Search results for 'Asymmetry' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Jessica M. Wilson (2014). Hume's Dictum and the Asymmetry of Counterfactual Dependence. In Alastair Wilson (ed.), Chance and Temporal Asymmetry. Oxford University Press. 258-279.score: 27.0
    Why believe Hume's Dictum, according to which there are, roughly speaking, no necessary connections between wholly distinct entities? Schaffer ('Quiddistic Knowledge', 2009) suggests that HD, at least as applied to causal or nomological connections, is motivated as required by the best account of (the truth) of counterfactuals---namely, a similarity-based possible worlds account, where the operative notion of similarity requires 'miracles'---more specifically, worlds where entities of the same type that actually exist enter into different laws. The main cited motivations for such (...)
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  2. Jeffrey Moriarty (2013). Smilansky, Arneson, and the Asymmetry of Desert. Philosophical Studies 162 (3):537-545.score: 24.0
    Desert plays an important role in most contemporary theories of retributive justice, but an unimportant role in most contemporary theories of distributive justice. Saul Smilansky has recently put forward a defense of this asymmetry. In this study, I argue that it fails. Then, drawing on an argument of Richard Arneson’s, I suggest an alternative consequentialist rationale for the asymmetry. But while this shows that desert cannot be expected to play the same role in distributive justice that it can (...)
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  3. Samuel Schindler (2013). Mechanistic Explanation: Asymmetry Lost. In Karakostas and Dieks (ed.), “Recent Progress in Philosophy of Science: Perspectives and Foundational Problems”. Springer.score: 24.0
    In a recent book and an article, Carl Craver construes the relations between different levels of a mechanism, which he also refers to as constitutive relations, in terms of mutual manipulability (MM). Interpreted metaphysically, MM implies that inter-level relations are symmetrical. MM thus violates one of the main desiderata of scientific explanation, namely explanatory asymmetry. Parts of Craver’s writings suggest a metaphysical interpretation of MM, and Craver explicitly commits to constitutive relationships being symmetrical. The paper furthermore explores the option (...)
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  4. Per Algander (2012). A Defence of the Asymmetry in Population Ethics. Res Publica 18 (2):145-157.score: 24.0
    A common intuition is that there is a moral difference between ‘making people happy’ and ‘making happy people.’ This intuition, often referred to as ‘the Asymmetry,’ has, however, been criticized on the grounds that it is incoherent. Why is there, for instance, not a corresponding difference between ‘making people unhappy’ and ‘making unhappy people’? I argue that the intuition faces several difficulties but that these can be met by introducing a certain kind of reason that is favouring but non-requiring. (...)
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  5. Mark Jonathan Rhodes (2010). Information Asymmetry and Socially Responsible Investment. Journal of Business Ethics 95 (1):145 - 151.score: 24.0
    Selecting, applying and reporting on investment screens for socially responsible investing (SRI) presents challenges for companies, investors and fund managers. This article seeks to clarify the nature of these challenges in developing an understanding of the foundations of ethical investment screens. At a conceptual level this work argues that there is a common element to the ethical foundations of SRI, even with very different apparent motivations and investment restrictions. Establishing this commonality assists in explaining the information asymmetry problem inherent (...)
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  6. Melinda A. Roberts (2011). The Asymmetry: A Solution. Theoria 77 (4):333-367.score: 24.0
    The Asymmetry consists of two claims. (A) That a possible person's life would be abjectly miserable –less than worth living – counts against bringing that person into existence. But (B) that a distinct possible person's life would be worth living or even well worth living does not count in favour of bringing that person into existence. In recent years, the view that the two halves of the Asymmetry are jointly untenable has become increasingly entrenched. If we say all (...)
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  7. T. V. Barchunova (2003). The Selfish Gender, or the Reproduction of Gender Asymmetry in Gender Studies. Studies in East European Thought 55 (1):3-25.score: 24.0
    Gender discrimination can be overt anddeliberate. It can be covert and indeliberate.In the latter case it is called `asymmetry'.The gender studies community aims to reveal andeliminate any forms of gender asymmetry.However, insufficient methodological andtheoretical reflection implies the reproductionof gender asymmetry throughout genderstudies.
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  8. Silke Schicktanz (2006). Ethical Considerations of the Human–Animal-Relationship Under Conditions of Asymmetry and Ambivalence. Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 19 (1):7-16.score: 24.0
    Ethical reflection deals not only with the moral standing and handling of animals, it should also include a critical analysis of the underlying relationship. Anthropological, psychological, and sociological aspects of the human–animal-relationship should be taken into account. Two conditions, asymmetry and ambivalence, are taken as the historical and empirical basis for reflections on the human–animal-relationship in late modern societies. These conditions explain the variety of moral practice, apart from paradoxes, and provide a framework to systematize animal ethical problems in (...)
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  9. Terence Rajivan Edward, The Asymmetry Objection to Political Liberalism: Evaluation of a Defence.score: 24.0
    This paper evaluates Jonathan Quong’s attempt to defend a version of political liberalism from the asymmetry objection. I object that Quong’s defence relies on a premise that has not been adequately supported and does not look as if it can be given adequate support.
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  10. J. T. Manning & D. Wood (1998). Fluctuating Asymmetry and Aggression in Boys. Human Nature 9 (1):53-65.score: 24.0
    Fluctuating asymmetry (FA) is small deviations from perfect symmetry in normally bilaterally symmetrical traits. We examined the relationship between FA of five body traits (ear height, length of three digits, and ankle circumference) and self-reported scores of physical and verbal aggression in a sample of 90 boys aged 10 to 15 years. The relationships between FA and scores of aggression (particularly physical aggression) were found to be negative; in other words, the most symmetrical boys showed highest aggression. One trait (...)
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  11. George Bowles (1999). The Asymmetry Thesis and the Diversity of "Invalid" Argument-Forms. Informal Logic 19 (1).score: 24.0
    According to the Asymmetry Thesis, whereas there are many kinds of argument-forms that make at least some of their instances valid, there is none that makes any of its instances invalid. To refute this thesis, a counterexample has been produced in the form of an argument-form whose premise-form's instances are all logically true and whose conclusion form's instances are all logically false. The purpose of this paper is to show that there are many more kinds of argument-forms that make (...)
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  12. [deleted]Michael X. Cohen John J. B. Allen (2010). Deconstructing the “Resting” State: Exploring the Temporal Dynamics of Frontal Alpha Asymmetry as an Endophenotype for Depression. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 4.score: 24.0
    Asymmetry in frontal electrocortical alpha-band (8-13 Hz) activity recorded during resting situations (i.e., in absence of a specific task) has been investigated in relation to emotion and depression for over 30 years. This asymmetry reflects an aspect of endogenous cortical dynamics that is stable over repeated measurements and that may serve as an endophenotype for mood or other psychiatric disorders. In nearly all of this research, EEG activity is averaged across several minutes, obscuring transient dynamics that unfold on (...)
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  13. Andrea Bender & Sieghard Beller (2011). Causal Asymmetry Across Cultures: Assigning Causal Roles in Symmetric Physical Settings. Frontiers in Psychology 2.score: 22.0
    In the cognitive sciences, causal cognition in the physical domain has featured as a core research topic, but the impact of culture has been rarely ever explored. One case in point for a topic on which this neglect is pronounced is the pervasive tendency of people to consider one of two (equally important) entities as more important for bringing about an effect. In order to scrutinize how robust such tendencies are across cultures, we asked German and Tongan participants to assign (...)
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  14. [deleted]Markus Quirin, Thomas Gruber, Julius Kuhl & Rainer Düsing (2013). Is Love Right? Prefrontal Resting Brain Asymmetry is Related to the Affiliation Motive. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:902.score: 22.0
    Previous research on relationships between affective-motivational traits and hemispheric asymmetries in resting frontal alpha band power as measured by electroencephalography (EEG) has focused on individual differences in motivational direction (approach vs. withdrawal) or behavioral activation. The present study investigated resting frontal alpha asymmetries in 72 participants as a function of individual differences in the implicit affiliation motive as measured with the operant motive test (OMT) and explored the brain source thereof. As predicted, relative right frontal activity as indexed by increased (...)
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  15. Paul Noordhof (2003). Epiphenomenalism and Causal Asymmetry. In Hallvard Lillehammer & Gonzalo Rodriguez-Pereyra (eds.), Real Metaphysics: Essays in Honour of D. H. Mellor. New York: Routledge.score: 21.0
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  16. Katherine J. Morris (1996). Pain, Injury, and First/Third-Person Asymmetry. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 56 (1):125-56.score: 21.0
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  17. Julian Fink (2010). Asymmetry, Scope, and Rational Consistency. Croatian Journal of Philosophy 10 (2):109-130.score: 21.0
    Suppose rationality requires you to A if you believe you ought to A. Suppose you believe that you ought to A. How can you satisfy this requirement? One way seems obvious. You can satisfy this requirement by A-ing. But can you also satisfy it by stopping to believe that you ought to A? Recently, it has been argued that this second option is not a genuine way of satisfying the above requirement. Conditional requirements of rationality do not have two ‘symmetric’, (...)
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  18. William C. Fish (2000). Asymmetry in Action. Ratio 13 (2):138-145.score: 21.0
  19. N. Georgalis (1994). Asymmetry of Access to Intentional States. Erkenntnis 40 (2):185-211.score: 21.0
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  20. Jeannette McGlone (1980). Sex Differences in Human Brain Asymmetry: A Critical Survey. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3 (2):215.score: 21.0
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  21. [deleted]Marco Hirnstein, Kenneth Hugdahl & Markus Hausmann (2014). How Brain Asymmetry Relates to Performance – a Large-Scale Dichotic Listening Study. Frontiers in Psychology 4.score: 21.0
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  22. Ivars Neiders, Vija Sile & Vents Silis (2013). Truth-Telling and the Asymmetry of the Attitude to Truth-Telling to Dying Patients in Latvia. Studia Philosophica Estonica 6 (2):55-78.score: 21.0
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  23. John L. Bradshaw, Norman C. Nettleton & Gina Geffen (1972). Ear Asymmetry and Delayed Auditory Feedback: Effects of Task Requirements and Competitive Stimulation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 94 (3):269.score: 21.0
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  24. Robert S. Lockhart (1969). Retrieval Asymmetry and the Criterion Problem in Cued Recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (1):192.score: 21.0
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  25. Robert S. Lockhart (1969). Retrieval Asymmetry in the Recall of Adjectives and Nouns. Journal of Experimental Psychology 79 (1p1):12.score: 21.0
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  26. Paul Satz, C. Michael Levy & Mark Tyson (1970). Effects of Temporal Delays on the Ear Asymmetry in Dichotic Listening. Journal of Experimental Psychology 84 (2):372.score: 21.0
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  27. Keith A. Wollen, Robert A. Fox & Douglas H. Lowry (1970). Variations in Asymmetry as a Function of Degree of Forward Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (3):416.score: 21.0
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  28. Wayne H. Bartz, Paul Satz & Eileen Fennell (1967). Grouping Strategies in Dichotic Listening: The Effects of Instructions, Rate, and Ear Asymmetry. Journal of Experimental Psychology 74 (1):132-136.score: 21.0
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  29. Gina Geffen, John L. Bradshaw & Norman C. Nettleton (1972). Hemispheric Asymmetry: Verbal and Spatial Encoding of Visual Stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology 95 (1):25.score: 21.0
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  30. Clifton W. Gray & Slater E. Newman (1966). Associative Asymmetry as a Function of Pronounceability. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (6):923.score: 21.0
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  31. Thomas R. Scott, Abraham D. Lavender, Ronald A. McWhirt & Donnie A. Powell (1966). Directional Asymmetry of Motion After-Effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (6):806.score: 21.0
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  32. Gabriele Contessa (2006). On the Supposed Temporal Asymmetry of Counterfactual Dependence; Or: It Wouldn't Have Taken a Miracle! Dialectica 60 (4):461–473.score: 20.0
    The thesis that a temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence characterizes our world plays a central role in Lewis’s philosophy, as. among other things, it underpins one of Lewis most renowned theses—that causation can be analyzed in terms of counterfactual dependence. To maintain that a temporal asymmetry of counterfactual dependence characterizes our world, Lewis committed himself to two other theses. The first is that the closest possible worlds at which the antecedent of a counterfactual conditional is true is one (...)
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  33. Craig Callender, Thermodynamic Asymmetry in Time. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.score: 18.0
    Thermodynamics is the science that describes much of the time asymmetric behavior found in the world. This entry's first task, consequently, is to show how thermodynamics treats temporally ‘directed’ behavior. It then concentrates on the following two questions. (1) What is the origin of the thermodynamic asymmetry in time? In a world possibly governed by time symmetric laws, how should we understand the time asymmetric laws of thermodynamics? (2) Does the thermodynamic time asymmetry explain the other temporal asymmetries? (...)
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  34. Huw Price & Brad Weslake (2009). The Time-Asymmetry of Causation. In Helen Beebee, Peter Menzies & Christopher Hitchcock (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Causation. Oxford University Press.score: 18.0
    One of the most striking features of causation is that causes typically precede their effects – the causal arrow is strongly aligned with the temporal arrow. Why should this be so? We offer an opinionated guide to this problem, and to the solutions currently on offer. We conclude that the most promising strategy is to begin with the de facto asymmetry of human deliberation, characterised in epistemic terms, and to build out from there. More than any rival, this subjectivist (...)
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  35. Gerald K. Harrison (2012). Antinatalism, Asymmetry, and an Ethic of Prima Facie Duties. South African Journal of Philosophy 31 (1):94-103.score: 18.0
    Benatar’s central argument for antinatalism develops an asymmetry between the pain and pleasure in a potential life. I am going to present an alternative route to the antinatalist conclusion. I argue that duties require victims and that as a result there is no duty to create the pleasures contained within a prospective life but a duty not to create any of its sufferings. My argument can supplement Benatar’s, but it also enjoys some advantages: it achieves a better fit with (...)
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  36. Douglas Kutach, The Empirical Content of the Epistemic Asymmetry.score: 18.0
    I conduct an empirical analysis of the temporally asymmetric character of our epistemic access to the world by providing an experimental scheme whose results represent the core empirical content of the epistemic asymmetry. I augment this empirical content by formulating a gedanken experiment inspired by a proposal from David Albert. This second experiment cannot be conducted using any technology that is likely to be developed in the foreseeable future, but the expected results help us to state an important constraint (...)
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  37. Nat Hansen (2012). On an Alleged Truth/Falsity Asymmetry in Context Shifting Experiments. Philosophical Quarterly 62 (248):530-545.score: 18.0
    Keith DeRose has argued that context shifting experiments should be designed in a specific way in order to accommodate what he calls a ‘truth/falsity asymmetry’. I explain and critique DeRose's reasons for proposing this modification to contextualist methodology, drawing on recent experimental studies of DeRose's bank cases as well as experimental findings about the verification of affirmative and negative statements. While DeRose's arguments for his particular modification to contextualist methodology fail, the lesson of his proposal is that there is (...)
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  38. Julia Driver (2006). Autonomy and the Asymmetry Problem for Moral Expertise. Philosophical Studies 128 (3):619 - 644.score: 18.0
    We seem less likely to endorse moral expertise than reasoning expertise or aesthetic expertise. This seems puzzling given that moral norms are intuitively taken to be at least more objective than aesthetic norms. One possible diagnosis of the asymmetry is that moral judgments require autonomy of judgement in away that other judgments do not. However, the author points out that aesthetic judgments that have been ‘borrowed’ by aesthetic experts generate the same autonomy worry as moral judgments which are borrowed (...)
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  39. Adam Elga (2001). Statistical Mechanics and the Asymmetry of Counterfactual Dependence. Philosophy of Science 68 (S1):S313-.score: 18.0
    In “Counterfactual Dependence and Time’s Arrow,” David Lewis defends an analysis of counterfactuals intended to yield the asymmetry of counterfactual dependence: that later affairs depend counterfactually on earlier ones, and not the other way around. I argue that careful attention to the dynamical properties of thermodynamically irreversible processes shows that in many ordinary cases, Lewis’s analysis fails to yield this asymmetry. Furthermore, the analysis fails in an instructive way: one that teaches us something about the connection between the (...)
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  40. Frank Hindriks (2008). Intentional Action and the Praise-Blame Asymmetry. Philosophical Quarterly 58 (233):630-641.score: 18.0
    Recent empirical research by Joshua Knobe has uncovered two asymmetries in judgements about intentional action and moral responsibility. First, people are more inclined to say that a side effect was brought about intentionally when they regard that side effect as bad than when they regard it as good. Secondly, people are more inclined to ascribe blame to someone for bad effects than they are inclined to ascribe praise for good effects. These findings suggest that the notion of intentional action has (...)
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  41. Jonathan Quong (2005). Disagreement, Asymmetry, and Liberal Legitimacy. Politics, Philosophy and Economics 4 (3):301-330.score: 18.0
    Reasonable people disagree deeply about the nature of the good life. But reasonable people also disagree fundamentally about principles of justice. If this is true, then why does political liberalism permit the state to act on reasons of justice, but not for reasons grounded in conceptions of the good life? There appears to be an indefensible asymmetry in the way political liberalism treats disagreements about justice and disagreements about the good life. This is the asymmetry objection to political (...)
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  42. Harvey R. Brown & Jos Uffink (2001). The Origins of Time-Asymmetry in Thermodynamics: The Minus First Law. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 32 (4):525-538.score: 18.0
    This paper investigates what the source of time-asymmetry is in thermodynamics, and comments on the question whether a time-symmetric formulation of the Second Law is possible.
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  43. Matías Aiello, Mario Castagnino & Olimpia Lombardi (2008). The Arrow of Time: From Universe Time-Asymmetry to Local Irreversible Processes. [REVIEW] Foundations of Physics 38 (3):257-292.score: 18.0
    In several previous papers we have argued for a global and non-entropic approach to the problem of the arrow of time, according to which the “arrow” is only a metaphorical way of expressing the geometrical time-asymmetry of the universe. We have also shown that, under definite conditions, this global time-asymmetry can be transferred to local contexts as an energy flow that points to the same temporal direction all over the spacetime. The aim of this paper is to complete (...)
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  44. Raphael van Riel (2012). Identity, Asymmetry, and the Relevance of Meanings for Models of Reduction. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 64 (4):axs028.score: 18.0
    Assume that water reduces to H2O. If so water is identical to H2O (according to one interpretation of the term `reduction´). At the same time, if water reduces to H2O then H2O does not reduce to water–the reduction relation is asymmetric. This generates a puzzle–if water just is H2O it is hard to see how we can account for the asymmetry of the reduction relation. The paper proposes a solution to this puzzle. It is argued that (i) the reduction (...)
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  45. Joshua Shepherd (2012). Action, Attitude, and the Knobe Effect: Another Asymmetry. Review of Philosophy and Psychology 3 (2):171-185.score: 18.0
    A majority of people regard the harmful side-effects of an agent’s behavior as much more intentional than an agent’s helpful side-effects. In this paper, I present evidence for a related asymmetry. When a side-effect action is an instance of harming , folk ascriptions are significantly impacted by the relative badness of either an agent’s main goal or her side-effect action, but not her attitude. Yet when a side-effect action is an instance of helping , folk ascriptions are sensitive to (...)
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  46. Bjorn Merker (2007). Memory, Imagination, and the Asymmetry Between Past and Future. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (3):325-326.score: 18.0
    A number of difficulties encumber the Suddendorf & Corballis (S&C) proposal regarding mental time travel into the future. Among these are conceptual issues turning on the inherent asymmetry of time and causality with regard to past and future, and the bearing of such asymmetry on the uses and utility of retrospective versus prospective mental time travel, on which I comment.
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  47. Jeffrey Moriarty (2003). Against the Asymmetry of Desert. Noûs 37 (3):518–536.score: 18.0
    Desert plays a central role in most contemporary theories of retributive justice, but little or no role in most contemporary theories of distributive justice. This asymmetric treatment of desert is prima facie strange. I consider several popular arguments against the use of desert in distributive justice, and argue that none of them can be used to justify the asymmetry.
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  48. Phil Dowe (1992). Process Causality and Asymmetry. Erkenntnis 37 (2):179-196.score: 18.0
    Process theories of causality seek to explicate causality as a property of individual causal processes. This paper examines the capacity of such theories to account for the asymmetry of causation. Three types of theories of asymmetry are discussed; the subjective, the temporal, and the physical, the third of these being the preferred approach. Asymmetric features of the world, namely the entropic and Kaon arrows, are considered as possible sources of causal asymmetry and a physical theory of (...) is subsequently developed with special reference to the questions of objectivity and backwards causation. (shrink)
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  49. Jill North (2002). What is the Problem About the Time-Asymmetry of Thermodynamics?--A Reply to Price. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 53 (1):121-136.score: 18.0
    Huw Price argues that there are two conceptions of the puzzle of the time-asymmetry of thermodynamics. He thinks this puzzle has remained unsolved for so long partly due to a misunderstanding about which of these conceptions is the right one and what form a solution ought to take. I argue that it is Price's understanding of the problem which is mistaken. Further, it is on the basis of this and other misunderstandings that he disparages a type of account which (...)
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  50. David Alm (2010). Desert and the Control Asymmetry. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 13 (4):361 - 375.score: 18.0
    According to what we could call the "liberal" theory of distributive justice, people do not deserve the money they are able to make in the market for contributing to the economy. Yet the standard arguments for that view, which center on the fact that persons have very limited control over the size of their contributions, would also seem to imply that persons cannot deserve admiration, appreciation, esteem, praise and so on for these and other contributions. The control asymmetry is (...)
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