Search results for 'Artificial Life' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  29
    Eric T. Olson (1997). The Ontological Basis of Strong Artificial Life. Artificial Life 3:29-39.
    This article concerns the claim that it is possible to create living organisms, not merely models that represent organisms, simply by programming computers. I ask what sort of things these computer-generated organisms are supposed to be. I consider four possible answers to this question: The organisms are abstract complexes of pure information; they are material objects made of bits of computer hardware; they are physical processes going on inside the computer; and they are denizens of an entire artificial world, (...)
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  2. Alexander Riegler (1992). Constructivist Artificial Life, and Beyond. In Barry McMullin (ed.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Autopoiesis and Perception. Dublin City University: Dublin, Pp. 121–136.
    In this paper I provide an epistemological context for Artificial Life projects. Later on, the insights which such projects will exhibit may be used as a general direction for further Artificial Life implementations. The purpose of such a model is to demonstrate by way of simulation how higher cognitive structures may emerge from building invariants by simple sensorimotor beings. By using the bottom-up methodology of Artificial Life, it is hoped to overcome problems that arise (...)
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  3. Margaret A. Boden (ed.) (1996). The Philosophy of Artificial Life. Oxford University Press.
    This new volume in the acclaimed Oxford Readings in Philosophy sereis offers a selection of the most important philosophical work being done in the new and fast-growing interdisciplinary area of artificial life. Artificial life research seeks to synthesize the characteristics of life by artificial means, particularly employing computer technology. The essays here explore such fascinating themes as the nature of life, the relation between life and mind, and the limits of technology.
     
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  4.  11
    Simon Huesken (2014). Artificial Life and Ethics. NanoEthics 8 (1):111-116.
    Reports of the successful creation of artificial life usually garner considerable interest from philosophers. This paper argues that the worries philosophers have about artificial life do not, for the most part, depend on the artificiality of a given organism. In particular advances in synthetic biology will make the distinction between artificial and natural life a difficult and fluid one. Philosophers should hence refrain from making their arguments depend on a distinction between artificial and (...)
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  5.  52
    Claus Emmeche (1991). A Semiotical Reflection on Biology, Living Signs and Artificial Life. Biology and Philosophy 6 (3):325-340.
    It is argued, that theory sf signs, especially in the tradition of the great philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914) can inspire the study of central problems in the philosophy of biology. Three such problems are considered: (1) The nature of biology as a science, where a semiotically informed pluralistic approach to the theory of science is introduced. (2) The peculiarity of the general object of biology, where a realistic interpretation of sign- and information-concepts is required to see sign-processes as immanent (...)
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  6.  8
    Andreas Christiansen (2016). Synthetic Biology and the Moral Significance of Artificial Life: A Reply to Douglas, Powell and Savulescu. Bioethics 30 (5):372-379.
    I discuss the moral significance of artificial life within synthetic biology via a discussion of Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's paper 'Is the creation of artificial life morally significant’. I argue that the definitions of 'artificial life’ and of 'moral significance’ are too narrow. Douglas, Powell and Savulescu's definition of artificial life does not capture all core projects of synthetic biology or the ethical concerns that have been voiced, and their definition of moral (...)
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  7.  33
    John P. Sullins (2005). Ethics and Artificial Life: From Modeling to Moral Agents. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 7 (3):139-148.
    Artificial Life has two goals. One attempts to describe fundamental qualities of living systems through agent based computer models. And the second studies whether or not we can artificially create living things in computational mediums that can be realized either, virtually in software, or through biotechnology. The study of ALife has recently branched into two further subdivisions, one is “dry” ALife, which is the study of living systems “in silico” through the use of computer simulations, and the other (...)
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  8.  14
    Sarah Kember (2003). Cyberfeminism and Artificial Life. Routledge.
    Cyberfeminism and Artificial Life examines construction, manipulation and re-definition of life in contemporary technoscientific culture. It takes a critical political view of the concept of life as information, tracing this through the new biology and the changing discipline of artificial life and its manifestation in art, language, literature, commerce and entertainment. From cloning to computer games, and incorporating an analysis of hardware, software and 'wetware', Sarah Kember demonstrates how this relatively marginal field connects with, (...)
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  9. Artificial Life (1997). Metasubjective Processes and, 76 Programming for, 323 in Realism Context, 335-37 Strong Vs. Weak, 106-7 Traditional, 218. [REVIEW] In David Martel Johnson & Christina E. Erneling (eds.), The Future of the Cognitive Revolution. Oxford University Press 45--52.
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  10.  16
    Jessica Riskin (ed.) (2007). Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life. University of Chicago Press.
    Since antiquity, philosophers and engineers have tried to take life’s measure by reproducing it. Aiming to reenact Creation, at least in part, these experimenters have hoped to understand the links between body and spirit, matter and mind, mechanism and consciousness. Genesis Redux examines moments from this centuries-long experimental tradition: efforts to simulate life in machinery, to synthesize life out of material parts, and to understand living beings by comparison with inanimate mechanisms. Jessica Riskin collects seventeen essays from (...)
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  11. Anna-Teresa Tymieniecka, World Institute for Advanced Phenomenological Research and Learning & International Congress of Phenomenology/Philosophy and the Sciences Of Life (2002). The Creative Matrix of the Origins Dynamisms, Forces and the Shaping of Life. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  12.  55
    Stevan Harnad (1994). Levels of Functional Equivalence in Reverse Bioengineering: The Darwinian Turing Test for Artificial Life. Artificial Life 1 (3):93-301.
    Both Artificial Life and Artificial Mind are branches of what Dennett has called "reverse engineering": Ordinary engineering attempts to build systems to meet certain functional specifications, reverse bioengineering attempts to understand how systems that have already been built by the Blind Watchmaker work. Computational modelling (virtual life) can capture the formal principles of life, perhaps predict and explain it completely, but it can no more be alive than a virtual forest fire can be hot. In (...)
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  13.  7
    Jacob Stegenga (2009). Jessica Riskin , Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2007. Pp. Xvii+389. ISBN 978-0-226-72081-4. £16.00, $25.00. [REVIEW] British Journal for the History of Science 42 (3):437.
  14. Brian L. Keeley (1994). Against the Global Replacement: On the Application of the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence to Artificial Life. In C. G. Langton (ed.), Artificial Life Iii: Proceedings of the Workshop on Artificial Life. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley
    This paper is a complement to the recent wealth of literature suggesting a strong philosophical relationship between artificial life (A-Life) and artificial intelligence (AI). I seek to point out where this analogy seems to break down, or where it would lead us to draw incorrect conclusions about the philosophical situation of A-Life. First, I sketch a thought experiment (based on the work of Tom Ray) that suggests how a certain subset of A-Life experiments should (...)
     
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  15.  18
    Steen Rasmussen, Michael J. Raven, Gordon N. Keating & Mark A. Bedau (2003). Collective Intelligence of the Artificial Life Community on Its Own Successes, Failures, and Future. Artificial Life 9:207-235.
    We describe a novel Internet-based method for building consensus and clarifying con icts in large stakeholder groups facing complex issues, and we use the method to survey and map the scienti c and organizational perspectives of the arti cial life community during the Seventh International Conference on Arti cial Life (summer 2000). The issues addressed in this survey included arti cial life’s main successes, main failures, main open scienti c questions, and main strategies for the future, as (...)
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  16.  7
    Emanuele Ratti (2014). Levels of Abstraction, Emergentism and Artificial Life. Journal of Experimental & Theoretical Artificial Intelligence:1-12.
    I diagnose the current debate between epistemological and ontological emergentism as a Kantian antinomy, which has reasonable but irreconcilable thesis and antithesis. Kantian antinomies have recently returned to contemporary philosophy in part through the work of Luciano Floridi, and the method of levels of abstraction. I use a thought experiment concerning a computer simulation to show how to resolve the epistemological/ontological antinomy about emergence. I also use emergentism and simulations in artificial life to illuminate both levels of abstraction (...)
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  17.  72
    Tom Froese & Shaun Gallagher (2010). Phenomenology and Artificial Life: Toward a Technological Supplementation of Phenomenological Methodology. Husserl Studies 26 (2):83-106.
    The invention of the computer has revolutionized science. With respect to finding the essential structures of life, for example, it has enabled scientists not only to investigate empirical examples, but also to create and study novel hypothetical variations by means of simulation: ‘life as it could be’. We argue that this kind of research in the field of artificial life, namely the specification, implementation and evaluation of artificial systems, is akin to Husserl’s method of free (...)
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  18. Daniel C. Dennett, Artificial Life as Philosophy.
    There are two likely paths for philosophers to follow in their encounters with Artificial Life: they can see it as a new way of doing philosophy, or simply as a new object worthy of philosophical attention using traditional methods. Is Artificial Life best seen as a new philosophical method or a new phenomenon? There is a case to be made for each alternative, but I urge philosophers to take the leap and consider the first to be (...)
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  19. Marc Lange (1996). Life, "Artificial Life," and Scientific Explanation. Philosophy of Science 63 (2):225-244.
    Recently, biologists and computer scientists who advocate the "strong thesis of artificial life" have argued that the distinction between life and nonlife is important and that certain computer software entities could be alive in the same sense as biological entities. These arguments have been challenged by Sober (1991). I address some of the questions about the rational reconstruction of biology that are suggested by these arguments: What is the relation between life and the "signs of (...)"? What work (if any) might the concept of "life" (over and above the "signs of life") perform in biology? What turns on scientific disputes over the utility of this concept? To defend my answers to these questions, I compare "life" to certain other concepts used in science, and I examine historical episodes in which an entity's vitality was invoked to explain certain phenomena. I try to understand how these explanations could be illuminating even though they are not accompanied by any reductive definition of "life.". (shrink)
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  20.  78
    Mark Bedau, Artificial Life Illuminates Human Hyper-Creativity.
    The aim of this chapter is to show how the technological research activity called “artificial life” is shedding new light on human creativity. Artificial life aims to understanding the fundamental behavior of life-like systems by synthesizing that behavior in artificial systems (more on artificial life below). One of the most interesting behaviors of living systems is their creativity. Biological creativity can be found in both individual living organisms and in the whole biosphere—the (...)
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  21.  75
    Mark Bedau, The Scientific and Philosophical Scope of Artificial Life.
    The new interdisciplinary science of artificial life has had a connection with the arts from its inception. This paper provides an overview of artificial life, reviews its key scientific challenges, and discusses its philosophical implications. It ends with a few words about the implications of artificial life for the arts.
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  22.  92
    Robert Pennock, Learning Evolution and the Nature of Science Using Evolutionary Computing and Artificial Life.
    Because evolution in natural systems happens so slowly, it is dif- ficult to design inquiry-based labs where students can experiment and observe evolution in the way they can when studying other phenomena. New research in evolutionary computation and artificial life provides a solution to this problem. This paper describes a new A-Life software environment – Avida-ED – in which undergraduate students can test evolutionary hypotheses directly using digital organisms that evolve on their own through the very mechanisms (...)
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  23.  43
    Stevan Harnad (1993). Artificial Life: Synthetic Versus Virtual. Philosophical Explorations.
    Artificial life can take two forms: synthetic and virtual. In principle, the materials and properties of synthetic living systems could differ radically from those of natural living systems yet still resemble them enough to be really alive if they are grounded in the relevant causal interactions with the real world. Virtual (purely computational) "living" systems, in contrast, are just ungrounded symbol systems that are systematically interpretable as if they were alive; in reality they are no more alive than (...)
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  24.  62
    Rodney A. Brooks, Artificial Life and Real Robots.
    The first part of this paper explores the general issues in using Artificial Life techniques to program actual mobile robots. In particular it explores the difficulties inherent in transferring programs evolved in a simulated environment to run on an actual robot. It examines the dual evolution of organism morphology and nervous systems in biology. It proposes techniques to capture some of the search space pruning that dual evolution offers in the domain of robot programming. It explores the relationship (...)
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  25.  55
    Liz Stillwaggon Swan (2009). Synthesizing Insight: Artificial Life as Thought Experimentation in Biology. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):687-701.
    What is artificial life? Much has been said about this interesting collection of efforts to artificially simulate and synthesize lifelike behavior and processes, yet we are far from having a robust philosophical understanding of just what Alifers are doing and why it ought to interest philosophers of science, and philosophers of biology in particular. In this paper, I first provide three introductory examples from the particular subset of artificial life I focus on, known as ‘soft Alife’ (...)
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  26.  38
    Mark A. Bedau, Three Illustrations of Artificial Life's Working Hypothesis.
    Artificial life uses computer models to study the essential nature of the characteristic processes of complex adaptive systems proceses such as self-organization, adaptation, and evolution. Work in the field is guided by the working hypothesis that simple computer models can capture the essential nature of these processes. This hypothesis is illustrated by recent results with a simple population of computational agents whose sensorimotor functionality undergo open-ended adaptive evolution. These might illuminate three aspects of complex adaptive systems in general: (...)
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  27.  11
    Andrzej Gecow (2013). The Purposeful Information. On the Difference Between Natural and Artificial Life. Dialogue and Universalism 18 (11/12):191-206.
    The spontaneity of natural life is the only property which differs this type of life from artificial life. However, it may be the main basis to understand life. Artificial life is constructed by living beings; it is a part of the natural life process, and its properties are not an effect of its own restrictions but of external assumptions. Therefore the investigation of artificial life is not a safe way of (...)
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  28.  41
    Brian L. Keeley (1998). Artificial Life for Philosophers. Philosophical Psychology 11 (2):251 – 260.
    Artificial life (ALife) is the attempt to create artificial instances of life in a variety of media, but primarily within the digital computer. As such, the field brings together computationally-minded biologists and biologically-minded computer scientists. I argue that this new field is filled with interesting philosophical issues. However, there is a dearth of philosophers actively conducting research in this area. I discuss two books on the new field: Margaret A. Boden's The philosophy of artificial (...) and Christopher G. Langton's Artificial life: an overview. They cover three areas of philosophical interest: the definition of life, the relationship between life and mind, and the possibility of creating life within a computational environment. This discussion allows me to critique past work in the philosophy of ALife that tends to see the field as a proving ground for traditional arguments from the philosophy of artificial intelligence. Instead, I suggest, what is interesting about ALife is how it differs from artificial intelligence and that the most interesting philosophical issues in the area are those derived from biology, not psychology. I recommend that these two books taken together constitute an interesting introduction to ALife and the wealth of philosophical issues found therein. (shrink)
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  29.  11
    Steven Luper (1999). Natural Resources, Gadgets and Artificial Life. Environmental Values 8 (1):27 - 54.
    I classify different sorts of natural resources and suggest how these resources may be acquired. I also argue that inventions, whether gadgets or artificial life forms, should not be privately owned. Gadgets and life-forms are not created (although the term 'invention' suggests otherwise); they are discovered, and hence have much in common with more familiar natural resources such as sunlight that ought not to be privately owned. Nonetheless, inventors of gadgets, like discoverers of certain more familiar resources, (...)
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  30.  40
    Mark Bedau, Open Problems in Artificial Life Mark A. Bedau∗,†.
    artificial life, each of which is a grand challenge requiring a major advance on a fundamental issue for its solution. Each problem is briefly explained, and, where deemed helpful, some promising paths to its solution are indicated.
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  31.  29
    Mark Bedau (2003). Artificial Life. In Luciano Floridi (ed.), Blackwell Guide to the Philosophy of Computing and Information. Blackwell
    Artificial life (also known as “ALife”) is a broad, interdisciplinary endeavor that studies life and life-like processes through simulation and synthesis. The goals of this activity include modelling and even creating life and life-like systems, as well as developing practical applications using intuitions and methods taken from living systems. Artificial life both illuminates traditional philosophical questions and raises new philosophical questions. Since both artificial life and philosophy investigate the essential nature (...)
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  32.  32
    Claus Emmeche, Life as an Abstract Phenomenon: Is Artificial Life Possible?
    Is life a property of the material structure of a living system or an abstract form of organization that can be realized in other media; artificial as well as natural? One version of the Artificial Life research programme presumes, that one can separate the logical form of an organism from its material basis of construction, and that its capacity to live and reproduce is a property of the form, not the matter (Langton 1989). This seems to (...)
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  33.  22
    Daniel J. Nicholson (2011). Review of 'Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life' (Riskin, 2007). [REVIEW] Annals of Science 68 (1):136-139.
    Since antiquity, philosophers and engineers have tried to take life’s measure by reproducing it. Aiming to reenact Creation, at least in part, these experimenters have hoped to understand the links between body and spirit, matter and mind, mechanism and consciousness. Genesis Redux examines moments from this centuries-long experimental tradition: efforts to simulate life in machinery, to synthesize life out of material parts, and to understand living beings by comparison with inanimate mechanisms.Jessica Riskin collects seventeen essays from distinguished (...)
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  34.  9
    Thomas Douglas, Russell Powell & Julian Savulescu (2013). Is the Creation of Artificial Life Morally Significant? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):688-696.
    In 2010, the Venter lab announced that it had created the first bacterium with an entirely synthetic genome. This was reported to be the first instance of ‘artificial life,’ and in the ethical and policy discussions that followed it was widely assumed that the creation of artificial life is in itself morally significant. We cast doubt on this assumption. First we offer an account of the creation of artificial life that distinguishes this from the (...)
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  35.  19
    Daniel Parrochia (1995). A Historical Note on «Artificial Life». Acta Biotheoretica 43 (1-2):177-183.
    In this paper, I am dealing with some epistemological aspects of what Christopher Langton (1989) and some other scientists have been calling recently «artificial life», whose history, in fact, is far older. I want to take a view on the origin, further developments and latest issues of these models, and try to point out the major philosophical and epistemological problems arising with them.
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  36.  4
    Mark Guglielmetti (2012). Artificial Life, André Bazin and Disney Nature. Philosophy of Photography 3 (1):73-80.
    This article investigates artificial life image-making in relation to and as constituent of the moving image, specifically artificial life visualized in three-dimensional computer-generated space . Of particular interest in this examination is the view or `window', from the virtual camera, into the artificial life computational model or `world' , and how it organizes a dense field of expectations. Analogous to looking through a telescope or microscope, the view into the artificial life world (...)
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  37.  17
    Domenico Parisi, Anna M. Borghi, Andrea Di Ferdinando & Giorgio Tsiotas (2005). Meaning and Motor Actions: Artificial Life and Behavioral Evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):139-140.
    Mirror neurons may play a role in representing not only signs but also their meaning. Because actions are the only aspect of behavior that are inter-individually accessible, interpreting meanings in terms of actions might explain how meanings can be shared. Behavioral evidence and artificial life simulations suggest that seeing objects or processing words referring to objects automatically activates motor actions.
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  38. Margaret A. Boden (ed.) (1997). The Philosophy of Artificial Life. Oxford University Press Uk.
    The aim of this series is to bring together important recent writings in major areas of philosophical inquiry, selected from a variety of sources, mostly periodicals, which may not be conveniently available to the university student or the general reader. The editor of each volume contributes an introductory essay on the items chosen and on the questions with which they deal. A selective bibliography is appended as a guide to further reading. This volume offers a selection of the most important (...)
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  39. M. A. Boden (1996). The Intellectual Context of Artificial Life. In Margaret A. Boden (ed.), The Philosophy of Artificial Life. Oxford University Press 1--35.
     
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  40. Joan B. Landes (2007). The Anatomy of Artificial Life: An Eighteenth-Century Perspective. In Jessica Riskin (ed.), Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life. University of Chicago Press 96--116.
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  41. Claus Emmeche (1994). The Garden in the Machine the Emerging Science of Artificial Life. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
     
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  42.  10
    Sharon Daniel (2000). Collaborative Systems: Evolving Databases and the ?Conditions of Possibility?-Artificial Life Models of Agency in on-Line Interactive Art. [REVIEW] AI and Society 14 (2):196-213.
    This paper will discuss interactive on-line artworks modelled on cellular automata that employ various types of agents, both algorithmic and human, to assist in the evolution of their databases. These works constitute what will here be referred to as “Collaborative Systems” systems that evolve through the practice of inter-authorship.
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  43.  14
    Michael Ruse (1999). Margaret A. Boden, Ed., the Philosophy of Artificial Life, Oxford Readings in Philosophy, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, VIII + 405 Pp., 65.00 (Cloth), ISBN 0-19-875154-0;65.00 (Cloth), ISBN 0-19-875154-0; 19.95 (Paper), ISBN 0-19-875155-. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 9 (1):139-143.
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  44.  6
    Michael Ruse (1998). Margaret A. Boden, Ed., The Philosophy of Artificial Life, Oxford Readings in Philosophy, New York: Oxford University Press, 1996, Viii + 405 Pp., 65.00 (Cloth), ISBN 0-19-875154-0; 19.95 (Paper), ISBN 0-19-875155-. [REVIEW] Minds and Machines 9 (1):139-143.
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  45. Eduardo R. Miranda (1999). The Artificial Life Route to the Origins of Music. Scientia 10 (1):5-33.
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  46.  23
    Robin Attfield (2012). Biocentrism and Artificial Life. Environmental Values 21 (1):83 - 94.
    Biocentrism maintains that all living creatures have moral standing, but need not claim that all have equal moral significance. This moral standing extends to organisms generated through human interventions, whether by conventional breeding, genetic engineering, or synthetic biology. Our responsibilities with regard to future generations seem relevant to non-human species as well as future human generations and their quality of life. Likewise the Precautionary Principle appears to raise objections to the generation of serious or irreversible changes to the quality (...)
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  47.  71
    Yong Zher Koh & Maurice Ht Ling, On the Liveliness of Artificial Life.
    The definition of life has been one of the greatest philosophical questions of mankind. In recent years, this debate had intensified due to the discovery of naturally occurring biological entities, such as viruses and prions, which lie at the boundary of what we consider as living. “Are viruses alive?” has turned out to be the largest vote swinging debate in an introductory course to microbiology [1], with 79% of the students changing their opinions before and after the debate compared (...)
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  48.  20
    Luc Steels & Rodney Brooks (eds.) (1995). The "Artificial Life" Route to "Artificial Intelligence": Building Situated Embodied Agents. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
    This volume is the direct result of a conference in which a number of leading researchers from the fields of artificial intelligence and biology gathered to ...
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  49.  60
    Gary Banham, Artificial Life and the Inhuman Condition.
    Paper published on author's website available at http://www.garybanham.net/PAPERS_files/Artificial%20Life%20and%20the%20Inhuman%20Condition.pdf.
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  50.  10
    Hugues Bersini (2009). How Artificial Life Relates to Theoretical Biology. In Maryvonne Gérin & Marie-Christine Maurel (eds.), Origins of Life: Self-Organization and/or Biological Evolution? Edp Sciences 61--78.
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