Search results for 'Associative Processes' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Marco Mazzone (2011). Schemata and Associative Processes in Pragmatics. Journal of Pragmatics 43 (8):2148-2159.score: 180.0
    The notion of schema has been given a major role by Recanati within his conception of primary pragmatic processes, conceived as a type of associative process. I intend to show that Recanati’s considerations on schemata may challenge the relevance theorist’s argument against associative explanations in pragmatics, and support an argument in favor of associative (versus inferential) explanations. More generally, associative relations can be shown to be schematic, that is, they have enough structure to license inferential (...)
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  2. E. L. Thorndike (1943). Some Complications of Associative Processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (6):501.score: 150.0
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  3. Endel Tulving & Donald M. Thomson (1971). Retrieval Processes in Recognition Memory: Effects of Associative Context. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (1):116.score: 120.0
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  4. Colin Allen, Rational Versus Associative Processes.score: 96.0
    It is widely accepted that many species of non-human animals appear to engage in transitive inference, producing appropriate responses to novel pairings of non-adjacent members of an ordered series without previous experience of these pairings. Some researchers have taken this capability as providing direct evidence that these animals reason. Others resist such declarations, favouring instead explanations in terms of associative conditioning. Associative accounts of transitive inference have been refined in application to a simple five-element learning task that is (...)
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  5. Bertram Gawronski & Galen V. Bodenhausen (2009). Operating Principles Versus Operating Conditions in the Distinction Between Associative and Propositional Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):207-208.score: 96.0
    Drawing on our Associative-Propositional Evaluation (APE) Model, we argue for the usefulness of distinguishing between basic operating principles of learning processes (associative linking vs. propositional reasoning) and secondary features pertaining to the conditions of their operation (automatic vs. controlled). We review empirical evidence that supports the joint operation of associative and propositional processes in the formation of new associations.
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  6. Pierre Perruchet & Annie Vinter (2002). The Self-Organizing Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):297-388.score: 90.0
    We propose that the isomorphism generally observed between the representations composing our momentary phenomenal experience and the structure of the world is the end-product of a progressive organization that emerges thanks to elementary associative processes that take our conscious representations themselves as the stuff on which they operate, a thesis that we summarize in the concept of Self-Organizing Consciousness (SOC). Key Words: Associative learning; automatism; consciousness; development; implicit learning; incubation; language; mental representation; perception; phenomenal experience.
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  7. Carey K. Morewedge & Daniel Kahneman (2010). Associative Processes in Intuitive Judgment. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (10):435-440.score: 90.0
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  8. Roger L. Mellgren & Mark W. Olson (1980). Associative Processes Controlling the Persistence of Operant Responding: S-S* and R-S. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 16 (4):279-282.score: 90.0
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  9. Philip S. Wong, Edward Bernat, Michael Snodgrass & Howard Shevrin (2004). Event-Related Brain Correlates of Associative Learning Without Awareness. International Journal of Psychophysiology 53 (3):217-231.score: 78.0
  10. Fadila Hadj-Bouziane, Isabelle Benatru, Andrea Brovelli, Hélène Klinger, Stéphane Thobois, Emmanuel Broussolle, Driss Boussaoud & Martine Meunier (2012). Advanced Parkinson's Disease Effect on Goal-Directed and Habitual Processes Involved in Visuomotor Associative Learning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 78.0
    The present behavioral study readdresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease. Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 20 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects learned sets (...)
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  11. Alan W. Stacy, Susan L. Ames & J. Grenard (2006). Word Association Tests of Associative Memory and Implicit Processes: Theoretical and Assessment Issues. In Reinout W. Wiers & Alan W. Stacy (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction. Sage Publications Ltd. 75--90.score: 72.0
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  12. Jeffrey A. Seybert, Mark A. Wilson & Alan L. Archer (1982). The Kamin Effect as a Function of Time of Training and Associative-Nonassociative Processes. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 19 (4):227-230.score: 72.0
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  13. Andreas Voss, Klaus Rothermund, Anne Gast & Dirk Wentura (2013). Cognitive Processes in Associative and Categorical Priming: A Diffusion Model Analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 142 (2):536.score: 72.0
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  14. Muriel Vandenberghe, Nicolas Schmidt, Patrick Fery & Axel Cleeremans (2006). Can Amnesic Patients Learn Without Awareness? New Evidence Comparing Deterministic and Probabilistic Sequence Learning. Neuropsychologia 44 (10):1629-1641.score: 66.0
    Can associative learning take place without awareness? We explore this issue in a sequence learning paradigm with amnesic and control participants, who were simply asked to react to one of four possible stimuli on each trial. Unknown to them, successive stimuli occurred in a sequence. We manipulated the extent to which stimuli followed the sequence in a deterministic manner (noiseless condition) or only probabilistically so (noisy condition). Through this paradigm, we aimed at addressing two central issues: first, we asked (...)
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  15. Jan de Houwer (2006). Using the Implicit Association Test Does Not Rule Out an Impact of Conscious Propositional Knowledge on Evaluative Conditioning. Learning and Motivation 37 (2):176-187.score: 66.0
  16. B. M. Spruijt (2001). How the Hierarchical Organization of the Brain and Increasing Cognitive Abilities May Result in Consciousness. Animal Welfare Supplement 10:77- 87.score: 60.0
  17. George Mandler & Shirley H. Heinemann (1956). Effect of Overlearning of a Verbal Response on Transfer of Training. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (1):39.score: 60.0
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  18. T. Lambert (2003). Visual Orienting, Learning and Conscious Awareness. In Luis Jimenez (ed.), Attention and Implicit Learning. John Benjamins.score: 60.0
  19. Staffan Sohlberg & Billy Jansson (2002). Unconscious Responses to "Mommy and I Are One": Does Gender Matter? In Robert F. Bornstein & Joseph M. Masling (eds.), The Psychodynamics of Gender and Gender Role. Empirical Studies in Psychoanalytic Theories, Vol. 10. American Psychological Association. 165-201.score: 60.0
  20. N. C. Byrom (2012). Accounting for Individual Differences in Human Associative Learning. Frontiers in Psychology 4:588-588.score: 58.0
    Associative learning has provided fundamental insights to understanding psychopathology. However, psychopathology occurs along a continuum and as such, identification of disruptions in processes of associative learning associated with aspects of psychopathology illustrates a general flexibility in human associative learning. A handful of studies have looked specifically at individual differences in human associative learning, but while much work has concentrated on accounting for flexibility in learning caused by external factors, there has been limited work considering how (...)
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  21. Chris J. Mitchell, Jan De Houwer & Peter F. Lovibond (2009). The Propositional Nature of Human Associative Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):183-198.score: 54.0
    The past 50 years have seen an accumulation of evidence suggesting that associative learning depends on high-level cognitive processes that give rise to propositional knowledge. Yet, many learning theorists maintain a belief in a learning mechanism in which links between mental representations are formed automatically. We characterize and highlight the differences between the propositional and link approaches, and review the relevant empirical evidence. We conclude that learning is the consequence of propositional reasoning processes that cooperate with the (...)
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  22. Anton Benz (2006). Partial Blocking and Associative Learning. Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (5):587 - 615.score: 54.0
    We are going to explain partial blocking as the result of diachronic processes based on what we will call associative learning. Especially, we argue that the task posed by partial blocking phenomena is to explain their emergence from unambiguous and fully expressive languages. This contrasts with approaches that presuppose underspecified semantic meanings or ineffability like Bidirectional Optimality Theory (Bi–OT) and some game theoretic explanations. We introduce a formal framework based on learning, speaker’s preferences and pure semantics for describing (...)
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  23. Markus Josef Hofmann, Lars Kuchinke, Chris Biemann, Sascha Tamm & Arthur M. Jacobs (2011). Remembering Words in Context as Predicted by an Associative Read-Out Model. Frontiers in Psychology 2:252-252.score: 54.0
    Interactive Activation Models (IAMs) simulate orthographic and phonological processes in implicit memory tasks, but they neither account for associative relations between words nor explicit memory performance. To overcome both limitations, we introduce the Associative Read-Out Model (AROM), an IAM extended by an associative layer implementing long-term associations between words. According to Hebbian learning, two words were defined as ‘associated’ if they co-occurred significantly often in the sentences of a large corpus. In a study-test task, a greater (...)
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  24. Motoaki Sugiura (2013). Associative Account of Self-Cognition: Extended Forward Model and Multi-Layer Structure. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 54.0
    The neural correlates of “self” identified by neuroimaging studies differ depending on which aspects of self are addressed. Here, three categories of self are proposed based on neuroimaging findings and an evaluation of the likely underlying cognitive processes. The physical self, representing self-agency of action, body ownership, and bodily self-recognition, is supported by the sensory and motor association cortices located primarily in the right hemisphere. The interpersonal self, representing the attention or intentions of others directed at the self, is (...)
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  25. Chad Edward Forbes, Katherine A. Cameron, Jordan Grafman, Aron K. Barbey, Jeffrey Solomon, Walter Ritter & Daniel Ruchkin (2012). Identifying Temporal and Causal Contributions of Neural Processes Underlying the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 52.0
    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a popular behavioral measure that assesses the associative strength between outgroup members and stereotypical and counterstereotypical traits. Less is known, however, about the degree to which the IAT reflects automatic processing. Two studies examined automatic processing contributions to a gender-IAT using a data driven, social neuroscience approach. Performance on congruent (e.g., categorizing male names with synonyms of strength) and incongruent (e.g., categorizing female names with synonyms of strength) IAT blocks were separately analyzed using (...)
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  26. John B. Pryor Glenn D. Reeder (2008). Dual Psychological Processes Underlying Public Stigma and the Implications for Reducing Stigma. Mens Sana Monographs 6 (1):175.score: 48.0
    _People with serious illness or disability are often burdened with social stigma that promotes a cycle of poverty via unemployment, inadequate housing and threats to mental health. Stigma may be conceptualized in terms of self-stigma (e.g., shame and lowered self-esteem) or public stigma (e.g., the general public's prejudice towards the stigmatized). This article examines two psychological processes that underlie public stigma: associative processes and rule-based processes. Associative processes are quick and relatively automatic whereas rule-based (...)
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  27. R. W. Wiers, S. L. Ames, W. Hofmann, M. Krank & A. W. Stacy (2009). Impulsivity, Impulsive and Reflective Processes and the Development of Alcohol Use and Misuse in Adolescents and Young Adults. Frontiers in Psychology 1:144-144.score: 46.0
    This paper contrasts dual-process and personality approaches in the prediction of addictive behaviors and related risk behaviors. In dual-process models, behavior is described as the joint outcome of qualitatively different “impulsive” (or associative) and “reflective” processes. There are important individual differences regarding both types of processes, and the relative strength of both in a specific situation is influenced by prior behavior and state variables (e.g., fatigue, alcohol use). From this perspective, a specific behavior (e.g., alcohol misuse) can (...)
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  28. Andreas Glöckner & Cilia Witteman (2010). Beyond Dual-Process Models: A Categorisation of Processes Underlying Intuitive Judgement and Decision Making. Thinking and Reasoning 16 (1):1 – 25.score: 42.0
    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear distinction between intuitive and deliberate processes but provide no further differentiation within both categories. We go beyond these models and argue that intuition is not a homogeneous concept, but a label used for different cognitive mechanisms. We suggest that these mechanisms (...)
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  29. Martin Redington (2002). Associative Learning: A Generalisation Too Far. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):351-352.score: 42.0
    I argue that Perruchet & Vinter's claim that representations are conscious, and processes unconscious, gives too much ground to the cognitive unconscious; and that the boundary between conscious and unconscious mental phenomena is unlikely to fall neatly along these lines. I also propose that in the absence of more detailed models that demonstrably provide a reasonable account of the data, claims that associative mechanisms may underlie all cognition are premature.
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  30. Cilia Witteman & Andreas Glöckner (2011). Beyond Dual-Process Models: A Categorisation of Processes Underlying Intuitive Judgement and Decision Making. Thinking and Reasoning 16 (1):1-25.score: 42.0
    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear distinction between intuitive and deliberate processes but provide no further differentiation within both categories. We go beyond these models and argue that intuition is not a homogeneous concept, but a label used for different cognitive mechanisms. We suggest that these mechanisms (...)
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  31. W. Robert Batsell & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.score: 42.0
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot (...)
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  32. Riikka Lindström, Petri Paavilainen, Teija Kujala & Mari Tervaniemi (2012). Processing of Audiovisual Associations in the Human Brain: Dependency on Expectations and Rule Complexity. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 42.0
    In order to respond to environmental changes appropriately, the human brain must not only be able to detect environmental changes but also to form expectations of forthcoming events. The events in the external environment often have a number of multisensory features such as pitch and form. For integrated percepts of objects and events, crossmodal processing and crossmodally induced expectations of forthcoming events are needed. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the expectations created by visual stimuli can (...)
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  33. Batsell Jr & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.score: 42.0
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in the (...)
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  34. Angelo Loula & Joao Queiroz, Synthetic Semiotics: On Modelling and Simulating the Emergence of Sign Processes.score: 42.0
    Based on formal-theoretical principles about the sign processes involved, we have built synthetic experiments to investigate the emergence of communication based on symbols and indexes in a distributed system of sign users, following theoretical constraints from C.S.Peirce theory of signs, following a Synthetic Semiotics approach. In this paper, we summarize these computational experiments and results regarding associative learning processes of symbolic sign modality and cognitive conditions in an evolutionary process for the emergence of either symbol-based or index-based (...)
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  35. W. Robert Batsell Jr & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.score: 42.0
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in the (...)
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  36. Keith Frankish & Jonathan St B. T. Evans (eds.) (2009). In Two Minds: Dual Processes and Beyond. Oxford University Press.score: 42.0
    This book explores the idea that we have two minds - automatic, unconscious, and fast, the other controlled, conscious, and slow. In recent years there has been great interest in so-called dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality. According to such theories, there are two distinct systems underlying human reasoning - an evolutionarily old system that is associative, automatic, unconscious, parallel, and fast, and a more recent, distinctively human system that is rule-based, controlled, conscious, serial, and slow. Within the former, (...)
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  37. Marlene A. Segal & George Mandler (1967). Directionality and Organizational Processes in Paired-Associate Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (3):305-312.score: 38.0
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  38. Eric Mandelbaum, Attitude, Inference, Association: On The Propositional Structure of Implicit Bias.score: 36.0
    The overwhelming majority of those who theorize about implicit biases posit that these biases are caused by some sort of association. However, what exactly this claim amounts to is rarely specified. In this paper, I distinguish between understandings of association as a theory of learning, a theory of cognitive structure, a theory of mental processes, and as an implementation base for cognition. I then argue that the crucial senses of association for elucidating implicit bias are the cognitive structure and (...)
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  39. C. M. Heyes (1998). Theory of Mind in Nonhuman Primates. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):101-114.score: 36.0
    Since the BBS article in which Premack and Woodruff (1978) asked “Does the chimpanzee have a theory of mind?,” it has been repeatedly claimed that there is observational and experimental evidence that apes have mental state concepts, such as “want” and “know.” Unlike research on the development of theory of mind in childhood, however, no substantial progress has been made through this work with nonhuman primates. A survey of empirical studies of imitation, self-recognition, social relationships, deception, role-taking, and perspective-taking suggests (...)
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  40. Itamar Lerner, Shlomo Bentin & Oren Shriki (2014). Integrating the Automatic and the Controlled: Strategies in Semantic Priming in an Attractor Network With Latching Dynamics. Cognitive Science 38 (5).score: 36.0
    Semantic priming has long been recognized to reflect, along with automatic semantic mechanisms, the contribution of controlled strategies. However, previous theories of controlled priming were mostly qualitative, lacking common grounds with modern mathematical models of automatic priming based on neural networks. Recently, we introduced a novel attractor network model of automatic semantic priming with latching dynamics. Here, we extend this work to show how the same model can also account for important findings regarding controlled processes. Assuming the rate of (...)
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  41. Philippe Peigneux Alison Mary, Svenia Schreiner (2013). Accelerated Long-Term Forgetting in Aging and Intra-Sleep Awakenings. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 36.0
    The architecture of sleep and the functional neuroanatomical networks subtending memory consolidation processes are both modified with aging, possibly leading to accelerated forgetting in long-term memory. We investigated associative learning and declarative memory consolidation processes in 16 young (18–30 years) and 16 older (65–75 years) healthy adults. Performance was tested using a cued recall procedure at the end of learning (immediate recall), and 30 minutes and 7 days later. A delayed recognition test was also administered on day (...)
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  42. Jane McGrath, Katherine Johnson, Erik O'Hanlon, Hugh Garavan, Alexander Leemans & Louise Gallagher (2013). Abnormal Functional Connectivity During Visuospatial Processing is Associated with Disrupted Organisation of White Matter in Autism. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 36.0
    Disruption of structural and functional neural connectivity has been widely reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but there is a striking lack of research attempting to integrate analysis of functional and structural connectivity in the same study population, an approach that may provide key insights into the specific neurobiological underpinnings of altered functional connectivity in autism. The aims of this study were 1. to determine whether functional connectivity abnormalities were associated with structural abnormalities of white matter (WM) in ASD and (...)
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  43. Aron K. Barbey & Steven A. Sloman (2007). Base-Rate Respect: From Ecological Rationality to Dual Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):241-254.score: 34.0
    The phenomenon of base-rate neglect has elicited much debate. One arena of debate concerns how people make judgments under conditions of uncertainty. Another more controversial arena concerns human rationality. In this target article, we attempt to unpack the perspectives in the literature on both kinds of issues and evaluate their ability to explain existing data and their conceptual coherence. From this evaluation we conclude that the best account of the data should be framed in terms of a dual-process model of (...)
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  44. Georges Thill (1994). The Relevance of Association Networks for/in a Sustainable Information and Communication Society. AI and Society 8 (1):70-77.score: 34.0
    This contribution deals with taking up the challenge of sustainable development through human centred systems which aim at the creation and repatriation of global quality in each society, and which are seen to operate as a whole, on a local, regional or even a planetary scale. The paper argues that, particularly in a field such as information, communication, environment, technological processes and innovations, which have structurally revolutionised first of all manufacturing but also education and daily living at the same (...)
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  45. Daniel B. Berch & Elizabeth J. Foley (1998). Processing Demands Associated with Relational Complexity: Testing Predictions with Dual-Task Methodologies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (6):832-833.score: 32.0
    We discuss how modified dual-task approaches may be used to verify the degree to which cognitive tasks are capacity demanding. We also delineate some of the complexities associated with the use of the “double easy-to-hard” paradigm for testing claim of Halford, Wilson & Phillips that hierarchical reasoning imposes processing demands equivalent to those of transitive reasoning.
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  46. Murray Grossman Corey T. McMillan, Danielle Coleman, Robin Clark, Tsao-Wei Liang, Rachel G. Gross (2013). Converging Evidence for the Processing Costs Associated with Ambiguous Quantifier Comprehension. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 32.0
    Traditional neuroanatomic models of language comprehension have emphasized a core language network situated in peri-Sylvian cortex. More recent evidence appears to extend the neuroanatomic network beyond peri-Sylvian cortex to encompass other aspects of sentence processing. In this study, we evaluate the neuroanatomic basis for processing the ambiguity in doubly-quantified sentences. For example, a sentence like “All the dogs jumped in a lake” can be interpreted with a collective interpretation (e.g., several dogs jumping into a single lake) or a distributive interpretation (...)
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  47. Francisco J. Pichón (1996). The Forest Conversion Process: A Discussion of the Sustainability of Predominant Land Uses Associated with Frontier Expansion in the Amazon. Agriculture and Human Values 13 (1):32-51.score: 32.0
    One of the most striking features observed throughout tropical agricultural frontiers is the extreme variability in land-use strategies from one farmer to the next. This article analyzes the forest conversion process and predominant land uses associated with smallholder settlement expansion in the Amazon frontier. The discussion seeks to increase understanding of the micro and macro-level forces that propel land-use decisions in the Amazon and offer insights about how farmers' land-use decisions may be altered to bring about forms of resource use (...)
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  48. Leonard S. Stein (1966). Conscious Mediating Processes in a Problem-Solving Task. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (2):212.score: 32.0
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  49. Nigel J. T. Thomas, Coding Dualism: Conscious Thought Without Cartesianism or Computationalism.score: 30.0
    The principal temptation toward substance dualisms, or otherwise incorporating a question begging homunculus into our psychologies, arises not from the problem of consciousness in general, nor from the problem of intentionality, but from the question of our awareness and understanding of our own mental contents, and the control of the deliberate, conscious thinking in which we employ them. Dennett has called this "Hume's problem". Cognitivist philosophers have generally either denied the experiential reality of thought, as did the Behaviorists, or have (...)
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  50. Mark Collier (2007). Why History Matters: Associations and Causal Judgment in Hume and Cognitive Science. Journal of Mind and Behavior 28 (3):175-188.score: 30.0
    It is commonly thought that Hume endorses the claim that causal cognition can be fully explained in terms of nothing but custom and habit. Associative learning does, of course, play a major role in the cognitive psychology of the Treatise. But Hume recognizes that associations cannot provide a complete account of causal thought. If human beings lacked the capacity to reflect on rules for judging causes and effects, then we could not (as we do) distinguish between accidental and genuine (...)
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