Search results for 'Artificial Life' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Artificial Life (1997). Metasubjective Processes and, 76 Programming for, 323 in Realism Context, 335-37 Strong Vs. Weak, 106-7 Traditional, 218. [REVIEW] In David Martel Johnson & Christina E. Erneling (eds.), The Future of the Cognitive Revolution. Oxford University Press. 45--52.score: 240.0
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  2. Claus Emmeche (1991). A Semiotical Reflection on Biology, Living Signs and Artificial Life. Biology and Philosophy 6 (3):325-340.score: 180.0
    It is argued, that theory sf signs, especially in the tradition of the great philosopher Charles Sanders Peirce (1839–1914) can inspire the study of central problems in the philosophy of biology. Three such problems are considered: (1) The nature of biology as a science, where a semiotically informed pluralistic approach to the theory of science is introduced. (2) The peculiarity of the general object of biology, where a realistic interpretation of sign- and information-concepts is required to see sign-processes as immanent (...)
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  3. Alexander Riegler (1992). Constructivist Artificial Life, and Beyond. In Barry McMullin (ed.), Proceedings of the workshop on autopoiesis and perception. Dublin City University: Dublin, pp. 121–136.score: 180.0
    In this paper I provide an epistemological context for Artificial Life projects. Later on, the insights which such projects will exhibit may be used as a general direction for further Artificial Life implementations. The purpose of such a model is to demonstrate by way of simulation how higher cognitive structures may emerge from building invariants by simple sensorimotor beings. By using the bottom-up methodology of Artificial Life, it is hoped to overcome problems that arise (...)
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  4. John P. Sullins (2005). Ethics and Artificial Life: From Modeling to Moral Agents. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 7 (3):139-148.score: 180.0
    Artificial Life (ALife) has two goals. One attempts to describe fundamental qualities of living systems through agent based computer models. And the second studies whether or not we can artificially create living things in computational mediums that can be realized either, virtually in software, or through biotechnology. The study of ALife has recently branched into two further subdivisions, one is “dry” ALife, which is the study of living systems “in silico” through the use of computer simulations, and the (...)
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  5. Sarah Kember (2003). Cyberfeminism and Artificial Life. Routledge.score: 180.0
    Cyberfeminism and Artificial Life examines construction, manipulation and re-definition of life in contemporary technoscientific culture. It takes a critical political view of the concept of life as information, tracing this through the new biology and the changing discipline of artificial life and its manifestation in art, language, literature, commerce and entertainment. From cloning to computer games, and incorporating an analysis of hardware, software and 'wetware', Sarah Kember demonstrates how this relatively marginal field connects with, (...)
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  6. Jessica Riskin (ed.) (2007). Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life. University of Chicago Press.score: 180.0
    Since antiquity, philosophers and engineers have tried to take life’s measure by reproducing it. Aiming to reenact Creation, at least in part, these experimenters have hoped to understand the links between body and spirit, matter and mind, mechanism and consciousness. Genesis Redux examines moments from this centuries-long experimental tradition: efforts to simulate life in machinery, to synthesize life out of material parts, and to understand living beings by comparison with inanimate mechanisms. Jessica Riskin collects seventeen essays from (...)
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  7. Simon Huesken (2014). Artificial Life and Ethics. Nanoethics 8 (1):111-116.score: 180.0
    Reports of the successful creation of artificial life usually garner considerable interest from philosophers. This paper argues that the worries philosophers have about artificial life do not, for the most part, depend on the artificiality of a given organism. In particular advances in synthetic biology will make the distinction between artificial and natural life a difficult and fluid one. Philosophers should hence refrain from making their arguments depend on a distinction between artificial and (...)
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  8. Margaret A. Boden (ed.) (1996). The Philosophy of Artificial Life. Oxford University Press.score: 180.0
    This new volume in the acclaimed Oxford Readings in Philosophy sereis offers a selection of the most important philosophical work being done in the new and fast-growing interdisciplinary area of artificial life. Artificial life research seeks to synthesize the characteristics of life by artificial means, particularly employing computer technology. The essays here explore such fascinating themes as the nature of life, the relation between life and mind, and the limits of technology.
     
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  9. Stevan Harnad (1994). Levels of Functional Equivalence in Reverse Bioengineering: The Darwinian Turing Test for Artificial Life. Artificial Life 1 (3):93-301.score: 150.0
    Both Artificial Life and Artificial Mind are branches of what Dennett has called "reverse engineering": Ordinary engineering attempts to build systems to meet certain functional specifications, reverse bioengineering attempts to understand how systems that have already been built by the Blind Watchmaker work. Computational modelling (virtual life) can capture the formal principles of life, perhaps predict and explain it completely, but it can no more be alive than a virtual forest fire can be hot. In (...)
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  10. Steen Rasmussen, Michael J. Raven, Gordon N. Keating & Mark A. Bedau (2003). Collective Intelligence of the Artificial Life Community on Its Own Successes, Failures, and Future. Artificial Life 9:207-235.score: 126.0
    We describe a novel Internet-based method for building consensus and clarifying con icts in large stakeholder groups facing complex issues, and we use the method to survey and map the scienti c and organizational perspectives of the arti cial life community during the Seventh International Conference on Arti cial Life (summer 2000). The issues addressed in this survey included arti cial life’s main successes, main failures, main open scienti c questions, and main strategies for the future, as (...)
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  11. Daniel C. Dennett, Artificial Life as Philosophy.score: 120.0
    There are two likely paths for philosophers to follow in their encounters with Artificial Life: they can see it as a new way of doing philosophy, or simply as a new object worthy of philosophical attention using traditional methods. Is Artificial Life best seen as a new philosophical method or a new phenomenon? There is a case to be made for each alternative, but I urge philosophers to take the leap and consider the first to be (...)
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  12. Mark Bedau, The Scientific and Philosophical Scope of Artificial Life.score: 120.0
    The new interdisciplinary science of artificial life has had a connection with the arts from its inception. This paper provides an overview of artificial life, reviews its key scientific challenges, and discusses its philosophical implications. It ends with a few words about the implications of artificial life for the arts.
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  13. Tom Froese & Shaun Gallagher (2010). Phenomenology and Artificial Life: Toward a Technological Supplementation of Phenomenological Methodology. [REVIEW] Husserl Studies 26 (2):83-106.score: 120.0
    The invention of the computer has revolutionized science. With respect to finding the essential structures of life, for example, it has enabled scientists not only to investigate empirical examples, but also to create and study novel hypothetical variations by means of simulation: ‘life as it could be’. We argue that this kind of research in the field of artificial life, namely the specification, implementation and evaluation of artificial systems, is akin to Husserl’s method of free (...)
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  14. Liz Stillwaggon Swan (2009). Synthesizing Insight: Artificial Life as Thought Experimentation in Biology. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):687-701.score: 120.0
    What is artificial life? Much has been said about this interesting collection of efforts to artificially simulate and synthesize lifelike behavior and processes, yet we are far from having a robust philosophical understanding of just what Alifers are doing and why it ought to interest philosophers of science, and philosophers of biology in particular. In this paper, I first provide three introductory examples from the particular subset of artificial life I focus on, known as ‘soft Alife’ (...)
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  15. Mark Bedau, Artificial Life Illuminates Human Hyper-Creativity.score: 120.0
    The aim of this chapter is to show how the technological research activity called “artificial life” is shedding new light on human creativity. Artificial life aims to understanding the fundamental behavior of life-like systems by synthesizing that behavior in artificial systems (more on artificial life below). One of the most interesting behaviors of living systems is their creativity. Biological creativity can be found in both individual living organisms and in the whole biosphere—the (...)
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  16. Rodney A. Brooks, Artificial Life and Real Robots.score: 120.0
    The first part of this paper explores the general issues in using Artificial Life techniques to program actual mobile robots. In particular it explores the difficulties inherent in transferring programs evolved in a simulated environment to run on an actual robot. It examines the dual evolution of organism morphology and nervous systems in biology. It proposes techniques to capture some of the search space pruning that dual evolution offers in the domain of robot programming. It explores the relationship (...)
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  17. Marc Lange (1996). Life, "Artificial Life," and Scientific Explanation. Philosophy of Science 63 (2):225-244.score: 120.0
    Recently, biologists and computer scientists who advocate the "strong thesis of artificial life" have argued that the distinction between life and nonlife is important and that certain computer software entities could be alive in the same sense as biological entities. These arguments have been challenged by Sober (1991). I address some of the questions about the rational reconstruction of biology that are suggested by these arguments: What is the relation between life and the "signs of (...)"? What work (if any) might the concept of "life" (over and above the "signs of life") perform in biology? What turns on scientific disputes over the utility of this concept? To defend my answers to these questions, I compare "life" to certain other concepts used in science, and I examine historical episodes in which an entity's vitality was invoked to explain certain phenomena. I try to understand how these explanations could be illuminating even though they are not accompanied by any reductive definition of "life.". (shrink)
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  18. Stevan Harnad (1993). Artificial Life: Synthetic Versus Virtual. .score: 120.0
    Artificial life can take two forms: synthetic and virtual. In principle, the materials and properties of synthetic living systems could differ radically from those of natural living systems yet still resemble them enough to be really alive if they are grounded in the relevant causal interactions with the real world. Virtual (purely computational) "living" systems, in contrast, are just ungrounded symbol systems that are systematically interpretable as if they were alive; in reality they are no more alive than (...)
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  19. Claus Emmeche, Life as an Abstract Phenomenon: Is Artificial Life Possible?score: 120.0
    Is life a property of the material structure of a living system or an abstract form of organization that can be realized in other media; artificial as well as natural? One version of the Artificial Life research programme presumes, that one can separate the logical form of an organism from its material basis of construction, and that its capacity to live and reproduce is a property of the form, not the matter (Langton 1989). This seems to (...)
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  20. Robert Pennock, Learning Evolution and the Nature of Science Using Evolutionary Computing and Artificial Life.score: 120.0
    Because evolution in natural systems happens so slowly, it is dif- ficult to design inquiry-based labs where students can experiment and observe evolution in the way they can when studying other phenomena. New research in evolutionary computation and artificial life provides a solution to this problem. This paper describes a new A-Life software environment – Avida-ED – in which undergraduate students can test evolutionary hypotheses directly using digital organisms that evolve on their own through the very mechanisms (...)
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  21. Brian L. Keeley (1998). Artificial Life for Philosophers. Philosophical Psychology 11 (2):251 – 260.score: 120.0
    Artificial life (ALife) is the attempt to create artificial instances of life in a variety of media, but primarily within the digital computer. As such, the field brings together computationally-minded biologists and biologically-minded computer scientists. I argue that this new field is filled with interesting philosophical issues. However, there is a dearth of philosophers actively conducting research in this area. I discuss two books on the new field: Margaret A. Boden's The philosophy of artificial (...) and Christopher G. Langton's Artificial life: an overview. They cover three areas of philosophical interest: the definition of life, the relationship between life and mind, and the possibility of creating life within a computational environment. This discussion allows me to critique past work in the philosophy of ALife that tends to see the field as a proving ground for traditional arguments from the philosophy of artificial intelligence. Instead, I suggest, what is interesting about ALife is how it differs from artificial intelligence and that the most interesting philosophical issues in the area are those derived from biology, not psychology. I recommend that these two books taken together constitute an interesting introduction to ALife and the wealth of philosophical issues found therein. (shrink)
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  22. Brian L. Keeley (1994). Against the Global Replacement: On the Application of the Philosophy of Artificial Intelligence to Artificial Life. In C. G. Langton (ed.), Artificial Life Iii: Proceedings of the Workshop on Artificial Life. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley.score: 120.0
  23. Mark A. Bedau, Three Illustrations of Artificial Life's Working Hypothesis.score: 120.0
    Artificial life uses computer models to study the essential nature of the characteristic processes of complex adaptive systems proceses such as self-organization, adaptation, and evolution. Work in the field is guided by the working hypothesis that simple computer models can capture the essential nature of these processes. This hypothesis is illustrated by recent results with a simple population of computational agents whose sensorimotor functionality undergo open-ended adaptive evolution. These might illuminate three aspects of complex adaptive systems in general: (...)
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  24. Daniel J. Nicholson (2011). Review of 'Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life' (Riskin, 2007). [REVIEW] Annals of Science 68 (1):136-139.score: 120.0
    Since antiquity, philosophers and engineers have tried to take life’s measure by reproducing it. Aiming to reenact Creation, at least in part, these experimenters have hoped to understand the links between body and spirit, matter and mind, mechanism and consciousness. Genesis Redux examines moments from this centuries-long experimental tradition: efforts to simulate life in machinery, to synthesize life out of material parts, and to understand living beings by comparison with inanimate mechanisms.Jessica Riskin collects seventeen essays from distinguished (...)
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  25. Mark Bedau, Open Problems in Artificial Life Mark A. Bedau∗,†.score: 120.0
    artificial life, each of which is a grand challenge requiring a major advance on a fundamental issue for its solution. Each problem is briefly explained, and, where deemed helpful, some promising paths to its solution are indicated.
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  26. Steven Luper (1999). Natural Resources, Gadgets and Artificial Life. Environmental Values 8 (1):27 - 54.score: 120.0
    I classify different sorts of natural resources and suggest how these resources may be acquired. I also argue that inventions, whether gadgets or artificial life forms, should not be privately owned. Gadgets and life-forms are not created (although the term 'invention' suggests otherwise); they are discovered, and hence have much in common with more familiar natural resources such as sunlight that ought not to be privately owned. Nonetheless, inventors of gadgets, like discoverers of certain more familiar resources, (...)
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  27. Domenico Parisi, Anna M. Borghi, Andrea Di Ferdinando & Giorgio Tsiotas (2005). Meaning and Motor Actions: Artificial Life and Behavioral Evidence. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 28 (2):139-140.score: 120.0
    Mirror neurons may play a role in representing not only signs but also their meaning. Because actions are the only aspect of behavior that are inter-individually accessible, interpreting meanings in terms of actions might explain how meanings can be shared. Behavioral evidence and artificial life simulations suggest that seeing objects or processing words referring to objects automatically activates motor actions.
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  28. Daniel Parrochia (1995). A Historical Note on «Artificial Life». Acta Biotheoretica 43 (1-2).score: 120.0
    In this paper, I am dealing with some epistemological aspects of what Christopher Langton (1989) and some other scientists have been calling recently «artificial life», whose history, in fact, is far older. I want to take a view on the origin, further developments and latest issues of these models, and try to point out the major philosophical and epistemological problems arising with them.
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  29. M. A. Boden (1996). The Intellectual Context of Artificial Life. In Margaret A. Boden (ed.), The Philosophy of Artificial Life. Oxford University Press. 1--35.score: 120.0
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  30. Luís Miguel Parreira Correia (2010). From Natural to Artificial Life. Revista Portuguesa de Filosofia 66 (4):789 - 802.score: 120.0
    Living organisms have long since been a source of inspiration for humans to build artifacts mimicking their behaviour. Usually models used are quite simple by comparison to their natural sources of inspiration. However, on computers, we have the freedom to test approaches both realistic and outnght speculative, from the biological point of view. This article overviews several Artificial Life (ALife) models and their application areas. On the one hand we have models that are currently used as tools in (...)
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  31. Joan B. Landes (2007). The Anatomy of Artificial Life: An Eighteenth-Century Perspective. In Jessica Riskin (ed.), Genesis Redux: Essays in the History and Philosophy of Artificial Life. University of Chicago Press. 96--116.score: 120.0
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  32. E. T. Olson, The Ontological Basis of Strong Artificial Life.score: 114.0
    This article concerns the claim that it is possible to create living organisms, not merely models that represent organisms, simply by programming computers ("virtual" strong alife). I ask what sort of things these computer-generated organisms are supposed to be (where are they, and what are they made of?). I consider four possible answers to this question: (a) The organisms are abstract complexes of pure information; (b) they are (...)
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  33. Gerard A. J. M. Jagers op Akkerhuis (2010). Towards a Hierarchical Definition of Life, the Organism, and Death. Foundations of Science 15 (3):245-262.score: 108.0
    Despite hundreds of definitions, no consensus exists on a definition of life or on the closely related and problematic definitions of the organism and death. These problems retard practical and theoretical development in, for example, exobiology, artificial life, biology and evolution. This paper suggests improving this situation by basing definitions on a theory of a generalized particle hierarchy. This theory uses the common denominator of the “operator” for a unified ranking of both particles and organisms, from elementary (...)
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  34. Hans-Jürgen Link (2013). Playing God and the Intrinsic Value of Life: Moral Problems for Synthetic Biology? Science and Engineering Ethics 19 (2):435-448.score: 108.0
    Most of the reports on synthetic biology include not only familiar topics like biosafety and biosecurity but also a chapter on ‘ethical concerns’; a variety of diffuse topics that are interrelated in some way or another. This article deals with these ‘ethical concerns’. In particular it addresses issues such as the intrinsic value of life and how to deal with ‘artificial life’, and the fear that synthetic biologists are tampering with nature or playing God. Its aim is (...)
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  35. Robert T. Pennock (2012). Negotiating Boundaries in the Definition of Life: Wittgensteinian and Darwinian Insights on Resolving Conceptual Border Conflicts. [REVIEW] Synthese 185 (1):5-20.score: 108.0
    What is the definition of life? Artificial life environments provide an interesting test case for this classical question. Understanding what such systems can tell us about biological life requires negotiating the tricky conceptual boundary between virtual and real life forms. Drawing from Wittgenstein’s analysis of the concept of a game and a Darwinian insight about classification, I argue that classifying life involves both causal and pragmatic elements. Rather than searching for a single, sharp definition, (...)
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  36. Sharon Daniel (2000). Collaborative Systems: Evolving Databases and the ?Conditions of Possibility?-Artificial Life Models of Agency in on-Line Interactive Art. [REVIEW] AI and Society 14 (2):196-213.score: 102.0
    This paper will discuss interactive on-line artworks modelled on cellular automata that employ various types of agents, both algorithmic and human, to assist in the evolution of their databases. These works constitute what will here be referred to as “Collaborative Systems” systems that evolve through the practice of inter-authorship.
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  37. Gary Banham, Artificial Life and the Inhuman Condition.score: 96.0
    Paper published on author's website available at http://www.garybanham.net/PAPERS_files/Artificial%20Life%20and%20the%20Inhuman%20Condition.pdf.
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  38. Yong Zher Koh & Maurice Ht Ling, On the Liveliness of Artificial Life.score: 96.0
    The definition of life has been one of the greatest philosophical questions of mankind. In recent years, this debate had intensified due to the discovery of naturally occurring biological entities, such as viruses and prions, which lie at the boundary of what we consider as living. “Are viruses alive?” has turned out to be the largest vote swinging debate in an introductory course to microbiology [1], with 79% of the students changing their opinions before and after the debate compared (...)
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  39. Luc Steels & Rodney Brooks (eds.) (1995). The "Artificial Life" Route to "Artificial Intelligence": Building Situated Embodied Agents. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.score: 96.0
    This volume is the direct result of a conference in which a number of leading researchers from the fields of artificial intelligence and biology gathered to ...
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  40. Robin Attfield (2012). Biocentrism and Artificial Life. Environmental Values 21 (1):83 - 94.score: 96.0
    Biocentrism maintains that all living creatures have moral standing, but need not claim that all have equal moral significance. This moral standing extends to organisms generated through human interventions, whether by conventional breeding, genetic engineering, or synthetic biology. Our responsibilities with regard to future generations seem relevant to non-human species as well as future human generations and their quality of life. Likewise the Precautionary Principle appears to raise objections to the generation of serious or irreversible changes to the quality (...)
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  41. Mihai Nadin (2010). Anticipation and the Artificial: Aesthetics, Ethics, and Synthetic Life. [REVIEW] AI and Society 25 (1):103-118.score: 96.0
    If complexity is a necessary but not sufficient premise for the existence and expression of the living, anticipation is the distinguishing characteristic of what is alive. Anticipation is at work even at levels of existence where we cannot refer to intelligence. The prospect of artificially generating aesthetic artifacts and ethical constructs of relevance to a world in which the natural and the artificial are coexistent cannot be subsumed as yet another product of scientific and technological advancement. Beyond the (...), the synthetic conjures the understanding of aesthetics and ethics no longer from the perspective of the How? type of question, but rather the Why? Given the current infatuation with synthetic biology (i.e., making life from non-life), there is a practical consequence to such considerations. Synthetic life, as any other form of life, implies the possibility of evolution. Anticipation, which is the underlying factor of evolution, is thus expected. At the level of human existence, anticipation is expressed, for instance (but not exclusively), in aesthetic forms and ethical values. This translates, in turn, into an argument for the role aesthetics and ethics play in the process. Consequently, to qualify as life, the synthesis of the physical and the living will have to efficiently handle ambiguity. Current computational facilities, regardless of their nature or performance, operate exclusively in the semiotic domain of the well defined non-ambiguous. (shrink)
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  42. M. Ashby & B. Stoffell (1995). Artificial Hydration and Alimentation at the End of Life: A Reply to Craig. Journal of Medical Ethics 21 (3):135-140.score: 96.0
    Dr Gillian Craig (1) has argued that palliative medicine services have tended to adopt a policy of sedation without hydration, which under certain circumstances may be medically inappropriate, causative of death and distressing to family and friends. We welcome this opportunity to defend, with an important modification, the approach we proposed without substantive background argument in our original article (2). We maintain that slowing and eventual cessation of oral intake is a normal part of a natural dying process, that (...) hydration and alimentation (AHA) are not justified unless thirst or hunger are present and cannot be relieved by other means, but food and fluids for (natural) oral consumption should never be 'withdrawn'. The intention of this practice is not to alter the timing of an inevitable death, and sedation is not used, as has been alleged, to mask the effects of dehydration or starvation. The artificial provision of hydration and alimentation is now widely accepted as medical treatment. We believe that arguments that it is not have led to confusion as to whether or not non-provision or withdrawal of AHA constitutes a cause of death in law. Arguments that it is such a cause appear to be tenuously based on an extraordinary/ordinary categorisation of treatments by Kelly (3) which has subsequently been interpreted as prescriptive in a way quite inconsistent with the Catholic moral theological tradition from which the distinction is derived. The focus of ethical discourse on decisions at the end of life should be shifted to an analysis of care, needs, proportionality of medical interventions, and processes of communication. (shrink)
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  43. Hugues Bersini (2009). How Artificial Life Relates to Theoretical Biology. In Maryvonne Gérin & Marie-Christine Maurel (eds.), Origins of Life: Self-Organization and/or Biological Evolution? Edp Sciences. 61--78.score: 96.0
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  44. Emiko Konishi, Anne J. Davis & Toshiaki Aiba (2002). The Ethics of Withdrawing Artificial Food and Fluid From Terminally Ill Patients: An End-of-Life Dilemma for Japanese Nurses and Families. Nursing Ethics 9 (1):7-19.score: 96.0
    End-of-life issues have become an urgent problem in Japan, where people are among the longest lived in the world and most of them die while connected to high-technology medical equipment. This study examines a sensitive end-of-life ethical issue that concerns patients, families and nurses: the withdrawal of artificial food and fluid from terminally ill patients. A sample of 160 Japanese nurses, who completed a questionnaire that included forced-choice and open-ended questions, supported this act under only two specific (...)
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  45. Bernard Baertschi (2012). The Moral Status of Artificial Life. Environmental Values 21 (1):5 - 18.score: 92.0
    Recently at the J. Craig Venter Institute, a microorganism has been created through synthetic biology. In the future, more complex living beings will very probably be produced. In our natural environment, we live amongst a whole variety of beings. Some of them have moral status — they have a moral importance and we cannot treat them in just any way we please —; some do not. When it becomes possible to create artificially living beings who naturally possess moral status, will (...)
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  46. Norman H. Packard & Mark A. Bedau (2003). Artificial Life. In L. Nadel (ed.), Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Nature Publishing Group. 505-512.score: 90.0
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  47. Mark A. Bedau (1998). Philosophical Content and Method of Artificial Life. In T. W. Bynum & J. Moor (eds.), The Digital Phoenix. Cambridge: Blackwell. 135--152.score: 90.0
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  48. Daniel C. Dennett (1990). Artificial Life: A Feast for the Imagination. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 5 (4):489-492.score: 90.0
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  49. Gary Banham (2001). Transcendental Philosophy and Artificial Life. CultureMachine 3.score: 90.0
  50. Valerie Gray Hardcastle (1993). Evolutionary Epistemology as an Overlapping, Interlevel Theory. Biology and Philosophy 8 (2):173-192.score: 90.0
    I examine the branch of evolutionary epistemology which tries to account for the character of cognitive mechanisms in animals and humans by extending the biological theory of evolution to the neurophysiological substrates of cognition. Like Plotkin, I construe this branch as a struggling science, and attempt to characterize the sort of theory one might expect to find this truly interdisciplinary endeavor, an endeavor which encompasses not only evolutionary biology, cognitive psychology, and developmental neuroscience, but also and especially, the computational modeling (...)
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