Search results for 'Associative Processes' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Marco Mazzone (2011). Schemata and Associative Processes in Pragmatics. Journal of Pragmatics 43 (8):2148-2159.score: 240.0
    The notion of schema has been given a major role by Recanati within his conception of primary pragmatic processes, conceived as a type of associative process. I intend to show that Recanati’s considerations on schemata may challenge the relevance theorist’s argument against associative explanations in pragmatics, and support an argument in favor of associative (versus inferential) explanations. More generally, associative relations can be shown to be schematic, that is, they have enough structure to license inferential (...)
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  2. E. L. Thorndike (1943). Some Complications of Associative Processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology 32 (6):501.score: 210.0
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  3. Endel Tulving & Donald M. Thomson (1971). Retrieval Processes in Recognition Memory: Effects of Associative Context. Journal of Experimental Psychology 87 (1):116.score: 168.0
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  4. Colin Allen, Rational Versus Associative Processes.score: 156.0
    It is widely accepted that many species of non-human animals appear to engage in transitive inference, producing appropriate responses to novel pairings of non-adjacent members of an ordered series without previous experience of these pairings. Some researchers have taken this capability as providing direct evidence that these animals reason. Others resist such declarations, favouring instead explanations in terms of associative conditioning. Associative accounts of transitive inference have been refined in application to a simple five-element learning task that is (...)
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  5. Carey K. Morewedge & Daniel Kahneman (2010). Associative Processes in Intuitive Judgment. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 14 (10):435-440.score: 150.0
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  6. Roger L. Mellgren & Mark W. Olson (1980). Associative Processes Controlling the Persistence of Operant Responding: S-S* and R-S. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 16 (4):279-282.score: 150.0
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  7. Bertram Gawronski & Galen V. Bodenhausen (2009). Operating Principles Versus Operating Conditions in the Distinction Between Associative and Propositional Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):207-208.score: 144.0
    Drawing on our Associative-Propositional Evaluation (APE) Model, we argue for the usefulness of distinguishing between basic operating principles of learning processes (associative linking vs. propositional reasoning) and secondary features pertaining to the conditions of their operation (automatic vs. controlled). We review empirical evidence that supports the joint operation of associative and propositional processes in the formation of new associations.
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  8. [deleted]Fadila Hadj-Bouziane, Isabelle Benatru, Andrea Brovelli, Hélène Klinger, Stéphane Thobois, Emmanuel Broussolle, Driss Boussaoud & Martine Meunier (2012). Advanced Parkinson's Disease Effect on Goal-Directed and Habitual Processes Involved in Visuomotor Associative Learning. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 126.0
    The present behavioral study readdresses the question of habit learning in Parkinson's disease. Patients were early onset, non-demented, dopa-responsive, candidates for surgical treatment, similar to those we found earlier as suffering greater dopamine depletion in the putamen than in the caudate nucleus. The task was the same conditional associative learning task as that used previously in monkeys and healthy humans to unveil the striatum involvement in habit learning. Sixteen patients and 20 age- and education-matched healthy control subjects learned sets (...)
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  9. Alan W. Stacy, Susan L. Ames & J. Grenard (2006). Word Association Tests of Associative Memory and Implicit Processes: Theoretical and Assessment Issues. In Reinout W. Wiers & Alan W. Stacy (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Cognition and Addiction. Sage Publications Ltd. 75--90.score: 120.0
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  10. Jeffrey A. Seybert, Mark A. Wilson & Alan L. Archer (1982). The Kamin Effect as a Function of Time of Training and Associative-Nonassociative Processes. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 19 (4):227-230.score: 120.0
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  11. Andreas Voss, Klaus Rothermund, Anne Gast & Dirk Wentura (2013). Cognitive Processes in Associative and Categorical Priming: A Diffusion Model Analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 142 (2):536.score: 120.0
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  12. Pierre Perruchet & Annie Vinter (2002). The Self-Organizing Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):297-388.score: 90.0
    We propose that the isomorphism generally observed between the representations composing our momentary phenomenal experience and the structure of the world is the end-product of a progressive organization that emerges thanks to elementary associative processes that take our conscious representations themselves as the stuff on which they operate, a thesis that we summarize in the concept of Self-Organizing Consciousness (SOC). Key Words: Associative learning; automatism; consciousness; development; implicit learning; incubation; language; mental representation; perception; phenomenal experience.
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  13. Philip S. Wong, Edward Bernat, Michael Snodgrass & Howard Shevrin (2004). Event-Related Brain Correlates of Associative Learning Without Awareness. International Journal of Psychophysiology 53 (3):217-231.score: 90.0
  14. [deleted]Chad Edward Forbes, Katherine A. Cameron, Jordan Grafman, Aron K. Barbey, Jeffrey Solomon, Walter Ritter & Daniel Ruchkin (2012). Identifying Temporal and Causal Contributions of Neural Processes Underlying the Implicit Association Test (IAT). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 6.score: 76.0
    The Implicit Association Test (IAT) is a popular behavioral measure that assesses the associative strength between outgroup members and stereotypical and counterstereotypical traits. Less is known, however, about the degree to which the IAT reflects automatic processing. Two studies examined automatic processing contributions to a gender-IAT using a data driven, social neuroscience approach. Performance on congruent (e.g., categorizing male names with synonyms of strength) and incongruent (e.g., categorizing female names with synonyms of strength) IAT blocks were separately analyzed using (...)
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  15. N. C. Byrom (2012). Accounting for Individual Differences in Human Associative Learning. Frontiers in Psychology 4:588-588.score: 70.0
    Associative learning has provided fundamental insights to understanding psychopathology. However, psychopathology occurs along a continuum and as such, identification of disruptions in processes of associative learning associated with aspects of psychopathology illustrates a general flexibility in human associative learning. A handful of studies have looked specifically at individual differences in human associative learning, but while much work has concentrated on accounting for flexibility in learning caused by external factors, there has been limited work considering how (...)
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  16. Kevin Connolly (forthcoming). Multisensory Perception as an Associative Learning Process. Frontiers in Psychology.score: 70.0
    Suppose that you are at a live jazz show. The drummer begins a solo. You see the cymbal jolt and you hear the clang. But in addition seeing the cymbal jolt and hearing the clang, you are also aware that the jolt and the clang are part of the same event. Casey O’Callaghan (forthcoming) calls this awareness “intermodal feature binding awareness.” Psychologists have long assumed that multimodal perceptions such as this one are the result of a subpersonal feature binding mechanism (...)
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  17. Jan de Houwer (2006). Using the Implicit Association Test Does Not Rule Out an Impact of Conscious Propositional Knowledge on Evaluative Conditioning. Learning and Motivation 37 (2):176-187.score: 70.0
  18. Muriel Vandenberghe, Nicolas Schmidt, Patrick Fery & Axel Cleeremans (2006). Can Amnesic Patients Learn Without Awareness? New Evidence Comparing Deterministic and Probabilistic Sequence Learning. Neuropsychologia 44 (10):1629-1641.score: 66.0
    Can associative learning take place without awareness? We explore this issue in a sequence learning paradigm with amnesic and control participants, who were simply asked to react to one of four possible stimuli on each trial. Unknown to them, successive stimuli occurred in a sequence. We manipulated the extent to which stimuli followed the sequence in a deterministic manner (noiseless condition) or only probabilistically so (noisy condition). Through this paradigm, we aimed at addressing two central issues: first, we asked (...)
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  19. Chris J. Mitchell, Jan De Houwer & Peter F. Lovibond (2009). The Propositional Nature of Human Associative Learning. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):183-198.score: 66.0
    The past 50 years have seen an accumulation of evidence suggesting that associative learning depends on high-level cognitive processes that give rise to propositional knowledge. Yet, many learning theorists maintain a belief in a learning mechanism in which links between mental representations are formed automatically. We characterize and highlight the differences between the propositional and link approaches, and review the relevant empirical evidence. We conclude that learning is the consequence of propositional reasoning processes that cooperate with the (...)
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  20. Anton Benz (2006). Partial Blocking and Associative Learning. Linguistics and Philosophy 29 (5):587 - 615.score: 66.0
    We are going to explain partial blocking as the result of diachronic processes based on what we will call associative learning. Especially, we argue that the task posed by partial blocking phenomena is to explain their emergence from unambiguous and fully expressive languages. This contrasts with approaches that presuppose underspecified semantic meanings or ineffability like Bidirectional Optimality Theory (Bi–OT) and some game theoretic explanations. We introduce a formal framework based on learning, speaker’s preferences and pure semantics for describing (...)
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  21. Markus Josef Hofmann, Lars Kuchinke, Chris Biemann, Sascha Tamm & Arthur M. Jacobs (2011). Remembering Words in Context as Predicted by an Associative Read-Out Model. Frontiers in Psychology 2:252-252.score: 66.0
    Interactive Activation Models (IAMs) simulate orthographic and phonological processes in implicit memory tasks, but they neither account for associative relations between words nor explicit memory performance. To overcome both limitations, we introduce the Associative Read-Out Model (AROM), an IAM extended by an associative layer implementing long-term associations between words. According to Hebbian learning, two words were defined as ‘associated’ if they co-occurred significantly often in the sentences of a large corpus. In a study-test task, a greater (...)
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  22. [deleted]Motoaki Sugiura (2013). Associative Account of Self-Cognition: Extended Forward Model and Multi-Layer Structure. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 66.0
    The neural correlates of “self” identified by neuroimaging studies differ depending on which aspects of self are addressed. Here, three categories of self are proposed based on neuroimaging findings and an evaluation of the likely underlying cognitive processes. The physical self, representing self-agency of action, body ownership, and bodily self-recognition, is supported by the sensory and motor association cortices located primarily in the right hemisphere. The interpersonal self, representing the attention or intentions of others directed at the self, is (...)
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  23. B. M. Spruijt (2001). How the Hierarchical Organization of the Brain and Increasing Cognitive Abilities May Result in Consciousness. Animal Welfare Supplement 10:77- 87.score: 60.0
  24. John B. Pryor Glenn D. Reeder (2008). Dual Psychological Processes Underlying Public Stigma and the Implications for Reducing Stigma. Mens Sana Monographs 6 (1):175.score: 60.0
    _People with serious illness or disability are often burdened with social stigma that promotes a cycle of poverty via unemployment, inadequate housing and threats to mental health. Stigma may be conceptualized in terms of self-stigma (e.g., shame and lowered self-esteem) or public stigma (e.g., the general public's prejudice towards the stigmatized). This article examines two psychological processes that underlie public stigma: associative processes and rule-based processes. Associative processes are quick and relatively automatic whereas rule-based (...)
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  25. George Mandler & Shirley H. Heinemann (1956). Effect of Overlearning of a Verbal Response on Transfer of Training. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (1):39.score: 60.0
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  26. T. Lambert (2003). Visual Orienting, Learning and Conscious Awareness. In Luis Jimenez (ed.), Attention and Implicit Learning. John Benjamins.score: 60.0
  27. Staffan Sohlberg & Billy Jansson (2002). Unconscious Responses to "Mommy and I Are One": Does Gender Matter? In Robert F. Bornstein & Joseph M. Masling (eds.), The Psychodynamics of Gender and Gender Role. Empirical Studies in Psychoanalytic Theories, Vol. 10. American Psychological Association. 165-201.score: 60.0
  28. Riikka Lindström, Petri Paavilainen, Teija Kujala & Mari Tervaniemi (2012). Processing of Audiovisual Associations in the Human Brain: Dependency on Expectations and Rule Complexity. Frontiers in Psychology 3.score: 58.0
    In order to respond to environmental changes appropriately, the human brain must not only be able to detect environmental changes but also to form expectations of forthcoming events. The events in the external environment often have a number of multisensory features such as pitch and form. For integrated percepts of objects and events, crossmodal processing and crossmodally induced expectations of forthcoming events are needed. The aim of the present study was to determine whether the expectations created by visual stimuli can (...)
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  29. R. W. Wiers, S. L. Ames, W. Hofmann, M. Krank & A. W. Stacy (2009). Impulsivity, Impulsive and Reflective Processes and the Development of Alcohol Use and Misuse in Adolescents and Young Adults. Frontiers in Psychology 1:144-144.score: 58.0
    This paper contrasts dual-process and personality approaches in the prediction of addictive behaviors and related risk behaviors. In dual-process models, behavior is described as the joint outcome of qualitatively different “impulsive” (or associative) and “reflective” processes. There are important individual differences regarding both types of processes, and the relative strength of both in a specific situation is influenced by prior behavior and state variables (e.g., fatigue, alcohol use). From this perspective, a specific behavior (e.g., alcohol misuse) can (...)
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  30. Marlene A. Segal & George Mandler (1967). Directionality and Organizational Processes in Paired-Associate Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (3):305-312.score: 58.0
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  31. Andreas Glöckner & Cilia Witteman (2010). Beyond Dual-Process Models: A Categorisation of Processes Underlying Intuitive Judgement and Decision Making. Thinking and Reasoning 16 (1):1 – 25.score: 54.0
    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear distinction between intuitive and deliberate processes but provide no further differentiation within both categories. We go beyond these models and argue that intuition is not a homogeneous concept, but a label used for different cognitive mechanisms. We suggest that these mechanisms (...)
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  32. Martin Redington (2002). Associative Learning: A Generalisation Too Far. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 25 (3):351-352.score: 54.0
    I argue that Perruchet & Vinter's claim that representations are conscious, and processes unconscious, gives too much ground to the cognitive unconscious; and that the boundary between conscious and unconscious mental phenomena is unlikely to fall neatly along these lines. I also propose that in the absence of more detailed models that demonstrably provide a reasonable account of the data, claims that associative mechanisms may underlie all cognition are premature.
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  33. Cilia Witteman & Andreas Glöckner (2011). Beyond Dual-Process Models: A Categorisation of Processes Underlying Intuitive Judgement and Decision Making. Thinking and Reasoning 16 (1):1-25.score: 54.0
    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear distinction between intuitive and deliberate processes but provide no further differentiation within both categories. We go beyond these models and argue that intuition is not a homogeneous concept, but a label used for different cognitive mechanisms. We suggest that these mechanisms (...)
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  34. Angelo Loula & Joao Queiroz, Synthetic Semiotics: On Modelling and Simulating the Emergence of Sign Processes.score: 54.0
    Based on formal-theoretical principles about the sign processes involved, we have built synthetic experiments to investigate the emergence of communication based on symbols and indexes in a distributed system of sign users, following theoretical constraints from C.S.Peirce theory of signs, following a Synthetic Semiotics approach. In this paper, we summarize these computational experiments and results regarding associative learning processes of symbolic sign modality and cognitive conditions in an evolutionary process for the emergence of either symbol-based or index-based (...)
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  35. Keith Frankish & Jonathan St B. T. Evans (eds.) (2009). In Two Minds: Dual Processes and Beyond. Oxford University Press.score: 54.0
    This book explores the idea that we have two minds - automatic, unconscious, and fast, the other controlled, conscious, and slow. In recent years there has been great interest in so-called dual-process theories of reasoning and rationality. According to such theories, there are two distinct systems underlying human reasoning - an evolutionarily old system that is associative, automatic, unconscious, parallel, and fast, and a more recent, distinctively human system that is rule-based, controlled, conscious, serial, and slow. Within the former, (...)
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  36. Marco Mazzone (2014). Crossing the Associative/Inferential Divide: Ad Hoc Concepts and the Inferential Power of Schemata. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 5 (4):583-599.score: 54.0
    How do we construct ad hoc concepts, especially those characterised by emergent properties? A reasonable hypothesis, suggested both in psychology and in pragmatics (Relevance Theory), is that some sort of inferential processing must be involved. I argue that this inferential processing can be accounted for in associative terms. My argument is based on the notion of inference as associative pattern completion based on schemata, with schemata being conceived in turn as patterns of concepts and their relationships. The possible (...)
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  37. [deleted]Jane McGrath, Katherine Johnson, Erik O'Hanlon, Hugh Garavan, Alexander Leemans & Louise Gallagher (2013). Abnormal Functional Connectivity During Visuospatial Processing is Associated with Disrupted Organisation of White Matter in Autism. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 52.0
    Disruption of structural and functional neural connectivity has been widely reported in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) but there is a striking lack of research attempting to integrate analysis of functional and structural connectivity in the same study population, an approach that may provide key insights into the specific neurobiological underpinnings of altered functional connectivity in autism. The aims of this study were 1. to determine whether functional connectivity abnormalities were associated with structural abnormalities of white matter (WM) in ASD and (...)
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  38. Daniel B. Berch & Elizabeth J. Foley (1998). Processing Demands Associated with Relational Complexity: Testing Predictions with Dual-Task Methodologies. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (6):832-833.score: 48.0
    We discuss how modified dual-task approaches may be used to verify the degree to which cognitive tasks are capacity demanding. We also delineate some of the complexities associated with the use of the “double easy-to-hard” paradigm for testing claim of Halford, Wilson & Phillips that hierarchical reasoning imposes processing demands equivalent to those of transitive reasoning.
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  39. Murray Grossman Corey T. McMillan, Danielle Coleman, Robin Clark, Tsao-Wei Liang, Rachel G. Gross (2013). Converging Evidence for the Processing Costs Associated with Ambiguous Quantifier Comprehension. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 48.0
    Traditional neuroanatomic models of language comprehension have emphasized a core language network situated in peri-Sylvian cortex. More recent evidence appears to extend the neuroanatomic network beyond peri-Sylvian cortex to encompass other aspects of sentence processing. In this study, we evaluate the neuroanatomic basis for processing the ambiguity in doubly-quantified sentences. For example, a sentence like “All the dogs jumped in a lake” can be interpreted with a collective interpretation (e.g., several dogs jumping into a single lake) or a distributive interpretation (...)
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  40. Francisco J. Pichón (1996). The Forest Conversion Process: A Discussion of the Sustainability of Predominant Land Uses Associated with Frontier Expansion in the Amazon. Agriculture and Human Values 13 (1):32-51.score: 48.0
    One of the most striking features observed throughout tropical agricultural frontiers is the extreme variability in land-use strategies from one farmer to the next. This article analyzes the forest conversion process and predominant land uses associated with smallholder settlement expansion in the Amazon frontier. The discussion seeks to increase understanding of the micro and macro-level forces that propel land-use decisions in the Amazon and offer insights about how farmers' land-use decisions may be altered to bring about forms of resource use (...)
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  41. Aron K. Barbey & Steven A. Sloman (2007). Base-Rate Respect: From Ecological Rationality to Dual Processes. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):241-254.score: 46.0
    The phenomenon of base-rate neglect has elicited much debate. One arena of debate concerns how people make judgments under conditions of uncertainty. Another more controversial arena concerns human rationality. In this target article, we attempt to unpack the perspectives in the literature on both kinds of issues and evaluate their ability to explain existing data and their conceptual coherence. From this evaluation we conclude that the best account of the data should be framed in terms of a dual-process model of (...)
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  42. Robert W. Weisberg (1969). Sentence Processing Assessed Through Intrasentence Word Associations. Journal of Experimental Psychology 82 (2):332.score: 44.0
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  43. [deleted]Megan A. Boudewyn (2013). Effects of Working Memory Span on Processing of Lexical Associations and Congruence in Spoken Discourse. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 44.0
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  44. John Oliver Cook (1958). Supplementary Report: Processes Underlying Learning a Single Paired-Associate Item. Journal of Experimental Psychology 56 (5):455.score: 44.0
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  45. Willard N. Runquist (1973). Differences in Coding Processes Responsible for Interference in Paired-Associate Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 98 (2):404.score: 44.0
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  46. W. Robert Batsell & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.score: 42.0
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot (...)
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  47. Batsell Jr & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.score: 42.0
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in the (...)
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  48. Brad Olson, Stephen Soldz & Martha Davis (2008). The Ethics of Interrogation and the American Psychological Association: A Critique of Policy and Process. Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine 3 (1):3.score: 42.0
    The Psychological Ethics and National Security (PENS) task force was assembled by the American Psychological Association (APA) to guide policy on the role of psychologists in interrogations at foreign detention centers for the purpose of U.S. national security. The task force met briefly in 2005, and its report was quickly accepted by the APA Board of Directors and deemed consistent with the APA Ethics Code by the APA Ethics Committee. This rapid acceptance was unusual for a number of reasons but (...)
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  49. W. Robert Batsell Jr & Aaron G. Blankenship (2002). Beyond Potentiation: Synergistic Conditioning in Flavor-Aversion Learning. [REVIEW] Brain and Mind 3 (3):383-408.score: 42.0
    Taste-aversion learning has been a popular paradigm for examining associative processes because it often produces outcomes that are different from those observed in other classical conditioning paradigms. One such outcome is taste-mediated odor potentiation in which aversion conditioning with a weak odor and a strong taste results in increased or synergistic conditioning to the odor. Because this strengthened odor aversion was not anticipated by formal models of learning, investigation of taste-mediated odor potentiation was a hot topic in the (...)
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  50. Eric Mandelbaum, Attitude, Inference, Association: On The Propositional Structure of Implicit Bias.score: 40.0
    The overwhelming majority of those who theorize about implicit biases posit that these biases are caused by some sort of association. However, what exactly this claim amounts to is rarely specified. In this paper, I distinguish between understandings of association as a theory of learning, a theory of cognitive structure, a theory of mental processes, and as an implementation base for cognition. I then argue that the crucial senses of association for elucidating implicit bias are the cognitive structure and (...)
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