Search results for 'Avoidability' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  86
    John Martin Fischer & Neal A. Tognazzini (2010). Blame and Avoidability: A Reply to Otsuka. Journal of Ethics 14 (1):43 - 51.
    In a fascinating recent article, Michael Otsuka seeks to bypass the debates about the Principle of Alternative Possibilities by presenting and defending a different, but related, principle, which he calls the “Principle of Avoidable Blame.” According to this principle, one is blameworthy for performing an act only if one could instead have behaved in an entirely blameless manner. Otsuka claims that although Frankfurt-cases do undermine the Principle of Alternative Possibilities, they do not undermine the Principle of Avoidable Blame. In this (...)
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  2.  14
    Daniel James Speak (1999). Fischer and Avoidability: A Reply to Widerker and Katzoff. Faith and Philosophy 16 (2):239-247.
    In a recent exchange, John M. Fischer and David Widerker have debated whether or not it is appropriate to employ Frankfurt-style examples in efforts to challenge the intuitively plausible “principle of alternative possibilities.” Most recently, David Widerker and Charlotte Katzoff have tried to defend Widerker’s initial claim that such examples beg the question against libertarianism. As a libertarian sympathizer, I would like very much for these arguments to go through. However, I argue here that (1) their “molinist” critique is off-target, (...)
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  3.  31
    David Widerker (1995). Libertarian Freedom and the Avoidability of Decisions. Faith and Philosophy 12 (1):112-118.
    Recently, John Fischer has applied Frankfurt’s well-known counter-example to the principle of alternate possibilities to refute the traditional libertarian position which holds that a necessary condition for an agent’s decision (choice) to be free in the sense of freedom required for moral responsibility is that the decision not be causally determined, and that the agent could have avoided making it. Fischer’s argument has consequently led various philosophers to develop libertarian accounts of freedom which try to dispense with the avoidability (...)
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  4. Michael Otsuka (1998). Incompatibilism and the Avoidability of Blame. Ethics 108 (4):685-701.
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  5. Seth Shabo (2011). Agency Without Avoidability: Defusing a New Threat to Frankfurt's Counterexample Strategy. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (4):505-522.
    In this paper, I examine a new line of response to Frankfurt’s challenge to the traditional association of moral responsibility with the ability to do otherwise. According to this response, Frankfurt’s counterexample strategy fails, not in light of the conditions for moral responsibility per se, but in view of the conditions for action. Specifically, it is claimed, a piece of behavior counts as an action only if it is within the agent’s power to avoid performing it. In so far as (...)
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  6. Carl Knight (2011). Inequality, Avoidability, and Healthcare. Iyyun 60:72-88.
    This review article of Shlomi Segall's Health, Luck, and Justice (Princeton University Press, 2010) addresses three issues: first, Segall’s claim that luck egalitarianism, properly construed, does not object to brute luck equality; second, Segall’s claim that brute luck is properly construed as the outcome of actions that it would have been unreasonable to expect the agent to avoid; and third, Segall’s account of healthcare and criticism of rival views. On the first two issues, a more conventional form of luck egalitarianism (...)
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  7. Charles Leslie Stevenson (1938). Ethical Judgments and Avoidability. Mind 47 (185):45-57.
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  8.  36
    John Gardner & François Tanguay-Renaud (2011). Desert and Avoidability in Self-Defense. Ethics 122 (1):111-134.
  9.  4
    Martin Marchman Andersen (2012). Reasonable Avoidability, Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases. Ethical Perspectives 19.
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  10.  51
    William T. Fontaine (1951). Avoidability and the Contrary-to-Fact Conditional in C. L. Stevenson and C. I. Lewis. Journal of Philosophy 48 (25):783-788.
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  11.  15
    Harry H. Bash (1964). Determinism and Avoidability in Sociohistorical Analysis. Ethics 74 (3):186-200.
  12.  13
    Charlotte Katzoff (1996). Avoidability and Libertarianism. Faith and Philosophy 13 (3):415-421.
    Recently, Widerker has attacked Fischer’s contention that one could use Frankfurt-type counterexamples to the principle of alternative possibilities to show that even from a libertarian viewpoint an agent might be morally responsible for a decision that he could not have avoided. Fischer has responded by: (a) arguing that Widerker’s criticism presupposes the falsity of Molinism and (b) presenting a version of libertarianism which avoids Widerker’s criticism. Here we argue that: (i) Fischer’s first response is unconvincing and undermines Molinism itself; (ii) (...)
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  13.  19
    Robert Audi (1978). Avoidability and Possible Worlds. Philosophical Studies 33 (4):413 - 421.
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  14.  11
    Seth Shabo (2012). Agency Without Avoidability. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (4):505-522.
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  15.  3
    B. J. Diggs (1969). Review: William T. Fontaine, Avoidability and the Contrary-to-Fact Conditional in C. L. Stevenson and C. I. Lewis. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (3):500-500.
  16.  1
    David Widerker (1996). Avoidability And Libertarianism: A Response To Fischer. Faith and Philosophy 39:95-102.
  17.  2
    Jonathan Wolff (2015). Justice and Tragedy: The Avoidability of Health Inequalities. American Journal of Bioethics 15 (3):39-40.
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  18. B. J. Diggs (1969). Fontaine William T.. Avoidability and the Contrary-to-Fact Conditional in C. L. Stevenson and C. I. Lewis. The Journal of Philosophy, Vol. 48 , Pp. 783–788. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (3):500.
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  19. Alfred Mele (2005). Dennett on Freedom. Metaphilosophy 36 (4):414-426.
    This article is my contribution to an author-meets-critics session on Daniel Dennett’s Freedom Evolves (Viking, 2003) at the 2004 meetings of the American Philosophical Association – Pacific Division. Dennett criticizes a view I defend in Autonomous Agents (Oxford University Press, 1995) about the importance of agents’ histories for autonomy, freedom, and moral responsibility and defends a competing view. Our disagreement on this issue is the major focus of this article. Additional topics are manipulation, avoidance, and avoidability.
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  20.  22
    Richard J. Hull (2006). Cheap Listening? – Reflections on the Concept of Wrongful Disability. Bioethics 20 (2):55–63.
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  21. Timothy O'connor (2005). Pastoral Counsel for the Anxious Naturalist: Daniel Dennett's Freedom Evolves. Metaphilosophy 36 (4):436-448.
    The church-going philosopher who settles in for an extended reading of Dan Dennett’s new book will find himself in a familiar circumstance. What one confronts is a lot more like an extended sermon than it is a typical philosophical treatise. And, whatever one’s Sunday morning habits, one can’t help but admire the preaching skills artfully displayed. The delivery is powerful and assured; the argument is streamlined, peppered with evocative and delightful illustrations that will be recalled long after the particular points (...)
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  22.  21
    Lennart Aqvist (2002). Old Foundations for the Logic of Agency and Action. Studia Logica 72 (3):313-338.
    The paper presents an infinite hierarchy of sound and complete axiomatic systems for Two-Dimensional Modal Tense Logic with Historical Necessity, Agents and Acts. A main novelty of these logics is their capacity to represent formally basic action -sentences asserting that such and such an act is performed/omitted by an agent, as well as causative action -sentences asserting that by performing/omitting a certain act, an agent causes that such and such a state-of-affairs is realized. We illustrate how the formal machinery of (...)
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  23.  62
    Tomis Kapitan (1991). Ability and Cognition: A Defense of Compatibilism. Philosophical Studies 63 (August):231-43.
    The use of predicate and sentential operators to express the practical modalities -- ability, control, openness, etc. -- has given new life to a fatalistic argument against determinist theories of responsible agency. A familiar version employs the following principle: the consequences of what is unavoidable (beyond one's control) are themselves unavoidable. Accordingly, if determinism is true, whatever happens is the consequence of events in the remote past, or, of such events together with the laws of nature. But laws and the (...)
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  24.  16
    John Martin Fischer (1995). Libertarianism and Avoid Ability. Faith and Philosophy 12 (1):119-125.
    In previous work, I have claimed that the Frankfurt-style counterexamples to the Principle of Alternative Possibilities work even in a world in which the actual sequence proceeds in a manner congenial to the libertarian. In “Libertarian Freedom and the Avoidability of Decisions,” Widerker criticizes this claim. Here I cast some doubt upon the criticism. Widerker’s critique depends on the falsity of a view held by Molina (and others) about the possibility of non-deterministic grounds for “would-conditionals.” Apart from this point, (...)
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  25.  12
    David Widerker & Ira M. Schnall (2014). The Direct Argument for Incompatibilism. In David Palmer (ed.) Libertarian Free Will, Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 88-106. 88-106.
    Peter van Inwagen's Direct Argument (DA) purports to establish the incompatibility of determinism and moral responsibility, without appealing to the notion of avoidability, a notion on whose analysis compatibilists and incompatibilists disagree. Van Inwagen intended DA to refute compatibilism, or at least to shift the burden of proof onto the compatibilist. In this paper, we offer a critical assessment of DA. We examine a variety of objections to DA due to John Fischer and Mark Ravizza, Ishtiyaque Haji, Seth Shabo, (...)
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  26.  87
    John Martin Fischer, Dennett on Freedom.
    This article is my contribution to an author-meets-critics session on Daniel Dennett’s Freedom Evolves (Viking, 2003) at the 2004 meetings of the American Philosophical Association – Pacific Division. Dennett criticizes a view I defend in Autonomous Agents (Oxford University Press, 1995) about the importance of agents’ histories for autonomy, freedom, and moral responsibility and defends a competing view. Our disagreement on this issue is the major focus of this article. Additional topics are manipulation, avoidance, and avoidability.
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  27.  22
    Philip Mullock (1988). Causing Harm: Criminal Law. [REVIEW] Law and Philosophy 7 (1):67 - 105.
    This paper offers two related things. First, a theory of singular causal statements attributing causal responsibility for a particular harm to a particular agent based on the conjunction of a positive condition (necessitation) and a negative condition (avoidability) which captures the notions of sufficiency and necessity in intuitive ideas about agent causation better than traditional conditio sine qua non based theories. Second, a theory of representation of causal issues in the law. The conceptual framework is that of Game Trees (...)
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  28.  14
    A. Slavny (2014). Nonreciprocity and the Moral Basis of Liability to Compensate. Oxford Journal of Legal Studies 34 (3):417-442.
    This article offers a normative critique of the view, proposed by George Fletcher, that holding one person liable to compensate another for an injury she has caused is justified if it results from a nonreciprocal risk imposition. I briefly attempt to ascertain the moral underpinning of nonreciprocity, considering the concepts of fairness, standing and causation. Concluding that there is no compelling moral rationale for nonreciprocity, I use case analysis to show that two competing considerations—the extent to which either party could (...)
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  29.  14
    Eugene Schlossberger (2006). Setting Premiums Ethically. International Journal of Applied Philosophy 20 (2):331-337.
    Insufficient attention has been paid to the ethics of distributing costs of insurance risk. Seven approaches are articulated: the egalitarian model, the needs/ability model, the loss history model, the statistical model, the causality model, the moral fault model (avoidability interpretation and worldview interpretation), and eclectic models. The ethical dimensions of each model are explored. Although some reasons are given for preferring the eclectic model, the main purpose of the paper is to provide an ethical framework for further discussion of (...)
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  30. A. P. Martinich & David Sosa (eds.) (2011). Analytic Philosophy. John Wiley & Sons.
    Featuring updates and the inclusion of nine new chapters, _Analytic_ _Philosophy: An Anthology, 2nd Edition_ offers a comprehensive and authoritative collection of the most influential readings in analytic philosophy written over the past hundred years. Features broad coverage of analytic philosophy, including such topics as ethics, methodology, and freedom and personal identity Focuses on classic or seminal articles that were especially influential or significant New articles in this edition include “Proof of an External World” by G. E. Moore, “Criteria, Defeasibility, (...)
     
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