Search results for 'Attitude to Death' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. C. G. Prado (2008). Choosing to Die: Elective Death and Multiculturalism. Cambridge University Press.score: 297.0
    In this book, C. G. Prado addresses the difficult question of when and whether it is rational to end one’s life in order to escape devastating terminal illness. He specifically considers this question in light of the impact of multiculturalism on perceptions and judgments about what is right and wrong, permissible and impermissible. Prado introduces the idea of a “coincidental culture” to clarify the variety of values and commitments that influence decision. He also introduces the idea of a “proxy premise” (...)
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  2. Milton D. Heifetz (1975). The Right to Die: A Neurosurgeon Speaks of Death with Candor. Putnam.score: 288.0
  3. D. Rodríguez-Arias, J. C. Tortosa, C. J. Burant, P. Aubert, M. P. Aulisio & S. J. Youngner (2013). One or Two Types of Death? Attitudes of Health Professionals Towards Brain Death and Donation After Circulatory Death in Three Countries. Medicine, Health Care and Philosophy 16 (3):457-467.score: 285.0
    This study examined health professionals’ (HPs) experience, beliefs and attitudes towards brain death (BD) and two types of donation after circulatory death (DCD)—controlled and uncontrolled DCD. Five hundred and eighty-seven HPs likely to be involved in the process of organ procurement were interviewed in 14 hospitals with transplant programs in France, Spain and the US. Three potential donation scenarios—BD, uncontrolled DCD and controlled DCD—were presented to study subjects during individual face-to-face interviews. Our study has two main findings: (1) (...)
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  4. George J. Annas (2010). Worst Case Bioethics: Death, Disaster, and Public Health. Oxford University Press.score: 243.0
    American healthcare -- Bioterror and bioart -- State of emergency -- Licensed to torture -- Hunger strikes -- War -- Cancer -- Drug dealing -- Toxic tinkering -- Abortion -- Culture of death -- Patient safety -- Global health -- Statue of security -- Pandemic fear -- Bioidentifiers -- Genetic genocide.
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  5. Jeanne Fitzpatrick (2010). A Better Way of Dying: How to Make the Best Choices at the End of Life. Penguin Books.score: 243.0
    Foreword -- Prologue -- Attorney Eileen Fitzpatrick -- Dr. Jeanne Fitzpatrick -- section 1. Death and dying in America -- 1. The need for change : the cautionary tale of Phyllis Shattuck -- Dr. Fitzpatrick tells Phyllis Shattuck's story -- Reflections -- How this book will help -- Lessons to learn -- New name, old concept -- 2. Your right to die -- Your right to die is born : the case of Karen Ann Quinlan -- The Supreme Court (...)
     
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  6. Luc Bovens (2006). The Rhythm Method and Embryonic Death. Journal of Medical Ethics 32 (6):355-356.score: 237.0
    Some proponents of the pro-life movement argue against morning after pills, IUDs, and contraceptive pills on grounds of a concern for causing embryonic death. What has gone unnoticed, however, is that the pro-life line of argumentation can be extended to the rhythm method of contraception as well. Given certain plausible empirical assumptions, the rhythm method may well be responsible for a much higher number of embryonic deaths than some other contraceptive techniques.
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  7. Mary Warnock (2008). Easeful Death: Is There a Case for Assisted Dying? Oxford University Press.score: 216.0
    Fundamental principles : the nature of the dispute -- Types of euthanasia -- Psychiatric assisted suicide -- Neonates -- Incompetent adults -- Human life is sacred -- The slippery slope -- Medical views -- Four methods of easing death and their effect on doctors -- Looking further ahead.
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  8. J. Mahoney (1975). Ethical Aspects of Donor Consent in Transplantation. Journal of Medical Ethics 1 (2):67-70.score: 216.0
    Two recent events have caused renewed anxiety concerning the ethics of donor transplantation. The first is the report of the British Transplantation Society and the second is the Bill introduced by Mr Tam Dalyell MP (see page 61 of this issue) in which he seeks to establish by law that unless an individual in his life time has expressly contracted out his organs may after death be used for transplantation. Dr Mahoney in this paper therefore examines from the point (...)
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  9. L. -C. Huang, C. -H. Chen, H. -L. Liu, H. -Y. Lee, N. -H. Peng, T. -M. Wang & Y. -C. Chang (2013). The Attitudes of Neonatal Professionals Towards End-of-Life Decision-Making for Dying Infants in Taiwan. Journal of Medical Ethics 39 (6):382-386.score: 207.0
    The purposes of research were to describe the neonatal clinicians' personal views and attitudes on neonatal ethical decision-making, to identify factors that might affect these attitudes and to compare the attitudes between neonatal physicians and neonatal nurses in Taiwan. Research was a cross-sectional design and a questionnaire was used to reach different research purposes. A convenient sample was used to recruit 24 physicians and 80 neonatal nurses from four neonatal intensive care units in Taiwan. Most participants agreed with suggesting a (...)
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  10. Robert F. Weir (ed.) (1986). Ethical Issues in Death and Dying. Columbia University Press.score: 207.0
     
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  11. K. Boyd (1977). Attitudes to Death: Some Historical Notes. Journal of Medical Ethics 3 (3):124-128.score: 194.7
    Men have been talking of death from time immemorial - sometimes sublimely in prose and poetry, in painting and sculpture and in music - till silence seemed to fall in the recent past. Now men are again talking about death - interminably but colloquially. They talk on television, on the radio, in books and in pamphlets. Dr Kenneth Boyd therefore finds it entirely timely to offer this historical sketch of attitudes to death. The earlier part of his (...)
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  12. Roger Scruton (1997). From a View to a Death: Culture, Nature and the Huntsman's Art. Environmental Values 6 (4):471 - 481.score: 189.0
    The division between the natural and the artificial is itself artificial. But we continue to yearn for a 'homecoming' to our natural state – which means, to the identity with our environment which was the condition of the hunter-gatherer. Totemism is the thought-process whereby the prey can be simultaneously consecrated as a species, and pursued to the death as an individual. This thought-process has an evident ecological function. The morality of hunting resides in the maintenance of this dual (...). An anthropological explanation is offered of the perceived rituals of hunting, and of 'guiltless killing'. (shrink)
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  13. Jessica S. Dietrich (2001). Dead Parrots Society. American Journal of Philology 123 (1):95-110.score: 180.0
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  14. G. S. Sumi (2001). Impersonating the Dead: Mimes at Roman Funerals. American Journal of Philology 123 (4):559-585.score: 180.0
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  15. Jeffrey Paul Bishop (2011). The Anticipatory Corpse: Medicine, Power, and the Care of the Dying. University of Notre Dame Press.score: 180.0
  16. Stanley Keleman (1974/1975). Living Your Dying. [New York,Random House.score: 180.0
     
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  17. Shinmi Kim & Yunjung Lee (2003). Korean Nurses' Attitudes to Good and Bad Death, Life-Sustaining Treatment and Advance Directives. Nursing Ethics 10 (6):624-637.score: 178.0
    This study was an investigation of which distinctive elements would best describe good and bad death, preferences for life-sustaining treatment, and advance directives. The following elements of a good death were identified by surveying 185 acute-care hospital nurses: comfort, not being a burden to the family, a good relationship with family members, a readiness to die, and a belief in perpetuity. Comfort was regarded as the most important. Distinctive elements of a bad death were: persistent vegetative state, (...)
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  18. Philippe Ariès (1974). Western Attitudes Toward Death: From the Middle Ages to the Present. Baltimore,Johns Hopkins University Press.score: 149.0
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  19. Atsuko Kanai (2009). "Karoshi (Work to Death)" in Japan. Journal of Business Ethics 84 (2):209 - 216.score: 146.0
    Since the collapse of Japan's bubble economy in the early 1990' s, the Japanese economy has only recovered slightly. This has direct implications for employment. Both the seniority wage system and the lifetime employment system, which were popular during the period of economic growth in Japan, unavoidably changed to an outcome-wage system. Now there is greater mobility in employment, increased use of nonregular employees, and diversed working patterns. The problem of karoshi – a potentially fatal syndrome resulting from long work (...)
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  20. Yuh-Jia Chen & Thomas Li-Ping Tang (2006). Attitude Toward and Propensity to Engage in Unethical Behavior: Measurement Invariance Across Major Among University Students. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 69 (1):77 - 93.score: 144.0
    This research examines business and psychology students’ attitude toward unethical behavior (measured at Time 1) and their propensity to engage in unethical behavior (measured at Time 1 and at Time 2, 4 weeks later) using a 15-item Unethical Behavior measure with five Factors: Abuse Resources, Not Whistle Blowing, Theft, Corruption, and Deception. Results suggested that male students had stronger unethical attitudes and had higher propensity to engage in unethical behavior than female students. Attitude at Time 1 predicted Propensity (...)
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  21. John Martin Fischer & Anthony Brueckner (forthcoming). The Evil of Death: A Reply to Yi. Philosophia:1-8.score: 141.0
    In previous work we have presented a reply to the Lucretian Symmetry, which has it that it is rational to have symmetric attitudes toward prenatal and posthumous nonexistence. Our reply relies on Parfit-style thought-experiments. Here we reply to a critique of our approach by Huiyuhl Yi, which appears in this journal: Brueckner and Fischer on the evil of death. We argue that this critique fails to attend to the specific nature of the thought-experiments (and our associated argument). More specifically, (...)
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  22. Ivars Neiders, Vija Sile & Vents Silis (2013). Truth-Telling and the Asymmetry of the Attitude to Truth-Telling to Dying Patients in Latvia. Studia Philosophica Estonica 6 (2):55-78.score: 140.0
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  23. Philippe Ariès (1991/1982). The Hour of Our Death. Oxford University Press.score: 132.0
    This remarkable book--the fruit of almost two decades of study--traces in compelling fashion the changes in Western attitudes toward death and dying from the earliest Christian times to the present day. A truly landmark study, The Hour of Our Death reveals a pattern of gradually developing evolutionary stages in our perceptions of life in relation to death, each stage representing a virtual redefinition of human nature. Starting at the very foundations of Western culture, the eminent historian Phillipe (...)
     
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  24. Pankaj Garg (2008). Parental Attitudes Attribute to the Risk of Death of Newborns and Infants in North India. Developing World Bioethics 8 (1):51–52.score: 129.0
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  25. Berit Støre Brinchmann, Reidun Førde & Per Nortvedt (2002). What Matters to the Parents? A Qualitative Study of Parents' Experiences with Life-and-Death Decisions Concerning Their Premature Infants. Nursing Ethics 9 (4):388-404.score: 127.0
    The aim of this article is to generate knowledge about parents’ participation in life-and-death decisions concerning their very premature and/or critically ill infants in hospital neonatal units. The question is: what are parents’ attitudes towards their involvement in such decision making? A descriptive study design using in-depth interviews was chosen. During the period 1997-2000, 20 qualitative interviews with 35 parents of 26 children were carried out. Ten of the infants died; 16 were alive at the time of the interview. (...)
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  26. Donatella Dolcini (forthcoming). Fear of Death: A Paradox for Believers in Reincarnation? Governare la Paura. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.score: 126.0
    It seems that fearing the death and believing in an almost endless cycle of rebirths is a paradox, but in India it is an actual attitude of the majority of religious local creeds. The painful ways in which death happens, the frightening netherworld in which the dead must be punished, the sad missing of one’s family and friends, the uncertainty of the new form in which the imperishable soul (ātman) might dwell in its new life, all these (...)
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  27. Paul Ricœur (2009). Living Up to Death. University of Chicago Press.score: 124.0
    Living Up to Death consists of one major essay and nine fragments. Composed in 1996, the essay is the kernel of an unrealized book on the subject of mortality.
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  28. Christina Marsden Gillis (2006). “Seeing the Difference”: An Interdisciplinary Approach to Death, Dying, Humanities, and Medicine. [REVIEW] Journal of Medical Humanities 27 (2):105-115.score: 120.0
    This essay explores how strategies integral to inquiry in the humanities provide insights into developing an interdisciplinary approach to studies of death and dying that will be relevant to medical practice as well as to humanistic study. The author asks how we can produce new modes of knowledge in an area where “knowing” is highly problematized and argues that while a putative field of death and dying studies must include a range of disciplinary approaches it must also account (...)
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  29. Roger Scruton (2012). Timely Death. Philosophical Papers 41 (3):421-434.score: 117.0
    Abstract Scientific advances have made the end of life into the primary concern of medicine. But medicine also postpones the end of life, often until the time when we no longer have the mental and physical capacity to deal with it. I argue that we need to develop Nietzsche's idea of timely death, in order to find a moral basis for health care at the end of life, and that the crucial factor is the cultivation of the virtues that (...)
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  30. Ronald De Sousa (2003). Perversion and Death. The Monist 86 (1):90-114.score: 117.0
    When philosophers recommend an attitude to death, no less than when they recommend the correct attitude to sex, we presume such advice to be grounded in rational considerations about what is natural and proper. Two things must follow: first, that there will be room for perverted attitudes to death; second, that some objective facts about death can be found to justify such an evaluation. I explore a parallel between the duality of psychological and biological approaches (...)
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  31. James Warren (2001). Lucretius, Symmetry Arguments, and Fearing Death. Phronesis 46 (4):466-491.score: 114.0
    This paper identifies two possible versions of the Epicurean 'Symmetry argument', both of which claim that post mortem non-existence is relevantly like prenatal non-existence and that therefore our attitude to the former should be the same as that towards the latter. One version addresses the fear of the state of being dead by making it equivalent to the state of not yet being born; the other addresses the prospective fear of dying by relating it to our present retrospective (...) to the time before birth. I argue that only the first of these is present in the relevant sections of Lucretius (DRN 3.832-42, 972-5). Therefore, this argument is not aimed at a prospective fear of death, or a fear of 'mortality'. That particular fear is instead addressed by the Epicureans through the additional premise (found in the Letter to Menoeceus 125) that it is irrational to fear in prospect an event which is known to be painless when present. This still leaves unaddressed the related fear of 'premature death', which is to be removed through the acceptance of Epicurean hedonism. (shrink)
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  32. Jenann Ismael, Death.score: 114.0
    Denial of death We don’t like to think about our deaths, and there are cultural developments – social, technological, economic – that make it easier than ever before to live without constant reminders of our mortality. We hide the evidence of death. We live separately from our old people, and quarantine the dying in hospitals and hospices. It’s impolite to mention death in conversation. We view death not as natural and inevitable stage of life, but as (...)
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  33. Mikel Burley (2012). Atheism and the Gift of Death. Religious Studies 48 (4):533 - 546.score: 114.0
    Richard Beardsmore once argued that, although it is possible for atheists and religious believers alike to regard life as a gift, the regarding of one's own death as a gift is open only to the (Christian) believer. I discuss this interesting contention, and argue that, notwithstanding some important differences between the attitudinal possibilities available to atheists and believers in God, there are at least three senses in which an atheist could regard death as a gift. Two of these (...)
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  34. Alan Cromartie & Quentin Skinner (eds.) (2005). Thomas Hobbes: Writings on Common Law and Hereditary Right: A Dialogue Between a Philosopher and a Student, of the Common Laws of England. Questions Relative to Hereditary Right. Clarendon Press.score: 114.0
    This volume in the Clarendon Edition of the Works of Thomas Hobbes contains A dialogue between a philosopher and a student, of the common laws of England, edited by Alan Cromartie, supplemented by the important fragment on the issue of regal succession, 'Questions relative to Hereditary Right', discovered and edited by Quentin Skinner. The former work is the last of Hobbes's major political writings. As a critique of common law by a great philosopher, it should be essential reading for anybody (...)
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  35. B. K. Putt (2011). Learning to Live Up to Death -- Finally: Ricoeur and Derrida on the Textuality of Immortality. Philosophy and Social Criticism 37 (2):239-247.score: 112.0
    In the ninth fragment of his posthumous work Living Up to Death , Paul Ricoeur reflects on Jacques Derrida’s final interview given to the French newspaper Le Monde just months prior to his death. Although he confesses to a genuine distanciation from Derrida regarding salient aspects of their individual memento mori , he does so within the context of significant concessions of agreement. I argue in this article that their differing positions de facto agree at a critical structural (...)
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  36. Verónica Sierra Blas (2011). The Kiss of Death: Farewell Letters From the Condemned to Death in Civil War and Postwar Spain. The European Legacy 16 (2):167-187.score: 112.0
    Right from the start of the Spanish Civil War, thousands of prisoners were executed by shooting. Today, many of them remain anonymous, but others, thanks to their writing, have passed into history. In the final hours before their execution, these men and women had the chance to write a few farewell letters to their nearest and dearest. These letters, known by historians as ?chapel letters,? passed either through official channels exercising prior censorship or else were sent clandestinely. In their farewell (...)
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  37. David C. Thomasma & Thomasine Kimbrough Kushner (eds.) (1996). Birth to Death: Science and Bioethics. Cambridge University Press.score: 112.0
    Biology has been advancing with explosive pace over the last few years and in so doing has raised a host of ethical issues. This book, aimed at the general reader, reviews the major advances of recent years in biology and medicine and explores their ethical implications. From birth to death the reader is taken on a tour of human biology - covering genetics, reproduction, development, transplantation, aging, dying and also the use of animals in research and the impact of (...)
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  38. Jim Doherty & Janet Dawe (1985). The Relationship Between Development Maturity and Attitude to School Science: An Exploratory Study. Educational Studies 11 (2):93-107.score: 112.0
    This longitudinal study was in the main concerned with the relationship between developmental maturity (in the physiological sense) and attitude to school science, among a group of secondry school children. The sample consisted of 269 boys and girls in a midland secondary school. They were administered a non?verbal intelligence test, a Piagetian conceptual development test, and an attitude to school science scale, in the first and second years. In the fifth year they were again administered the attitude (...)
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  39. Anthony L. Brueckner & John Martin Fischer (1986). Why is Death Bad? Philosophical Studies 50 (2):213-221.score: 108.0
    It seems that, whereas a person's death needn't be a bad thing for him, it can be. In some circumstances, death isn't a "bad thing" or an "evil" for a person. For instance, if a person has a terminal and very painful disease, he might rationally regard his own death as a good thing for him, or at least, he may regard it as something whose prospective occurrence shouldn't be regretted. But the attitude of a "normal" (...)
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  40. Glen Mazis (2008). The World of Wolves: Lessons About the Sacredness of the Surround, Belonging, and the Silent Dialogue of Interdependence and Death, and Speciocide. Environmental Philosophy 5 (2):69-92.score: 108.0
    This essay details wolves’ sense of their surround in terms of how wolves’ perceptual acuities, motor abilities, daily habits, overriding concerns, network of intimate social bonds and relationship to prey gives them a unique sense of space, time, belonging with other wolves, memorial sense, imaginative capacities, dominant emotions (of affection, play, loyalty, hunger, etc.), communicative avenues, partnership with other creatures, and key role in ecological thriving. Wolves are seen to live within a vast sense of aroundness and closeness to aspects (...)
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  41. John Martin Fischer & Anthony Brueckner (2013). The Evil of Death and the Lucretian Symmetry: A Reply to Feldman. Philosophical Studies 163 (3):783-789.score: 108.0
    In previous work we have defended the deprivation account of death’s badness against worries stemming from the Lucretian point that prenatal and posthumous nonexistence are deprivations of the same sort. In a recent article in this journal, Fred Feldman has offered an insightful critique of our Parfitian strategy for defending the deprivation account of death’s badness. Here we adjust, clarify, and defend our strategy for reply to Lucretian worries on behalf of the deprivation account.
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  42. Kathy Behrendt (2007). Reasons to Be Fearful: Strawson, Death and Narrative. Royal Institute of Philosophy Supplement 82 (60):133-.score: 108.0
    I compare and assess two significant and opposing approaches to the self with respect to what they have to say about death: the anti-narrativist, as articulated by Galen Strawson, and the narrativist, as pieced together from a variety of accounts. Neither party fares particularly well on the matter of death. Both are unable to point towards a view of death that is clearly consistent with their views on the self. In the narrativist’s case this inconsistency is perhaps (...)
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  43. Jeffrey Hanson (2010). Returning (to) the Gift of Death: Violence and History in Derrida and Levinas. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 67 (1):1 - 15.score: 108.0
    The purpose of this paper is to establish a proper context for reading Jacques Derrida's The Gift of Death, which, I contend, can only be understood fully against the backdrop of "Violence and Metaphysics." The later work cannot be fully understood unless the reader appreciates the fact that Derrida returns to "a certain Abraham" not only in the name of Kierkegaard but also in the name of Levinas himself. The hypothesis of the reading that follows therefore would be that (...)
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  44. Adrienne Martin, Wanting to Pull Clouds: The Moral Psychology of Hope.score: 108.0
    The extent of the approval with which Western culture views the attitude of hope can scarcely be exaggerated. Hope is seen as that which sustains us through wartime, death camps, slavery, natural disaster, extreme disease and disability—it is a light, a beacon, the last spark that fuels us when all else has failed. Hope is also seen as a moral and spiritual virtue—hoping for moral progress in this world, and salvation in the next, is at the heart of (...)
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  45. L. E. E. Patrick & Germain Grisez (2010). Total Brain Death: A Reply to Alan Shewmon. Bioethics 26 (5):275-284.score: 108.0
    D. Alan Shewmon has advanced a well-documented challenge to the widely accepted total brain death criterion for death of the human being. We show that Shewmon's argument against this criterion is unsound, though he does refute the standard argument for that criterion. We advance a distinct argument for the total brain death criterion and answer likely objections. Since human beings are rational animals – sentient organisms of a specific type – the loss of the radical capacity for (...)
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  46. David James (2011). The 'Self-Positing' Self in Kierkegaard's The Sickness Unto Death. The European Legacy 16 (5):587 - 598.score: 108.0
    In response to the claim that Kierkegaard's highly compressed definition of the self, given near the beginning of The Sickness unto Death, should be understood in Hegelian terms, I show that it can be better understood in terms of an earlier development in the history of German idealism, namely, Fichte's theory of self-consciousness. The notion that the self ?posits? itself found in this theory will be used to explain Kierkegaard's definition of the self, including his rejection of the idea (...)
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  47. L. B. Cebik (1980). The Significance of Death for the Living. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 1 (1):67-83.score: 108.0
    Heidegger''s conception of death as an attitude toward life, overlooked in current literature on death and dying, offers potential for deepening our understanding of the care of non-critically ill patients. By breaking away from the notion of death as an event distinct from life and viewing it as an anticipated possibility at every moment of life, Heidegger provides insight into our attempts to evade death through our fundamental attitudes and value commitments, which in turn determine (...)
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  48. Chien-Hsing Ho (1996). How Not to Avoid Speaking. Journal of Indian Philosophy 24 (5):541-562.score: 108.0
    Mahayana Buddhist philosophers’ attitude toward language is notoriously negative. The transcendental reality is often said to be ineffable. One’s obsession to apprehend the truth through words is an intellectual disease to be cured Attachment to verbal and conceptual proliferation enslaves oneself in the afflictive circle of life and death. Nevertheless, no Buddhist can afford to overlook the significance of language in preaching Buddhist dharmas as well as in day-to-day transactions. The point is not that of keeping silence. Rather, (...)
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  49. Kate Crosby, Andrew Skilton & Amal Gunasena (2012). The Sutta on Understanding Death in the Transmission of Borān Meditation From Siam to the Kandyan Court. Journal of Indian Philosophy 40 (2):177-198.score: 108.0
    This article announces the discovery of a Sinhalese version of the traditional meditation ( borān yogāvacara kammaṭṭhāna ) text in which the Consciousness or Mind, personified as a Princess living in a five-branched tree (the body), must understand the nature of death and seek the four gems that are the four noble truths. To do this she must overcome the cravings of the five senses, represented as five birds in the tree. Only in this way will she permanently avoid (...)
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  50. Mohamed Y. Rady & Joseph L. Verheijde (2013). Brain-Dead Patients Are Not Cadavers: The Need to Revise the Definition of Death in Muslim Communities. [REVIEW] HEC Forum 25 (1):25-45.score: 108.0
    The utilitarian construct of two alternative criteria of human death increases the supply of transplantable organs at the end of life. Neither the neurological criterion (heart-beating donation) nor the circulatory criterion (non-heart-beating donation) is grounded in scientific evidence but based on philosophical reasoning. A utilitarian death definition can have unintended consequences for dying Muslim patients: (1) the expedited process of determining death for retrieval of transplantable organs can lead to diagnostic errors, (2) the equivalence of brain (...) with human death may be incorrect, and (3) end-of-life religious values and traditional rituals may be sacrificed. Therefore, it is imperative to reevaluate the two different types and criteria of death introduced by the Resolution (Fatwa) of the Council of Islamic Jurisprudence on Resuscitation Apparatus in 1986. Although we recognize that this Fatwa was based on best scientific evidence available at that time, more recent evidence shows that it rests on outdated knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon of human death. We recommend redefining death in Islam to reaffirm the singularity of this biological phenomenon as revealed in the Quran 14 centuries ago. (shrink)
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