical Artifacts Program. Philosophy and Technology 26 (1):7-29.
    This paper critically examines the forays into metaphysics of The Dual Nature of Technical Artifacts Program (henceforth, DNP). I argue that the work of DNP is a valuable contribution to the epistemology of certain aspects of artifact design and use, but that it fails to advance a persuasive metaphysic. A central problem is that DNP approaches ontology from within a functionalist framework that is mainly concerned with ascriptions and justified beliefs. Thus, the materiality of artifacts emerges only as the (...)
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  20.  4
    Sune Holm & Russell Powell (2013). Organism, Machine, Artifact: The Conceptual and Normative Challenges of Synthetic Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):627-631.
    Synthetic biology is an emerging discipline that aims to apply rational engineering principles in the design and creation of organisms that are exquisitely tailored to human ends. The creation of artificial life raises conceptual, methodological and normative challenges that are ripe for philosophical investigation. This special issue examines the defining concepts and methods of synthetic biology, details the contours of the organism–artifact distinction, situates the products of synthetic biology vis-à-vis this conceptual typology and against historical human manipulation of the (...)
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  21.  57
    Massimiliano Carrara & Daria Mingardo (2013). Artifact Categorization. Trends and Problems. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):351-373.
    The general question (G) How do we categorize artifacts? can be subject to three different readings: an ontological, an epistemic and a semantic one. According to the ontological reading, asking (G) is equivalent to asking in virtue of what properties, if any, a certain artifact is an instance of some artifact kind: (O) What is it for an artifact a to belong to kind K? According to the epistemic reading, when we ask (G) we are investigating what (...)
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  22.  25
    Pawel Garbacz (2009). What is an Artefact Design? Techne 13 (2):137-149.
    The paper contains a first order formal theory pertaining to artefact designs, designs which are construed as the results of designing activities. The theory is based on a minimal ontology of states of affairs and it is inspired by the ideas of the Polish philosopher Roman Ingarden. After differentiating the philosophical notion of design from the engineering notion of design specifications, I then go on to argue that the philosophical category of artefact designs may be compared with Ingarden’s category of (...)
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  23.  1
    María Jiménez-Buedo (2015). The Last Dictator Game? Dominance, Reactivity, and the Methodological Artefact in Experimental Economics. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 29 (3):295-310.
    The Dictator Game, one of the best-known designs in experimental social science, has been extensively criticized, and declared by some to be defunct, on the grounds that its results are the product of a research artefact. Critics of the DG argue that the behaviour observed in the game is not the outcome of genuine pro-social preferences but must, instead, be interpreted as a response to the cues given by the experimental design, where these cues signal that the game is about (...)
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  24.  5
    Caterina Gozzoli, Antonino Giorgi & Roberta Lampasona (2015). Signs of ‘Ndrangheta In Lombardy: Study of a Cultural Artifact’. World Futures 71 (5-8):202-213.
    This work would like to be a contribution for a more thorough knowledge of the phenomenology of the Mafia in Lombardy. It is a study carried out according to an ethnographic approach, which proposes the analysis of a cultural artifact aiming at understanding the logics and structure of the Mafia organization from different social interlocutors’ representations and lived experiences.
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  25.  5
    Simon M. Huttegger, Justin P. Bruner & Kevin J. S. Zollman (2015). The Handicap Principle Is an Artifact. Philosophy of Science 82 (5):997-1009.
    The handicap principle is one of the most influential ideas in evolutionary biology. It asserts that when there is conflict of interest in a signaling interaction signals must be costly in order to be reliable. While in evolutionary biology it is a common practice to distinguish between indexes and fakable signals, we argue this dichotomy is an artifact of existing popular signaling models. Once this distinction is abandoned, we show one cannot adequately understand signaling behavior by focusing solely on (...)
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  26.  30
    Sara Dellantonio, Claudio Mulatti & Remo Job (2013). Artifact and Tool Categorization. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):407-418.
    This study addresses the issue of artifact kinds from a psychological and cognitive perspective. The primary interest of the investigation lies in understanding how artifacts are categorized and what are the properties people rely on for their identification. According to a classical philosophical definition artifacts form an autonomous class of instances including all and only those objects that do not exist in nature, but are artificial, in the sense that they are made by an artĭfex. This definition suggests that (...)
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  27.  29
    Wybo Houkes & Pieter E. Vermaas (2013). Pluralism on Artefact Categories: A Philosophical Defence. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):543-557.
    In this paper we use our work in the philosophy of technology to formulate a pluralist view on artefact categories and categorisation principles, as studied in cognitive science. We argue, on the basis of classifications derived by philosophical reconstruction, that artefacts can be clustered in more than one way, and that each clustering may be taken as defining psychological artefact categories. We contrast this pluralism with essentialism and super-minimalism on artefact categories and we argue that pluralism is coherent with experimental (...)
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  28.  53
    Alasdair Richmond (2010). Time Travel, Parahistory and the Past Artefact Dilemma. Philosophy 85 (3):369-373.
    In 1987, Roy Sorensen coined the term 'parahistory' to denote the study of genuinely anachronistic artefacts delivered by time travel.¹ 'Parahistory' would thus stand to history rather as parapsychology is claimed to stand to psychology, i.e. the parahistorian would study historical data that were obtained through channels that orthodox science does not recognise. How might one establish credentials as a time traveller? What sort of evidence could a time-traveller point to in support of claims that would presumably command a great (...)
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  29.  32
    Marzia Soavi (2009). Antirealism and Artefact Kinds. Techne 13 (2):93-107.
    Many realists on kinds deem it highly controversial to consider artefact kinds real kinds on a par with natural ones. There is a built-in tendency in realism to conceive of artefact kinds as merely a conventional classification used for practical purposes. One can individuate three main different approaches characterizing real kinds and accordingly three different types of arguments against viewing artefact kinds as real kinds: the metaphysical, the epistemological and the semantic arguments. The aim of this contribution is to undermine (...)
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  30.  9
    Glenn W. Harrison & Morten Igel Lau (2005). Is the Evidence for Hyperbolic Discounting in Humans Just an Experimental Artefact? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (5):657-657.
    We question the behavioral premise underlying Ainslie's claims about hyperbolic discounting theory. The alleged evidence for humans can be easily explained as an artefact of experimental procedures that do not control for the credibility of payment over different time horizons. In appropriately controlled and financially motivated settings, human behavior is consistent with conventional exponential preferences.
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  31.  18
    Stefano Borgo, Noemi Spagnoletti, Laure Vieu & Elisabetta Visalberghi (2013). Artifact and Artifact Categorization: Comparing Humans and Capuchin Monkeys. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 4 (3):375-389.
    We aim to show that far-related primates like humans and the capuchin monkeys show interesting correspondences in terms of artifact characterization and categorization. We investigate this issue by using a philosophically-inspired definition of physical artifact which, developed for human artifacts, turns out to be applicable for cross-species comparison. In this approach an artifact is created when an entity is intentionally selected and some capacities attributed to it (often characterizing a purpose). Behavioral studies suggest that this notion of (...)
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  32.  16
    Michael Wheeler, Continuity in Question: An Afterword to 'Is Language the Ultimate Artefact?'.
    Is Language the Ultimate Artefact? (henceforth ILUA) was originally published alongside a paper by Andy Clark called Is Language Special? Some remarks on control, coding, and co-ordination (Clark 2004). One concern (among others) of the latter paper was to resist the argument of the former. In this short afterword, I shall attempt a counterresponse to Clark’s resistance. In so doing I hope to reveal, in a new and perhaps clearer way, what the most important issues really are in this (still (...)
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  33.  6
    Stan Franklin (2003). A Conscious Artifact? Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (4-5):4-5.
    After discussing various types of consciousness, several approaches to machine consciousness, software agent, and global workspace theory, we describe a software agent, IDA, that is 'conscious' in the sense of implementing that theory of consciousness. IDA perceives, remembers, deliberates, negotiates, and selects actions, sometimes 'consciously'. She uses a variety of mechanisms, each of which is briefly described. It's tempting to think of her as a conscious artifact. Is such a view in any way justified? The remainder of the paper (...)
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  34. James Putnam (2001). Art and Artifact: The Museum as Medium. Thames & Hudson.
    Open the box -- The museum effect -- Art or artifact -- Public inquiry -- Framing the frame -- Curator/creator -- On the inside -- Without walls.
     
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  35. Paul Bloom (1996). Intention, History, and Artifact Concepts. Cognition 60 (1):1-29.
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  36. Philippe Bernard, Sarah J. Gervais, Jill Allen & Olivier Klein (2015). Commentary “The Sexualized-Body-Inversion Hypothesis Revisited: Valid Indicator of Sexual Objectification or Methodological Artifact?”. Frontiers in Psychology 6.
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  37.  11
    Judit Futó, Ernő Téglás, Gergely Csibra & György Gergely (2010). Communicative Function Demonstration Induces Kind-Based Artifact Representation in Preverbal Infants. Cognition 117 (1):1-8.
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  38.  56
    Elliott Sober & Richard C. Lewontin (1982). Artifact, Cause and Genic Selection. Philosophy of Science 49 (2):157-180.
    Several evolutionary biologists have used a parsimony argument to argue that the single gene is the unit of selection. Since all evolution by natural selection can be represented in terms of selection coefficients attaching to single genes, it is, they say, "more parsimonious" to think that all selection is selection for or against single genes. We examine the limitations of this genic point of view, and then relate our criticisms to a broader view of the role of causal concepts and (...)
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  39. David Kirsh (2006). Explaining Artifact Evolution. Cognitive Life of Things.
    Much of a culture’s history – its knowledge, capacity, style, and mode of material engagement – is encoded and transmitted in its artifacts. Artifacts crystallize practice; they are a type of meme reservoir that people interpret though interaction. So, in a sense, artifacts transmit cognition; they help to transmit practice across generations, shaping the ways people engage and encounter their world. So runs one argument.
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  40.  16
    Adee Matan & Susan Carey (2001). Developmental Changes Within the Core of Artifact Concepts. Cognition 78 (1):1-26.
  41. Zsófia Zvolenszky (2012). Against Sainsbury’s Irrealism About Fictional Characters: Harry Potter as an Abstract Artifact. Hungarian Philosophical Review (Magyar Filozófiai Szemle) (4):83-109.
  42.  79
    Risto Hilpinen, Artifact. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  43.  9
    Barbara C. Malt & Steven A. Sloman (2007). Artifact Categorization: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. In Eric Margolis & Stephen Laurence (eds.), Creations of the Mind: Theories of Artifacts and Their Representation. Oxford University Press 85--123.
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  44.  3
    Risto Hilpinen, Artifact. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
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  45. Alan Cowey (2004). The 30th Sir Frederick Bartlett Lecture: Fact, Artefact, and Myth About Blindsight. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology A 57 (4):577-609.
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  46.  6
    William Shockley (1987). Jensen's Data on Spearman's Hypothesis: No Artifact. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 10 (3):512.
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  47.  2
    Paul Bloom (1998). Theories of Artifact Categorization. Cognition 66 (1):87-93.
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  48.  58
    Stan Franklin (2003). Ida: A Conscious Artifact? Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (4):47-66.
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  49.  17
    Pablo Schyfter (2009). The Bootstrapped Artefact: A Collectivist Account of Technological Ontology, Functions, and Normativity. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 40 (1):102-111.
    In 2006, this journal addressed the problem of technological artefacts, and through a series of articles aimed at tackling the ‘dual nature of technical artefacts’, posited an understanding of these as constituted by both a structural and a functional component. This attempt to conceptualise artefacts established a series of important questions, concerning such aspects of material technologies as mechanisms, functions, human intentionality, and normativity. However, I believe that in establishing the ‘dual nature’ thesis, the authors within this issue focused too (...)
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  50.  4
    Vikram K. Jaswal (2006). Preschoolers Favor the Creator's Label When Reasoning About an Artifact's Function. Cognition 99 (3):B83-B92.
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