Search results for 'Attribution' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  2
    Reason Attribution (2012). Derek W STRIJBOS Radboud University Nijmegen Leon C. de BRUIN Ruhr—University of Bochum. Grazer Philosophische Studien, Vol. 86-2012 86:157 - 180.
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  2.  68
    Jonathan Livengood & David Rose (forthcoming). Experimental Philosophy and Causal Attribution. In Justin Sytsma & Wesley Buckwalter (eds.), A Companion to Experimental Philosophy. Blackwell
    Humans often attribute the things that happen to one or another actual cause. In this chapter, we survey some recent philosophical and psychological research on causal attribution. We pay special attention to the relation between graphical causal modeling and theories of causal attribution. We think that the study of causal attribution is one place where formal and experimental techniques nicely complement one another.
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  3.  8
    Darren Schreiber (2012). On Social Attribution: Implications of Recent Cognitive Neuroscience Research for Race, Law, and Politics. Science and Engineering Ethics 18 (3):557-566.
    Interpreting the world through a social lens is a central characteristic of human cognition. Humans ascribe intentions to the behaviors of other individuals and groups. Humans also make inferences about others’ emotional and mental states. This capacity for social attribution underlies many of the concepts at the core of legal and political systems. The developing scientific understanding of the neural mechanisms used in social attribution may alter many earlier suppositions. However, just as often, these new methods will lead (...)
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  4.  20
    Stephan Verschoor & Szilvia Biro (2011). Primacy of Information About Means Selection Over Outcome Selection in Goal Attribution by Infants. Cognitive Science 36 (4):714-725.
    It has been shown that, when observing an action, infants can rely on either outcome selection information (i.e., actions that express a choice between potential outcomes) or means selection information (i.e., actions that are causally efficient toward the outcome) in their goal attribution. However, no research has investigated the relationship between these two types of information when they are present simultaneously. In an experiment that addressed this question directly, we found that when outcome selection information could disambiguate the goal (...)
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  5.  3
    Alastair Matheson (2016). The ICMJE Recommendations and Pharmaceutical Marketing – Strengths, Weaknesses and the Unsolved Problem of Attribution in Publication Ethics. BMC Medical Ethics 17 (1):1-10.
    BackgroundThe International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Recommendations set ethical and editorial standards for article publication in most leading medical journals. Here, I examine the strengths and weaknesses of the Recommendations in the prevention of commercial bias in industry-financed journal literature, on three levels – scholarly discourse, article content, and article attribution.DiscussionWith respect to overall discourse, the most important measures in the ICMJE Recommendations are for enforcing clinical trial registration and controlling duplicate publication. With respect to article content, the (...)
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  6.  44
    J. D. Trout (1991). Belief Attribution in Science: Folk Psychology Under Theoretical Stress. Synthese 87 (June):379-400.
    Some eliminativists have predicted that a developed neuroscience will eradicate the principles and theoretical kinds (belief, desire, etc.) implicit in our ordinary practices of mental state attribution. Prevailing defenses of common-sense psychology infer its basic integrity from its familiarity and instrumental success in everyday social commerce. Such common-sense defenses charge that eliminativist arguments are self-defeating in their folk psychological appeal to the belief that eliminativism is true. I argue that eliminativism is untouched by this simple charge of inconsistency, and (...)
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  7.  6
    Da-Chang Pai, Chi-Shiun Lai, Chih-Jen Chiu & Chin-Fang Yang (2015). Corporate Social Responsibility and Brand Advocacy in Business-to-Business Market: The Mediated Moderating Effect of Attribution. Journal of Business Ethics 126 (4):685-696.
    This paper examines how industrial buyers’ attributions of their suppliers’ actions of corporate social responsibility are related to both the brand advocacy and brand equity. Using a sample of 173 questionnaires gathered in Taiwan, we find that CSR perceptions of industrial buyers are more strongly and positively related to brand advocacy and brand equity when industrial buyers interpret CSR activities of their suppliers as driven more by intrinsic motives and less by extrinsic motives. Furthermore, brand advocacy mediates the interactive effects (...)
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  8.  4
    Travis Conner, Jeffrey Lee Rasmussen & Rajecki (2007). Punish and Forgive: Causal Attribution and Positivity Bias in Response to Cat and Dog Misbehavior. Society and Animals 15 (4):311-328.
    College students judged dog or cat misbehavior via questionnaire items. Common factor analysis yielded 3 dimensions of student response: the sinner ; the sin ; and mercy . Correlations among sinner, sin, and mercy factor scores supported predictions from causal attribution theory. Nevertheless, cross-tabulation analysis revealed that nearly 90% of all respondents endorsed mercy , regardless of the extent to which the animals were seen as sinners , or evaluations of the level of sin . Absolutely high average mercy (...)
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  9.  2
    D. W. Rajecki, Jeffrey Lee Rasmussen & Travis J. Conner (2007). Punish and Forgive: Causal Attribution and Positivity Bias in Response to Cat and Dog Misbehavior. Society and Animals 15 (4):311-328.
    College students judged dog or cat misbehavior via questionnaire items. Common factor analysis yielded 3 dimensions of student response: the sinner ; the sin ; and mercy . Correlations among sinner, sin, and mercy factor scores supported predictions from causal attribution theory. Nevertheless, cross-tabulation analysis revealed that nearly 90% of all respondents endorsed mercy , regardless of the extent to which the animals were seen as sinners , or evaluations of the level of sin . Absolutely high average mercy (...)
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  10.  1
    Thomas Merriam (2003). An Application of Authorship Attribution by Intertextual Distance in English. Corpus 2.
    Une application d’attribution d’auteur au moyen de la distance intertextuelle en anglais Le calcul de distance intertextuelle que C. et D. Labbé appliquent aux textes français peut être utilisé pour différencier les œuvres d’au moins deux auteurs dramatiques contemporains de l’époque élisabéthaine, William Shakespeare et Thomas Middleton. Bien que les 46 textes sous étude, transcrits avec une orthographe moderne, ne soient pas lemmatisés et que seuls des échantillons de textes de même longueur aient été utilisés, les indices de distance (...)
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  11. Gilbert Harman (1999). Moral Philosophy Meets Social Psychology: Virtue Ethics and the Fundamental Attribution Error. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 99 (1999):315-331.
    Ordinary moral thought often commits what social psychologists call 'the fundamental attribution error '. This is the error of ignoring situational factors and overconfidently assuming that distinctive behaviour or patterns of behaviour are due to an agent's distinctive character traits. In fact, there is no evidence that people have character traits in the relevant sense. Since attribution of character traits leads to much evil, we should try to educate ourselves and others to stop doing it.
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  12. Mark Phelan & Wesley Buckwalter (2012). Analytic Functionalism and Mental State Attribution. Philosophical Topics 40 (2):129-154.
    We argue that the causal account offered by analytic functionalism provides the best account of the folk psychological theory of mind, and that people ordinarily define mental states relative to the causal roles these states occupy in relation to environmental impingements, external behaviors, and other mental states. We present new empirical evidence, as well as review several key studies on mental state ascription to diverse types of entities such as robots, cyborgs, corporations and God, and explain how this evidence supports (...)
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  13. Lawrence Rosen & Leonard V. Kaplan (1995). Other Intentions Cultural Contexts and the Attribution of Inner States.
     
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  14.  96
    L. Woolfolk Robert, M. Doris John & M. Darley John (2007). Identification, Situational Constraint, and Social Cognition : Studies in the Attribution of Moral Responsibility. In Joshua Knobe & Shaun Nichols (eds.), Experimental Philosophy. Oxford University Press
    In three experiments we studied lay observers’ attributions of responsibility for an antisocial act (homicide). We systematically varied both the degree to which the action was coerced by external circumstances and the degree to which the actor endorsed and accepted ownership of the act, a psychological state that philosophers have termed ‘identification’. Our findings with respect to identification were highly consistent. The more an actor was identified with an action, the more likely observers were to assign responsibility to the actor, (...)
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  15.  4
    Long-Zeng Wu, Haina Zhang, Randy K. Chiu, Ho Kwong Kwan & Xiaogang He (2014). Hostile Attribution Bias and Negative Reciprocity Beliefs Exacerbate Incivility’s Effects on Interpersonal Deviance. Journal of Business Ethics 120 (2):189-199.
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  16.  3
    Branko Mitrović (2011). Attribution of Concepts and Problems with Anachronism1. History and Theory 50 (3):303-327.
    ABSTRACTMany long‐standing debates about anachronistic concept‐attributions derive from an essentialist understanding of concepts that is often difficult to sustain for metaphysical or epistemological reasons. The intentionalist alternative to essentialism elaborated in this article successfully clarifies and avoids many standard problems with anachronism.
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  17. Laura A. Flashman (2004). Disorders of Insight, Self-Awareness, and Attribution in Schizophrenia. In Bernard D. Beitman & Jyotsna Nair (eds.), Self-Awareness Deficits in Psychiatric Patients: Neurobiology, Assessment, and Treatment. W.W. Norton & Co 129-158.
     
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  18. Robert Briscoe (forthcoming). Bodily Action and Distal Attribution in Sensory Substitution. In Fiona Macpherson (ed.), Sensory Substitution and Augmentation. Proceedings of the British Academy
    According to proponents of the sensorimotor contingency theory of perception (Hurley & Noë 2003, Noë 2004, O’Regan 2011), active control of camera movement is necessary for the emergence of distal attribution in tactile-visual sensory substitution (TVSS) because it enables the subject to acquire knowledge of the way stimulation in the substituting modality varies as a function of self-initiated, bodily action. This chapter, by contrast, approaches distal attribution as a solution to a causal inference problem faced by the subject’s (...)
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  19.  19
    I. Kiraly, B. Jovanovic, W. Prinz, G. Aschersleben & G. Gergely (2003). The Early Origins of Goal Attribution in Infancy. Consciousness and Cognition 12 (4):752-769.
    We contrast two positions concerning the initial domain of actions that infants interpret as goal-directed. The 'narrow scope' view holds that goal-attribution in 6- and 9-month-olds is restricted to highly familiar actions (such as grasping) (). The cue-based approach of the infant's 'teleological stance' (), however, predicts that if the cues of equifinal variation of action and a salient action effect are present, young infants can attribute goals to a 'wide scope' of entities including unfamiliar human actions and actions (...)
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  20.  20
    Antonia Peacocke (forthcoming). Embedded Mental Action in Self-Attribution of Belief. Philosophical Studies:1-25.
    You can come to know that you believe that p partly by reflecting on whether p and then judging that p. Call this procedure “the transparency method for belief.” How exactly does the transparency method generate known self-attributions of belief? To answer that question, we cannot interpret the transparency method as involving a transition between the contents p and I believe that p. It is hard to see how some such transition could be warranted. Instead, in this context, one mental (...)
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  21.  80
    Robert W. Lurz (2011). Belief Attribution in Animals: On How to Move Forward Conceptually and Empirically. [REVIEW] Review of Philosophy and Psychology 2 (1):19-59.
    There is considerable debate in comparative psychology and philosophy over whether nonhuman animals can attribute beliefs. The empirical studies that suggest that they can are shown to be inconclusive, and the main philosophical and empirical arguments that purport to show they cannot are shown to be invalid or weak. What is needed to move the debate and the field forward, it is argued, is a fundamentally new experimental protocol for testing belief attribution in animals, one capable of distinguishing genuine (...)
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  22. Luca Barlassina (2013). Simulation is Not Enough: A Hybrid Model of Disgust Attribution on the Basis of Visual Stimuli. Philosophical Psychology 26 (3):401-419.
    Mindreading is the ability to attribute mental states to other individuals. According to the Theory-Theory (TT), mindreading is based on one's possession of a Theory of Mind. On the other hand, the Simulation Theory (ST) maintains that one arrives at the attribution of a mental state by simulating it in one's own mind. In this paper, I propose a ST-TT hybrid model of the ability to attribute disgust on the basis of visual stimuli such as facial expressions, body postures, (...)
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  23.  88
    Bence Nanay (2010). Morality or Modality?: What Does the Attribution of Intentionality Depend On? Canadian Journal of Philosophy 40 (1):pp. 25-39.
    It has been argued that the attribution of intentional actions is sensitive to our moral judgment. I suggest an alternative, where the attribution of intentional actions depends on modal (and not moral) considerations. We judge a foreseen side-effect of an agent’s intentionally performed action to be intentional if the following modal claim is true: if she had not ignored considerations about the foreseen side-effect, her action might have been different (other things being equal). I go through the most (...)
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  24.  4
    Uku Tooming (forthcoming). Beliefs and Desires: From Attribution to Evaluation. Philosophia:1-11.
    The ability to attribute beliefs and desires is taken by many to be an essential component of human social cognition, enabling us to predict, explain and shape behaviour and other mental states. In this paper, I argue that there are certain basic responses to attributed attitudes which have thus far been overlooked in the study of social cognition, although they underlie many of the moves we make in our social interactions. The claim is that belief and desire attributions allow for (...)
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  25.  43
    Steven E. Boër (2007). Thought-Contents: On the Ontology of Belief and the Semantics of Belief Attribution. Springer.
    This book provides a formal ontology of senses and the belief-relation that grounds the distinction between de dicto, de re, and de se beliefs as well as the opacity of belief reports. According to this ontology, the relata of the belief-relation are an agent and a special sort of object-dependent sense (a "thought-content"), the latter being an "abstract" property encoding various syntactic and semantic constraints on sentences of a language of thought. One bears the belief-relation to a thought-content T just (...)
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  26.  11
    Derek Powell, Zachary Horne, Ángel Pinillos & Keith Holyoak (2015). A Bayesian Framework for Knowledge Attribution: Evidence From Semantic Integration. Cognition 139:92-104.
    We propose a Bayesian framework for the attribution of knowledge, and apply this framework to generate novel predictions about knowledge attribution for different types of “Gettier cases”, in which an agent is led to a justified true belief yet has made erroneous assumptions. We tested these predictions using a paradigm based on semantic integration. We coded the frequencies with which participants falsely recalled the word “thought” as “knew” (or a near synonym), yielding an implicit measure of conceptual activation. (...)
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  27. Nicholas Tebben (2013). Peer Disagreement and the Limits of Coherent Error Attribution. Logos and Episteme 4 (2):179-197.
    I argue that, in an important range of cases, judging that one disagrees with an epistemic peer requires attributing, either to one's peer or to oneself, a failure of rationality. There are limits, however, to how much irrationality one can coherently attribute, either to oneself or to another. I argue that these limitations on the coherent attribution of rational error put constraints on permissible responses to peer disagreement. In particular, they provide reason to respond to one-off disagreements with a (...)
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  28.  2
    Max Palamar, Doan T. Le & Ori Friedman (2012). Acquiring Ownership and the Attribution of Responsibility. Cognition 124 (2):201-208.
    How is ownership established over non-owned things? We suggest that people may view ownership as a kind of credit given to agents responsible for making possession of a non-owned object possible. On this view, judgments about the establishment of ownership depend on attributions of responsibility. We report three experiments showing that people’s judgments about the establishment of ownership are influenced by an agent’s intent and control in bringing about an outcome, factors that also affect attributions of responsibility. These findings demonstrate (...)
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  29.  11
    Gordon Sammut & Mohammad Sartawi (2012). Perspective-Taking and the Attribution of Ignorance. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour 42 (2):181-200.
    Ignorance has been both vilified and celebrated throughout the ages. However, the social sciences have had little to say about this topic over the years. In this paper, we argue that in an age of competing and contrasting worldviews, scholarly attention to ignorance can shed light on interpersonal processes and relational dynamics that occur in encounters between subjects holding different points of view. We discuss data from two studies documenting an attribution of ignorance in social relations that serves to (...)
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  30.  99
    Steven D. Hales (1994). Self-Deception and Belief Attribution. Synthese 101 (2):273-289.
    One of the most common views about self-deception ascribes contradictory beliefs to the self-deceiver. In this paper it is argued that this view (the contradiction strategy) is inconsistent with plausible common-sense principles of belief attribution. Other dubious assumptions made by contradiction strategists are also examined. It is concluded that the contradiction strategy is an inadequate account of self-deception. Two other well-known views — those of Robert Audi and Alfred Mele — are investigated and found wanting. A new theory of (...)
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  31.  13
    S. Clarke (2007). The Fundamental Attribution Error and Harman's Case Against Character Traits. South African Journal of Philosophy 25 (4):350-368.
    Gilbert Harman argues that the warrant for the lay attribution of character traits is completely undermined by the “fundamental attribution error” (FAE). He takes it to have been established by social psychologists, that the FAE pervades ordinary instances of lay person perception. However, examination of recent work in psychology reveals that there are good reasons to doubt that the effects observed in experimental settings, which ground the case for the FAE, pervade ordinary instances of person perception. Furthermore, it (...)
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  32.  5
    Charles Weijer & Akira Akabayashi (2003). Unethical Author Attribution. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 12 (1):124-130.
    I am an M.D/Ph.D. student and work as a research assistant for the director of a division of the school of medicine who is an M.D. He assigned me to research a certain topic and gave me no guidelines or guidance as to how to do it. Nevertheless, I did the research and wrote it up. My supervisor liked the report and said that he thought it was so good that “I would like to offer you the opportunity to publish (...)
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  33.  64
    L. Bortolotti (2002). Consciousness and Intentionality: Models and Modalities of Attribution. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 80 (2):247 – 248.
    Book Information Consciousness and Intentionality: Models and Modalities of Attribution. Edited by Fisette Denis. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Dordrecht. 1999. Pp. viii + 361. Hardback, US$140, £88.
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  34.  54
    John F. Wippel (2003). Norman Kretzmann on Aquinas's Attribution of Will and of Freedom to Create to God. Religious Studies 39 (3):287-298.
    The purpose of this paper is to discuss Norman Kretzmann's account of Aquinas's discussion of will in God. According to Kretzmann, Aquinas's reasoning seems to leave no place for choice on God's part, since, on Aquinas's account, God is not free not to will Himself. And so this leads to the problem about God's willing things other than Himself. On this, Kretzmann finds serious problems with Thomas's position. Kretzmann argues that Aquinas should have drawn necessitarian conclusions from his account of (...)
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  35.  55
    Paul Bloom, Causal Deviance and the Attribution of Moral Responsibility.
    Are current theories of moral responsibility missing a factor in the attribution of blame and praise? Four studies demonstrated that even when cause, intention, and outcome (factors generally assumed to be sufficient for the ascription of moral responsibility) are all present, blame and praise are discounted when the factors are not linked together in the usual manner (i.e., cases of ‘‘causal deviance’’). Experiment 4 further demonstrates that this effect of causal deviance is driven by intuitive gut feelings of right (...)
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  36.  29
    David Hall & Christopher D. Manning, Labeled LDA: A Supervised Topic Model for Credit Attribution in Multi-Labeled Corpora.
    A significant portion of the world’s text is tagged by readers on social bookmarking websites. Credit attribution is an inherent problem in these corpora because most pages have multiple tags, but the tags do not always apply with equal specificity across the whole document. Solving the credit attribution problem requires associating each word in a document with the most appropriate tags and vice versa. This paper introduces Labeled LDA, a topic model that constrains Latent Dirichlet Allocation by defining (...)
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  37.  12
    Rachel A. Ankeny (2014). The Overlooked Role of Cases in Casual Attribution in Medicine. Philosophy of Science 81 (5):999-1011.
    Although cases are central to the epistemic practices utilized within clinical medicine, they appear to be limited in their ability to provide evidence about causal relations because they provide detailed accounts of particular patients without explicit filtering of those attributes most likely to be relevant for explaining the phenomena observed. This paper uses a series of recent case reports to explore the role of cases in casual attribution in medical diagnosis. It is argued that cases are brought together by (...)
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  38.  5
    Anonymous M. D./PhD Student, Charles Weijer & Akira Akabayashi (2003). Unethical Author Attribution. Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics 12 (1):124-130.
    I am an M.D/Ph.D. student and work as a research assistant for the director of a division of the school of medicine who is an M.D. He assigned me to research a certain topic and gave me no guidelines or guidance as to how to do it. Nevertheless, I did the research and wrote it up. My supervisor liked the report and said that he thought it was so good that “I would like to offer you the opportunity to publish (...)
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  39. Daniel M. Wegner, What Do I Think You 'Re Doing? Action Identification and Mind Attribution'.
    The authors examined how a perceiver’s identification of a target person’s actions covaries with attributions of mind to the target. The authors found in Study 1 that the attribution of intentionality and cognition to a target was associated with identifying the target’s action in terms of high-level effects rather than low-level details. In Study 2, both action identification and mind attribution were greater for a liked target, and in Study 3, they were reduced for a target suffering misfortune. (...)
     
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  40.  22
    Garrath Williams (2007). Judges in Our Own Case: Kantian Legislation and Responsibility Attribution. Politics and Ethics Review 3 (1):8-23.
    This paper looks at the attribution of moral responsibility in the light of Kant's claim that the maxims of our actions should be universalizable. Assuming that it is often difficult for us to judge which actions satisfy this test, it suggests one way of translating Kantian morality into practice. Suppose that it is possible to read each action, via its maxim, as a communication addressed to the world: as an attempt to set the terms on which we should interact (...)
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  41.  16
    Matthew Lockard (2013). Implication and Reasoning in Mental State Attribution: Comments on Jane Heal's Theory of Co-Cognition. Philosophical Psychology (5):1-16.
    Implication and reasoning in mental state attribution: Comments on Jane Heal's theory of co-cognition. . ???aop.label???. doi: 10.1080/09515089.2012.730040.
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  42.  2
    Sebastián Figueroa Rubio (2015). Expectations and Attribution of Responsibility. Revus 26:111-128.
    Under the hypothesis that every attribution of responsibility rests on the fact that an expectation has been breached, the author proposes to understand expectations as standards adopted by a community to evaluate specific events and allow the members of the community to search for an explanation of the events which breach expectations. After presenting this way of understanding expectations, their relationship with responsibility is analyzed, having in mind the mentioned hypothesis. To close the paper, the relationship between responsibility and (...)
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  43.  28
    Michael Cholbi (2006). Moral Belief Attribution: A Reply to Roskies. Philosophical Psychology 19 (5):629 – 638.
    I here defend my earlier doubts that VM patients serve as counterexamples to motivational internalism by highlighting the difficulties of belief attribution in light of holism about the mental and by suggesting that a better understanding of the role of emotions in the self-attribution of moral belief places my earlier Davidsonian "theory of mind" argument in a clearer light.
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  44.  23
    Francesco Orilia (1987). Definite Descriptions and Existence Attribution. Topoi 6 (2):133-138.
    The hierarchical analysis of existence attribution is Fregean in its endorsement of senses, understood as guises. Furthermore, the hierarchical analysis makes an essential use of the Russellian analysis (9′) as a means to understand what it is for a sense to present a given entity (cf. biconditional (11) above). The hierarchical analysis, on the other hand, is more general than the Russellian one and hence - in accordance with natural language usage - allows for a wider range of applications.
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  45. Lynn Pasquerella (1988). Brentano and the Direct Attribution Theory. Brentano Studien 1:189-197.
    According to Brentano, what is characteristic of every mental act is the reference to something as an object. The exact nature of an object of our mental acts has, however, been first the subject of steady discussion in Brentano's writings and consecutively gave rise to controversy for contemporary philosophers of mind; e.g. Chisholm, Castañeda. What follows is an elucidation of the relationship between Brentano's final theory of sensation and its interpretation in Chisholm's Direct Attribution theory as a consideration of (...)
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  46.  3
    Carolyn A. Ristau (2011). Cognitive Ethology, Over-Attribution of Agency and Focusing Abilities as They Relate to the Origin of Concepts. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 34 (3):146-147.
    Carey's superb discussion of the origin of concepts is extended into the field of cognitive ethology. I also suggest that agency may be a default mechanism, often leading to over-attribution. The problem therefore becomes one of specifying the conditions in which agency is not attributed. The significance of attentional/focusing abilities on conceptual development is also emphasized.
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  47.  5
    Douglas Walton (2013). An Argumentation Model of Forensic Evidence in Fine Art Attribution. AI and Society 28 (4):509-530.
    In this paper, a case study is conducted to test the capability of the Carneades Argumentation System to model the argumentation in a case where forensic evidence was collected in an investigation triggered by a conflict among art experts on the attribution of a painting to Leonardo da Vinci. A claim that a portrait of a young woman in a Renaissance dress could be attributed to da Vinci was initially dismissed by art experts. Forensic investigations were carried out, and (...)
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  48.  12
    Jane L. McIntyre (1983). Chisholm on Indirect Attribution. Philosophical Studies 43 (3):409 - 414.
    In "the first person" chisholm argues that the primary form of belief is non-Propositional belief about oneself. Belief about others is essentially indirect, Mediated by the attribution of a property to oneself. In this paper I argue that chisholm's account cannot give a non-Circular explanation of various plausible examples of "de re" belief.
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  49.  4
    Carey K. Morewedge, Jesse J. Chandler, Robert Smith, Norbert Schwarz & Jonathan Schooler (2013). Lost in the Crowd: Entitative Group Membership Reduces Mind Attribution. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1195-1205.
    This research examined how and why group membership diminishes the attribution of mind to individuals. We found that mind attribution was inversely related to the size of the group to which an individual belonged . Mind attribution was affected by group membership rather than the total number of entities perceived at once . Moreover, mind attribution to an individual varied with the perception that the individual was a group member. Participants attributed more mind to an individual (...)
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  50.  8
    David A. Leavens (1998). Having a Concept “See” Does Not Imply Attribution of Knowledge: Some General Considerations in Measuring “Theories of Mind”. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):123-124.
    That organisms have a concept “see” does not necessarily entail that they attribute knowledge to others or predict others' behaviors on the basis of inferred mental states. An alternative experimental protocol is proposed in which accurate prediction of the location of an experimenters' impending appearance is contingent upon subjects' attribution of knowledge to the experimenter.
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