Search results for 'Atoms' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Richard F. W. Bader & Chérif F. Matta (2013). Atoms in Molecules as Non-Overlapping, Bounded, Space-Filling Open Quantum Systems. Foundations of Chemistry 15 (3):253-276.score: 18.0
    The quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) uses physics to define an atom and its contribution to observable properties in a given system. It does so using the electron density and its flow in a magnetic field, the current density. These are the two fields that Schrödinger said should be used to explain and understand the properties of matter. It is the purpose of this paper to show how QTAIM bridges the conceptual gulf that separates the observations of (...)
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  2. Jarmo Mäkelä (2002). Black Holes as Atoms. Foundations of Physics 32 (12):1809-1849.score: 18.0
    Stationary spacetimes containing a black hole have several properties akin to those of atoms. For instance, such spacetimes have only three classical degrees of freedom, or observables, which may be taken to be the mass, the angular momentum, and the electric charge of the hole. There are several arguments supporting a proposal originally made by Bekenstein that quantization of these classical degrees of freedom gives an equal spacing for the horizon area spectrum of black holes. We review some of (...)
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  3. Anthony Shiver (forthcoming). How Do You Say 'Everything is Ultimately Composed of Atoms'? Philosophical Studies:1-8.score: 16.0
    The standard definition of atomicity—the thesis that everything is ultimately composed of entities that lack proper parts—is satisfied by a model that is not atomistic. The standard definition is therefore an incorrect characterization of atomicity. I show that the model satisfies the axioms of all but the strongest mereology and therefore that the standard definition of atomicity is only adequate given some controversial metaphysical assumptions. I end by proposing a new definition of atomicity that does not require extensionality or unrestricted (...)
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  4. Richard Threlkeld Cox (1933). Time, Space and Atoms. Baltimore, the Williams & Wilkins Company in Cooperation with the Century of Progress Exposition.score: 15.0
     
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  5. Wolfram Hinzen (2006). Dualism and the Atoms of Thought. Journal of Consciousness Studies 13 (9):25-55.score: 14.0
    Contemporary arguments for forms of psycho-physical dualism standardly depart from phenomenal aspects of consciousness ('what it is like' to have some particular conscious experience). Conceptual aspects of conscious experience, as opposed to phenomenal or visual/perceptual ones, are often taken to be within the scope of functionalist, reductionist, or physicalist theories. I argue that the particular conceptual structure of human consciousness makes this asymmetry unmotivated. The argument for a form of dualism defended here proceeds from the empirical premise that (...)
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  6. Eric T. Olson (1998). Human Atoms. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 76 (3):396-406.score: 14.0
    In this paper I shall explore a novel alternative to these familiar views. In his recent book Sub ects of Ex erience, E. J. Lowe argues, as many others have done before, that you and I are not animals. It follows from this, he says, that we must be simple substances without parts. That may sound like Cartesian dualism. But Lowe is no Cartesian. He argues from premises that many present-day materialists accept. And he claims that our being mereologically simple (...)
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  7. Lepša Vušković, Dušan Arsenović & Mirjana Božić (2002). Non-Classical Behavior of Atoms in an Interferometer. Foundations of Physics 32 (9):1329-1346.score: 14.0
    Using the time-dependent wave function we have studied the properties of the atomic transverse motion in an interferometer, and the cause of the non-classical behavior of atoms reported by Kurtsiefer, Pfau, and Mlynek [Nature 386, 150 (1997)]. The transverse wave function is derived from the solution of the two-dimensional Schrödinger's equation, written in the form of the Fresnel–Kirchhoff diffraction integral. It is assumed that the longitudinal motion is classical. Comparing data of the space distribution and of the transverse momentum (...)
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  8. Trevor W. Marshall (2006). Are Atoms Waves or Particles? Foundations of Physics 36 (3):333-349.score: 14.0
    It is shown that the Kapitza-Dirac effect with atoms, which has been considered to be evidence for their wavelike character, can be interpreted as a scattering of pointlike objects by the periodic laser field.
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  9. Alan F. Chalmers (2008). Atom and Aether in Nineteenth-Century Physical Science. Foundations of Chemistry 10 (3):157-166.score: 12.0
    This paper suggests that the cases made for atoms and the aether in nineteenth-century physical science were analogous, with the implication that the case for the atom was less than compelling, since there is no aether. It is argued that atoms did not play a productive role in nineteenth-century chemistry any more than the aether did in physics. Atoms and molecules did eventually find an indispensable home in chemistry but by the time that they did so they (...)
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  10. William Lycan (1981). Logical Atomism and Ontological Atoms. Synthese 46 (2):207 - 229.score: 12.0
    Three kinds of "atoms" figure in russell's logical atomism, Though he seems to see no differences between them: logical atoms (the referents of logically proper names); epistemological atoms (things known directly or by acquaintance); and ontological atoms (basic constituents of the universe). This paper speculates on why russell believed that all three of these notions coincide, Thereby bringing out some of his unacknowledged background assumptions.
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  11. Manuel Bächtold (2010). Saving Mach's View on Atoms. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 41 (1):1 - 19.score: 12.0
    According to a common belief concerning the Mach-Boltzmann debate on atoms, the new experiments performed in microphysics at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries confirmed Boltzmann's atomic hypothesis and disproved Mach's anti-atomic view. This paper intends to show that this belief is partially unjustified. Mach's view on atoms consists in fact of different kinds of arguments. While the new experiments in microphysics refute indeed his scientific arguments against the atomic hypothesis, his epistemological arguments are unaffected. In (...)
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  12. Richard M. Pagni (2009). The Weak Nuclear Force, the Chirality of Atoms, and the Origin of Optically Active Molecules. Foundations of Chemistry 11 (2):105-122.score: 12.0
    Although chemical phenomena are primarily associated with electrons in atoms, ions, and molecules, the masses, charges, spins, and other properties of the nuclei in these species contribute significantly as well. Isotopes, for instance, have proven invaluable in chemistry, in particular the elucidation of reaction mechanisms. Elements with unstable nuclei, for example carbon-14 undergoing beta decay, have enriched chemistry and many other scientific disciplines. The nuclei of all elements have a much more subtle and largely unknown effect on chemical phenomena. (...)
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  13. Jeffrey Grupp, A New Argument Against Extended Philosophical Atoms.score: 12.0
    Specifically, "A New Argument Against talk is a section of an upcoming article of Brahman Extended Philosophical Atoms" is mine about Mereological Nihilism and Anti-metaphysics concerned with only the following: Quantum Atomism . The article is going Radical Empiricism..
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  14. William R. Newman (2009). Alchemical Atoms or Artisanal "Building Blocks"?: A Response to Klein. Perspectives on Science 17 (2):pp. 212-231.score: 12.0
    In a recent essay review of William R. Newman, Atoms and Alchemy (2006), Ursula Klein defends her position that philosophically informed corpuscularian theories of matter contributed little to the growing knowledge of "reversible reactions" and robust chemical species in the early modern period. Newman responds here by providing further evidence that an experimental, scholastic tradition of alchemy extending well into the Middle Ages had already argued extensively for the persistence of ingredients during processes of "mixture" (e.g. chemical reactions), and (...)
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  15. Eduardo Castro (2013). Defending the Indispensability Argument: Atoms, Infinity and the Continuum. Journal for General Philosophy of Science 44 (1):41-61.score: 12.0
    This paper defends the Quine-Putnam mathematical indispensability argument against two objections raised by Penelope Maddy. The objections concern scientific practices regarding the development of the atomic theory and the role of applied mathematics in the continuum and infinity. I present two alternative accounts by Stephen Brush and Alan Chalmers on the atomic theory. I argue that these two theories are consistent with Quine’s theory of scientific confirmation. I advance some novel versions of the indispensability argument. I argue that these new (...)
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  16. Paul Needham (2004). When Did Atoms Begin to Do Any Explanatory Work in Chemistry? International Studies in the Philosophy of Science 18 (2 & 3):199 – 219.score: 12.0
    During the 19th century atomism was a controversial issue in chemistry. It is an oversimplification to dismiss the critics' arguments as all falling under the general positivist view that what can't be seen can't be. The more interesting lines of argument either questioned whether any coherent notion of an atom had ever been formulated or questioned whether atoms were ever really given any explanatory role. At what point, and for what reasons, did atomistic hypotheses begin to explain anything in (...)
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  17. G. Ludwig (1989). Atoms: Are They Real or Are They Objects? Foundations of Physics 19 (8):971-983.score: 12.0
    The reality of atoms can be deduced from the reality of the devices by which the atoms are prepared and registered. A new, most general definition of the concept of “physical object” is given. The objects must not be classical; nevertheless they can be described objectively. Atoms are not such objects.
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  18. N. Sukumar (2013). The Atom in a Molecule as a Mereological Construct in Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 15 (3):303-309.score: 12.0
    In this paper I discuss some consequences and manifestations of a mereology of structured wholes in chemistry, with particular reference to the concept of atoms in molecules.
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  19. Ken Safir, Semantic Atoms of Anaphora.score: 12.0
    It is argued that most anaphors have semantic content and that the semantic content of a given anaphoric atom plays an active role in determining both its distribution and the interpretation of the sentences in which it is employed. It is first demonstrated that semantic distinctions between semantically relational anaphoric atoms predict differences between their distributions. It is then argued that all of the semantically relational anaphoric atoms respect Principle A, while semantically contentless anaphors often do not.
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  20. Octavio Novaro (2005). Activity of Closed D-Shells in Noble Metal Atoms. Foundations of Chemistry 7 (3):241-268.score: 12.0
    The Periodic Table has the column of the noble gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) as one of its main pillars. Indeed the inert chemical nature of their closed shell structure is so striking that it is sometimes extended to all such structures. Is it true however that any closed shell, say a closed d-subshell will denote a lack of chemical activity? Take the noble metals for instance, so renowned for their catalytic capacity. Platinum has 10 electrons (...)
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  21. W. G. Bauer & H. Salecker (1983). Muonic Atoms Testing the Electron Propagator of Quantum Electrodynamics and the Higgs Boson Contribution. Foundations of Physics 13 (1):115-132.score: 12.0
    In this work we consider the energy states of muonic atoms which are predominantly influenced by vacuum polarization. This fact is used for testing the electron propagator of QED with the modification $S(p) = (\not p - me)^{ - 1} + f(\not p - M)^{ - 1}$ . The data of some well analyzed transitions in muonic He, Si, Ba, and Pb yield the limit M>29 MeV for f=1.Similarly the presence of a Higgs boson would cause a shift of (...)
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  22. Mauro Causá, Andreas Savin & Bernard Silvi (2014). Atoms and Bonds in Molecules and Chemical Explanations. Foundations of Chemistry 16 (1):3-26.score: 12.0
    The concepts of atoms and bonds in molecules which appeared in chemistry during the nineteenth century are unavoidable to explain the structure and the reactivity of the matter at a chemical level of understanding. Although they can be criticized from a strict reductionist point of view, because neither atoms nor bonds are observable in the sense of quantum mechanics, the topological and statistical interpretative approaches of quantum chemistry (quantum theory of atoms in molecules, electron localization function and (...)
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  23. Gary Patterson (2010). Les Atomes: A Landmark Book in Chemistry. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 12 (3):223-233.score: 12.0
    There have been occasions when the publication of a particular book has had a singular impact on the conceptual world of the chemist. Sometimes the publication occurs near the beginning of a major change in discourse, and sometimes more near the end. Jean Perrin published Les Atomes in 1913 as the culmination of a century-long controversy over the size and physical reality of atoms and molecules. After its publication almost all chemists and physicists agreed that atoms and molecules (...)
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  24. C. I. Christov (2010). The Effect of the Relative Motion of Atoms on the Frequency of the Emitted Light and the Reinterpretation of the Ives-Stilwell Experiment. Foundations of Physics 40 (6):575-584.score: 12.0
    We examine the process of the emission of light from an atom that is in a relative translational motion with respect to the medium at rest in which the electromagnetic excitations propagate. The effect of Lorentz contraction of the of electron orbits on the emitted frequency is incorporated in the Rydberg formula, as well as the emitter’s Doppler effect is acknowledged. The result is that the frequency of the emitted light is modified by a factor that is identical with what (...)
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  25. Hamidreza Joypazadeh & Shant Shahbazian (2014). What Does Shape a Topological Atom? Foundations of Chemistry 16 (1):63-75.score: 12.0
    In this pedagogical communication after demonstrating the legitimacy for using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) to non-Coulombic systems, Hookean H2 +/H3 2+ species are used for AIM analysis. In these systems, in contrast to their Coulombic counterparts, electron density is atom-like and instead of expected two/three topological atoms, just a single topological atom emerges. This observation is used to demonstrate that what is really “seen” by the topological analysis of electron densities is the clustering of (...)
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  26. Chérif F. Matta (2013). Special Issue: Philosophical Aspects and Implications of the Quantum Theory of Atoms in Molecules (QTAIM). [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 15 (3):245-251.score: 12.0
    It is with great delight that I have accepted the unexpected invitation to edit this two part special issue of Foundations of Chemistry dedicated to the philosophical aspects and implications of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) (Bader 1990). This theory has been primarily the oeuvre of Richard F. W. Bader (1931–2012), one of his most significant (but not the only significant) contributions to chemistry. Bader’s contributions have been summarized in a tribute (Matta et al. 2011) that (...)
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  27. John G. Cramer, Super-Atoms and Mystery Particles.score: 12.0
    The path to a new discovery in physics is often a very twisted one. The subject of this Alternate View column is an example of this process. A major accelerator, built with with the prospect of discovering super-heavy elements, is now being used in an experiment to produce "super-atoms" with very large electric fields, and this work has quite unexpectedly revealed what looks like a new and mysterious particle. It is reminiscent of the SF of the 1930's where one (...)
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  28. Vítězslav Švejdar (2003). The Decision Problem of Provability Logic with Only One Atom. Archive for Mathematical Logic 42 (8):763-768.score: 12.0
    The decision problem for provability logic remains PSPACE-complete even if the number of propositional atoms is restricted to one.
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  29. Niels Bohr (1958/1987). Essays 1932-1957 on Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge. Ox Bow Press.score: 12.0
    Introduction -- Light and life -- Biology and atomic physics -- Natural philosophy and human cultures -- Discussion with Einstein on epistemological problems in atomic physics -- Unity of knowledge -- Atoms and human knowledge -- Physical science and the problem of life.
     
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  30. E. Di Grezia & S. Esposito (2004). Fermi, Majorana and the Statistical Model of Atoms. Foundations of Physics 34 (9):1431-1450.score: 11.0
  31. Chris Barker (1992). Group Terms in English: Representing Groups as Atoms. Journal of Semantics 9 (1):69-93.score: 10.0
    What do terms such as the committee, the league, and the group of women denote? Pre-theoretically, group terms have a dual personality. On the one hand, the committee corresponds to an entity as ideosyncratic in its properties as any other object; for instance, two otherwise identical committees can vary with respect to the purpose for which they were formed. Call this aspect the group-as-individual. On the other hand, the identity of a group is at least partially determined by the properties (...)
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  32. Niels Bohr (1958). Atoms and Human Knowledge. In Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.. 83--93.score: 10.0
     
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  33. Niels Bohr (1958/2010). Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge. New York, Wiley.score: 10.0
    These articles and speeches by the Nobel Prize-winning physicist date from 1934 to 1958. Rather than expositions on quantum physics, the papers are philosophical in nature, exploring the relevance of atomic physics to many areas of human endeavor. Includes an essay in which Bohr and Einstein discuss quantum and_wave equation theories. 1961 edition.
     
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  34. Joseph Earley (2011). Alan Chalmers: The Scientist's Atom and the Philosopher's Stone: How Science Succeeded and Philosophy Failed to Gain Knowledge of Atoms. Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):79-83.score: 9.0
  35. Richard Bader (2011). On the Non-Existence of Parallel Universes in Chemistry. Foundations of Chemistry 13 (1):11-37.score: 9.0
    This treatise presents thoughts on the divide that exists in chemistry between those who seek their understanding within a universe wherein the laws of physics apply and those who prefer alternative universes wherein the laws are suspended or ‘bent’ to suit preconceived ideas. The former approach is embodied in the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM), a theory based upon the properties of a system’s observable distribution of charge. Science is experimental observation followed by appeal to theory that, (...)
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  36. Bas C. van Fraassen (2009). The Perils of Perrin, in the Hands of Philosophers. Philosophical Studies 143 (1):5 - 24.score: 9.0
    The story of how Perrin’s experimental work established the reality of atoms and molecules has been a staple in (realist) philosophy of science writings (Wesley Salmon, Clark Glymour, Peter Achinstein, Penelope Maddy, …). I’ll argue that how this story is told distorts both what the work was and its significance, and draw morals for the understanding of how theories can be or fail to be empirically grounded.
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  37. Allen Hazen (2000). Relations in Lewis's Framework Without Atoms: A Correction. Analysis 60 (4):351–353.score: 9.0
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  38. Margaret J. Osler (ed.) (1991). Atoms, Pneuma, and Tranquillity: Epicurean and Stoic Themes in European Thought. Cambridge University Press.score: 9.0
    This volume examines the influence that Epicureanism and Stoicism, two philosophies of nature and human nature articulated during classical times, exerted on the development of European thought to the Enlightenment. Although the influence of these philosophies has often been noted in certain areas, such as the influence of Stoicism on the development of Christian thought and the influence of Epicureanism on modern materialism, the chapters in this volume forward a new awareness of the degree to which these philosophies and their (...)
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  39. Shant Shahbazian (2013). Beyond the Orthodox QTAIM: Motivations, Current Status, Prospects and Challenges. [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 15 (3):287-302.score: 9.0
    Recently, the author of this paper and his research team have extended the orthodox quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) to a novel paradigm called the two-component QTAIM (TC-QTAIM). This extended framework enables one to incorporate nuclear dynamics into the AIM analysis as well as performing AIM analysis of the exotic species; positronic and muonic species are a few examples. In present paper, this framework has been reviewed, providing some computational examples with particular emphasis on origins and applications, (...)
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  40. Brian Skyrms (1993). Logical Atoms and Combinatorial Possibility. Journal of Philosophy 60 (5):219-232.score: 9.0
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  41. Susana Gómez López (2007). Atoms and Alchemy Chymistry and the Experimental Origins of the Scientific Revolution. Early Science and Medicine 12 (2):230-232.score: 9.0
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  42. A. Janiak (2000). Space, Atoms and Mathematical Divisibility in Newton. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 31 (2):203-230.score: 9.0
  43. J. E. McGuire (1970). Atoms and the 'Analogy of Nature': Newton's Third Rule of Philosophizing. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part A 1 (1):3-58.score: 9.0
  44. Roger Boudet & Bruno Blaive (2000). Exact Relativistic Calculation with Retardation of the Matrix Elements Used in the Photoeffect of Hydrogenic Atoms. Foundations of Physics 30 (8):1283-1300.score: 9.0
    The general expressions with retardation of the matrix elements for a central potential of the transitions S1/2−P1/2 and S1/2−P3/2 have been established previously for all the cases of degeneracies. Here, they are calculated, for any Z, as combinations of hypergeometric series, for the transitions between 1S1/2 and the continuum (photoeffect). A verification of the results is achieved for the approximation Z2α2≪κ2 by using the integral representation in the complex plane of the confluent hypergeometric functions and the residues theorem.
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  45. William R. Everdell (1999). 25 Centuries of Atoms and Void. Pullman, Bernard, the Atom in the History of Human Thought, Translated by Axel R. Reisinger. Foundations of Chemistry 1 (3):305-309.score: 9.0
  46. Sacha Loeve (2011). Sensible Atoms: A Techno-Aesthetic Approach to Representation. [REVIEW] Nanoethics 5 (2):203-222.score: 9.0
    This essay argues that nano-images would be best understood with an aesthetical approach rather than with an epistemological critique. For this aim, I propose a ‘techno-aesthetical’ approach: an enquiry into the way instruments and machines transform the logic of the sensible itself and not just the way by which it represents something else. Unlike critical epistemology, which remains self-evidently grounded on a representationalist philosophy, the approach developed here presents the advantage of providing a clear-cut distinction between image-as-representation and other modes (...)
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  47. Alan Chalmers (1997). Did Democritus Ascribe Weight to Atoms? Australasian Journal of Philosophy 75 (3):279 – 287.score: 9.0
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  48. Shant Shahbazian (2014). Letter to the Editor: Are There “Really” Atoms in Molecules? [REVIEW] Foundations of Chemistry 16 (1):77-84.score: 9.0
    To be, or not to be, that is the question…In his wonderful Facts and Mysteries, Martinus Veltman terminates a section with an anecdote: “When quarks were not immediately discovered after the introduction by Gell-Mann he took to calling them symbolic, saying they were indices. In the early seventies I met him at CERN and he again said something in that spirit. I then jumped up, coming down with some impact that made the floor tremble, and asked him: Do I look (...)
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  49. Willem A. DeVries (1993). Who Sees with Equal Eye,... Atoms or Systems Into Ruin Hurl'd? Philosophical Studies 71 (2):191-200.score: 9.0
    A comment the paper by Brian McLaughlin in the same volume, this paper raises questions about whether the classicism/connectionism debate is really well-formed.
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  50. A. P. Hazen (1997). Relations in Lewis’s Framework Without Atoms. Analysis 57 (4):243–248.score: 9.0
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