Search results for 'Atomism' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  86
    Bertrand Russell (1985). The Philosophy of Logical Atomism. Open Court.
    THE PHILOSOPHY which I advocate is generally regarded as a species of realism, and accused of inconsistency because of the elements in it which seem contrary to that doctrine. For my part, I do not regard the issue between realists and their opponents as a funda- mental one; I could alter my view on this issue without changing my mind as to any of the doctrines upon which I wish to lay stress. I hold that logic is what is fundamental (...)
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  2.  55
    A. J. Cotnoir (2013). Beyond Atomism. Thought: A Journal of Philosophy 2 (1):67-72.
    Contemporary metaphysicians have been drawn to a certain attractive picture of the structure of the world. This picture consists in classical mereology, the priority of parts over wholes, and the well-foundedness of metaphysical priority. In this short note, I show that this combination of theses entails superatomism, which is a significant strengthening of mereological atomism. This commitment has been missed in the literature due to certain sorts of models of mereology being overlooked. But the entailment is an important one: (...)
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  3. Jeffrey Grupp (2006). Mereological Nihilism: Quantum Atomism and the Impossibility of Material Constitution. [REVIEW] Axiomathes 16 (3):245-386.
    Mereological nihilism is the philosophical position that there are no items that have parts. If there are no items with parts then the only items that exist are partless fundamental particles, such as the true atoms (also called philosophical atoms) theorized to exist by some ancient philosophers, some contemporary physicists, and some contemporary philosophers. With several novel arguments I show that mereological nihilism is the correct theory of reality. I will also discuss strong similarities that mereological nihilism has with empirical (...)
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  4.  26
    David Bostock (2012). Russell's Logical Atomism. Oxford University Press.
    He explores Russell's logical atomism, which applies logic to problems in the theory of knowledge and metaphysics and was central to Russell's work over this period.
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  5.  29
    Daniel J. Nicholson (2010). Biological Atomism and Cell Theory. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 41 (3):202-211.
    Biological atomism postulates that all life is composed of elementary and indivisible vital units. The activity of a living organism is thus conceived as the result of the activities and interactions of its elementary constituents, each of which individually already exhibits all the attributes proper to life. This paper surveys some of the key episodes in the history of biological atomism, and situates cell theory within this tradition. The atomistic foundations of cell theory are subsequently dissected and discussed, (...)
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  6. Ian Proops (2004). Wittgenstein's Logical Atomism. Stanford Encyclopaedia of Philosophy (65):374-376.
    An article explicating Wittgenstein's logical atomism and surveying the relevant secondary literature.
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  7.  5
    Joseph M. Spencer (2015). Rancièrean Atomism: Clarifying the Debate Between Jacques Rancière and Alain Badiou. Journal of French and Francophone Philosophy 23 (2):98-121.
    In the late 1970s and the 1980s, a number of radical left political theorists focused their philosophical attention on the relevance of ancient atomism, revitalizing a tradition that went back to Karl Marx's work on his dissertation. This essay looks at the uses of atomism by two thinkers in particular, Jacques Rancière and Alain Badiou, in order to see how their discussions of and references to ancient materialism help to shed light on their fundamental disagreements about the nature (...)
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  8. Bertrand Russell (1972). Russell's Logical Atomism. London,Fontana.
    The philosophy of logical atomism.--Logical atomism.
     
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  9.  72
    Robert D. Rupert (2000). Dispositions Indisposed: Semantic Atomism and Fodor's Theory of Content. Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 81 (3):325-349.
    According to Jerry Fodor’s atomistic theory of content, subjects’ dispositions to token mentalese terms in counterfactual circumstances fix the contents of those terms. I argue that the pattern of counterfactual tokenings alone does not satisfactorily fix content; if Fodor’s appeal to patterns of counterfactual tokenings has any chance of assigning correct extensions, Fodor must take into account the contents of subjects’ various mental states at the times of those tokenings. However, to do so, Fodor must abandon his semantic atomism. (...)
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  10.  1
    Tzvi Langermann (2009). Islamic Atomism and the Galenic Tradition. History of Science 47:277-295.
    This paper argues that tthe detailed critique of a variety of atomistic doctrines found in the Galenic corpus, especially On the Elements according to Hippocrates, was a major source for the atomism of the early kalam.
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  11.  25
    Sabra (2009). The Simple Ontology of Kalām Atomism: An Outline. Early Science and Medicine 14 (1):68-78.
    This paper aims to present concisely the Islamic kalām atomism as an alternative philosophy to Hellenizing falsafa. Kalām is a theological-philosophical discourse which, first ventured to rival the falsafa represented early by al-Kindī , then by al-Fārābī and Avicenna in the fourth/tenth and fifth/eleventh centuries, and which eventually appeared to be inclined to propose a mingling of the kalām discourse with falsafa in a series of varied "syntheses".—Focusing on the simple ontology of the basic kalām atomism, and noting (...)
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  12.  12
    Klodian Coko (2015). Epistemology of a Believing Historian: Making Sense of Duhem's Anti-Atomism. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 50:71-82.
    Pierre Duhem’s (1861-1916) lifelong opposition to 19th century atomic theories of matter traditionally has been attributed to his conventionalist and/or positivist philosophy of science. Relatively recently, this traditional view has been challenged by the claim that Duhem’s opposition to atomism was due to the precarious state of atomic theories during the beginning of the 20th century. In this paper I present some of the difficulties with both the traditional and the new interpretation of Duhem’s opposition to atomism and (...)
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  13.  11
    Joshua D. K. Brown (2015). Chemical Atomism: A Case Study in Confirmation and Ontology. Synthese 192 (2):453-485.
    Quine, taking the molecular constitution of matter as a paradigmatic example, offers an account of the relation between theory confirmation and ontology. Elsewhere, he deploys a similar ontological methodology to argue for the existence of mathematical objects. Penelope Maddy considers the atomic/molecular theory in more historical detail. She argues that the actual ontological practices of science display a positivistic demand for “direct observation,” and that fulfillment of this demand allows us to distinguish molecules and other physical objects from mathematical abstracta. (...)
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  14.  16
    H. Hochberg (1978). Thought, Fact and Reference: The Origins and Ontology of Logical Atomism. University of Minnesota Press.
    The Analysis of Perception i Moore's most systematic attempt to handle the problems of in- tentionality occurs in connection with his analysis of perception in Some Main Problems of Philosophy . He begins the book with the following ...
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  15.  73
    Ken Levy (2005). Is Descartes a Temporal Atomist? British Journal for the History of Philosophy 13 (4):627 – 674.
    I argue that Descartes' Second Causal Proof of God in the Third Meditation evidences, and commits him to, the belief that time is "strongly discontinuous" -- that is, that there is actually a gap between each consecutive moment of time. Much of my article attempts to reconcile this interpretation, the "received view," with Descartes' statements about time, space, and matter in his other writings, including his correspondence with various philosophers.
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  16. Andrew Pyle (1995/1997). Atomism and its Critics: From Democritus to Newton. Thoemmes Press.
  17. Shlomo Pines (1997). Studies in Islamic Atomism. The Magnes Press, the Hebrew University.
  18. Andrew Pyle (1995). Atomism and its Critics Problem Areas Associated with the Development of the Atomic Theory of Matter From Democritus to Newton. Monograph Collection (Matt - Pseudo).
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  19. Lancelot Law Whyte (1961). Essay on Atomism. Middletown, Conn.,Wesleyan University Press.
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  20. Mrinalkanti Gangopadhyaya (1980). Indian Atomism: History and Sources. K.P. Bagchi.
     
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  21.  1
    Gregory Vlastos (1965). Minimal Parts in Epicurean Atomism. Isis: A Journal of the History of Science 56:121-147.
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  22. A. Cornelius Benjamin (1927). The Logical Atomism of Bertrand Russell. [S.N.].
     
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  23. P. I. Gradinarov (1990). Phenomenology and Indian Epistemology: Studies in Nyāya-Vaiśeṣika Transcendental Logic and Atomism. Ajanta Books International.
  24.  11
    Christophe Grellard & Aurélien Robert (eds.) (2009). Atomism in Late Medieval Philosophy and Theology. Brill.
    DMet 10: Prime matter is the origin of all quantities. Hence it is the origin of every dimension of continuous quantity whatever. ...
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  25. Torsten Wilholt (2001). Ludwig Boltzmann's Mathematical Argument for Atomism. Vienna Circle Institute Yearbook 9:199-211.
    In recent years, the philosophy of Ludwig Boltzmann has become a point of interest within the field of history of philosophy of science. Attention has centred around Boltzmann’s philosophical considerations connected to his defense of atomism in physics. In analysing these considerations, several scholars have attributed a pragmatist stance to Boltzmann. In this paper, I want to argue that, whatever pragmatist traits may be found in Boltzmann’s diverse writings, his defense of atomism in physics can not be analysed (...)
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  26.  27
    Michael Esfeld, Dirk-André Deckert & Andrea Oldofredi, What is Matter? The Fundamental Ontology of Atomism and Structural Realism.
    We set out a fundamental ontology of atomism in terms of matter points. While being most parsimonious, this ontology is able to match both classical and quantum mechanics, and it remains a viable option for any future theory of cosmology that goes beyond current quantum physics. The matter points are structurally individuated: all there is to them are the spatial relations in which they stand; neither a commitment to intrinsic properties nor to an absolute space is required. The spatial (...)
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  27. Ian Proops (2011). Logical Atomism in Russell and Wittgenstein. In Marie McGinn & Oskari Kuusela (eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Wittgenstein. OUP Oxford
    An essay examining logical atomism as it arises in Russell and the early Wittgenstein.
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  28. John Morrison (2013). Anti‐Atomism About Color Representation. Noûs 47 (2):94-122.
    According to anti-atomism, we represent color properties (e.g., red) in virtue of representing color relations (e.g., redder than). I motivate anti-atomism with a puzzle involving a series of pairwise indistinguishable chips. I then develop two versions of anti-atomism.
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  29.  44
    Daniel A. Weiskopf (2009). Atomism, Pluralism, and Conceptual Content. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (1):131-163.
    Conceptual atomists argue that most of our concepts are primitive. I take up three arguments that have been thought to support atomism and show that they are inconclusive. The evidence that allegedly backs atomism is equally compatible with a localist position on which concepls are structured representations with complex semantic content. I lay out such a localist position and argue that the appropriate position for a non-atomist to adopt is a pluralist view of conceptual structure. I show several (...)
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  30.  36
    Paul Needham (2008). Resisting Chemical Atomism: Duhem's Argument. Philosophy of Science 75 (5):921-931.
    Late nineteenth‐century opponents of atomism questioned whether the evidence required any notion of an atom. In this spirit, Duhem developed an account of the import of chemical formulas that is clearly neutral on the atomic question rather than antiatomistic. The argument is supplemented with specific inadequacies of atomic theories of chemical combination and considerably strengthened by the theory of chemical combination provided by thermodynamics. Despite possible counterevidence available at the time, which should have tempered some of Duhem's concluding remarks, (...)
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  31.  46
    Susan Haack (2008). Proving Causation: The Holism of Warrant and the Atomism of Daubert. Journal of Health and Biomedical Law 4:253-289.
    In many toxic-tort cases - notably in Oxendine v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc, and in Joiner v. G.E., - plaintiffs argue that the expert testimony they wish to present, though no part of it is sufficient by itself to establish causation "by a preponderance of the evidence," is jointly sufficient to meet this standard of proof; and defendants sometimes argue in response that it is a mistake to imagine that a collection of pieces of weak evidence can be any stronger (...)
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  32. Andrew Pyle (2006). Atomism and Natural Necessity. Philo 9 (1):47-61.
    When the atomic theory was revived in the seventeenth century, the atomists faced a problem concerning the status of the laws of nature. On the face of it, the postulation of absolutely hard, rigid, and impenetrable atoms seems to entail the existence of natural necessities and impossibilities: Atoms A and B cannot interpenetrate, so atom A must push atom B when they collide. The properties of compound bodies are to be explained in terms of their “textures” (i.e., the arrangements of (...)
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  33. Kevin C. Klement (2009). Russell's Logical Atomism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) described his philosophy as a kind of “logical atomism”, by which he meant to endorse both a metaphysical view and a certain methodology for doing philosophy. The metaphysical view amounts to the claim that the world consists of a plurality of independently existing things exhibiting qualities and standing in relations. According to logical atomism, all truths are ultimately dependent upon a layer of atomic facts, which consist either of a simple particular exhibiting a quality, or (...)
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  34.  84
    Daniel A. Weiskopf (2007). Atomism, Pluralism, and Conceptual Content. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 79 (1):131-163.
    Conceptual atomists argue that most of our concepts are primitive. I take up three arguments that have been thought to support atomism and show that they are inconclusive. The evidence that allegedly backs atomism is equally compatible with a localist position on which concepts are structured representations with complex semantic content. I lay out such a localist position and argue that the appropriate position for a non-atomist to adopt is a pluralist view of conceptual structure. I show several (...)
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  35.  25
    Graham Oddie (2001). Axiological Atomism. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 79 (3):313 – 332.
    Value is either additive or else it is subject to organic unity. In general we have organic unity where a complex whole is not simply the sum of its parts. Value exhibits organic unity if the value of a complex, whether a complex state or complex quality, is greater or less than the sum of the values of its components or parts. Whether or not value is additive might be thought to be of purely metaphysical interest, but it is also (...)
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  36.  5
    Helen Hattab (forthcoming). Aristotelianism and Atomism Combined: Gorlaeus on Knowledge of Universals. Perspectives on Science 24 (3):285-304.
    Seventeenth-century atomist David Gorlaeus rejects Aristotelian forms and real universals in things while accepting components of Aristotelian accounts of knowledge including sensible species, the immateriality of the intellect and key features of realist theories of universals. To resolve two puzzles raised by his theory of knowledge I interpret Gorlaeus’ claims about universals in light of a contemporaneous Aristotelian view. Whether the puzzles are adequately resolved or not, they create a problem space within which figures like Descartes and Locke developed their (...)
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  37.  5
    Paul Needham (2004). Has Daltonian Atomism Provided Chemistry with Any Explanations? Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1038-1047.
    Philosophers frequently cite Dalton?s chemical atomism, and its 19th century developments, as a prime example of inference to the best explanation. This was a controversial issue in its time. But the critics are dismissed as positivist-inspired antirealists with no interest in explanation. Is this a reasonable assessment?
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  38.  11
    Paul Needham (2004). Has Daltonian Atomism Provided Chemistry with Any Explanations? Philosophy of Science 71 (5):1038-1047.
    Philosophers frequently cite Dalton's chemical atomism, and its nineteenth century developments, as a prime example of inference to the best explanation. This was a controversial issue in its time. But the critics are dismissed as positivist‐inspired antirealists with no interest in explanation. Is this a reasonable assessment?
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  39.  3
    Mary Jo Nye (2006). Berthelot's Anti-Atomism: A 'Matter of Taste'? Annals of Science 38 (5):585-590.
    The influential French chemist Marcelin Berthelot spoke against the use of Dalton's atomic theory and Avogadro's hypothesis in the second half of the nineteenth century. This paper argues that Berthelot conceded that atomism might be acceptable as a system of conventions, but he feared the power of such conventions in constructing a realistic picture of atoms which was not warranted empirically. Equally, Berthelot's anti-atomism was a last-ditch effort to assert the place of chemistry within the tradition of natural (...)
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  40.  21
    David Alm (2004). Atomism About Value. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 82 (2):312 – 331.
    Atomism is defined as the view that the moral value of any object is ultimately determined by simple features whose contribution to the value of an object is always the same, independently of context. A morally fundamental feature, in a given context, is defined as one whose contribution in that context is determined by no other value fact. Three theses are defended, which together entail atomism: (1) All objects have their moral value ultimately in virtue of morally fundamental (...)
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  41.  1
    Graham Rees (2006). Atomism and 'Subtlety' in Francis Bacon's Philosophy. Annals of Science 37 (5):549-571.
    Francis Bacon's reflections on atomism have generally been misunderstood because they have never been systematically studied in relation to the speculative chemical philosophy which he developed in the interval between about 1592 and his death in 1626. This philosophy, in many respects unknown to historians until quite recently, was the only body of positive science which Bacon ever accepted. The speculative philosophy was, on the whole, chemical and non-mechanical, and consequently not consistent with atomist doctrines. In fact, Bacon never (...)
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  42.  3
    Lynn Sumida Joy (1987). Gassendi, the Atomist: Advocate of History in an Age of Science. Cambridge University Press.
    Scholars in the early seventeenth century who studied ancient Greek scientific theories often drew upon philology and history to reconstruct a more general picture of the Greek past. Gassendi's training as a humanist historiographer enabled him to formulate a conception of the history of philosophy in which the rationality of scientific and philosophical inquiry depended on the historical justifications which he developed for his beliefs. Professor Joy examines this conception and analyzes the nature of Gassendi's historical training, especially its relationship (...)
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  43.  42
    Nino Cocchiarella (1975). Logical Atomism, Nominalism, and Modal Logic. Synthese 31 (1):23 - 62.
    While operators for logical necessity and possibility represent "internal" conditions of propositions (or of their corresponding states of affairs), These conditions will be "formal", As is required by logical atomism, And not "material" in content if from the (pseudo) semantical point of view the modal operators range over "all the possible worlds" of a logical space rather than over arbitrary non-Empty sets of worlds (as is usually done in modal logic). Some of the implications of this requirement are noted (...)
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  44.  20
    Travis Dumsday (2015). Some Ontological Consequences of Atomism. Ratio 28 (2):119-134.
    Is there a fundamental layer of objects in nature? And if so what sorts of things populate it? Among those who answer ‘yes’ to the first question, a common answer to the second is ‘atoms,’ where an atom is understood in the original sense of an object that is spatially unextended, indivisible, and wholly lacking in proper parts. Here I explore some of the ontological consequences of atomism. First, if atoms are real, then whatever motion they appear to undergo (...)
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  45.  24
    Thomas M. Lennon (1983). Locke's Atomism. Philosophy Research Archives 9:1-28.
    What ultimately exists for Locke is the solid. Reading this ontology in light of the atomist tradition elucidates and relates a number of important issues in the Essay: the analysis of space and related concepts, the distinction between simple and complex ideas, the distinction between primary and secondary qualitie the analysis of power and causation.
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  46.  63
    William Lycan (1981). Logical Atomism and Ontological Atoms. Synthese 46 (2):207 - 229.
    Three kinds of "atoms" figure in russell's logical atomism, Though he seems to see no differences between them: logical atoms (the referents of logically proper names); epistemological atoms (things known directly or by acquaintance); and ontological atoms (basic constituents of the universe). This paper speculates on why russell believed that all three of these notions coincide, Thereby bringing out some of his unacknowledged background assumptions.
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  47.  41
    Hristo Smolenov (1984). Zeno's Paradoxes and Temporal Becoming in Dialectical Atomism. Studia Logica 43 (1-2):169 - 180.
    The homogeneity of time (i.e. the fact that there are no privileged moments) underlies a fundamental symmetry relating to the energy conservation law. On the other hand the obvious asymmetry between past and future, expressed by the metaphor of the arrow of time or flow of time accounts for the irreversibility of what happens. One takes this for granted but the conceptual tension it creates against the background of time''s presumed homogeneity calls for an explanation of temporal becoming. Here, it (...)
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  48.  35
    Graham Stevens (2012). The Scope of Logical Atomism. Metascience 21 (2):331-335.
    The scope of logical atomism Content Type Journal Article Category Essay Review Pages 1-5 DOI 10.1007/s11016-011-9602-9 Authors Graham Stevens, Department of Philosophy, University of Manchester, Arthur Lewis Building, Oxford Road, Manchester, M13 9PL UK Journal Metascience Online ISSN 1467-9981 Print ISSN 0815-0796.
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  49.  42
    Jack M. C. Kwong (2007). Is Conceptual Atomism a Plausible Theory of Concepts? Southern Journal of Philosophy 45 (3):413-434.
    Conceptual atomism is the view according to which most lexical concepts lack ‘internal’ or constituent structure. To date, it has not received much attention from philosophers and psychologists. A centralreason is that it is thought to be an implausible theory of concepts, resulting in untenable implications. The main objective of this paper is to present conceptual atomism as a viable alternative, with a view toachieving two aims: the first, to characterize and to elucidate conceptual atomism; and the (...)
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  50.  26
    Manuel Bremer, One Solved and One Unsolved Problem for Conceptual Atomism.
    In this talk I consider two problems for conceptual atomism. Conceptual atomism can be defended against the criticism that it seems to contend that all concepts are simply innate (even technical concepts to pre-technological humanoids) by specifying the innateness thesis as one of mechanisms of hooking up mental representations (concepts as language of thought types) to properties in the world (§1). This theory faces a problem with non-referring expressions/concepts, it seems. Conceptual atomism can, however, deal with non-referring (...)
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