Search results for 'Avoidability' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. John Martin Fischer & Neal A. Tognazzini (2010). Blame and Avoidability: A Reply to Otsuka. [REVIEW] Journal of Ethics 14 (1):43 - 51.score: 22.0
    In a fascinating recent article, Michael Otsuka seeks to bypass the debates about the Principle of Alternative Possibilities by presenting and defending a different, but related, principle, which he calls the “Principle of Avoidable Blame.” According to this principle, one is blameworthy for performing an act only if one could instead have behaved in an entirely blameless manner. Otsuka claims that although Frankfurt-cases do undermine the Principle of Alternative Possibilities, they do not undermine the Principle of Avoidable Blame. In this (...)
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  2. Daniel James Speak (1999). Fischer and Avoidability: A Reply to Widerker and Katzoff. Faith and Philosophy 16 (2):239-247.score: 21.0
    In a recent exchange, John M. Fischer and David Widerker have debated whether or not it is appropriate to employ Frankfurt-style examples in efforts to challenge the intuitively plausible “principle of alternative possibilities.” Most recently, David Widerker and Charlotte Katzoff have tried to defend Widerker’s initial claim that such examples beg the question against libertarianism. As a libertarian sympathizer, I would like very much for these arguments to go through. However, I argue here that (1) their “molinist” critique is off-target, (...)
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  3. David Widerker (1995). ``Libertarian Freedom and the Avoidability of Decisions&Quot. Faith and Philosophy 12 (1):112-118.score: 18.0
    Recently, John Fischer has applied Frankfurt’s well-known counter-example to the principle of alternate possibilities to refute the traditional libertarian position which holds that a necessary condition for an agent’s decision (choice) to be free in the sense of freedom required for moral responsibility is that the decision not be causally determined, and that the agent could have avoided making it. Fischer’s argument has consequently led various philosophers to develop libertarian accounts of freedom which try to dispense with the avoidability (...)
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  4. Seth Shabo (2011). Agency Without Avoidability: Defusing a New Threat to Frankfurt's Counterexample Strategy. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (4):505-522.score: 16.0
    In this paper, I examine a new line of response to Frankfurt’s challenge to the traditional association of moral responsibility with the ability to do otherwise. According to this response, Frankfurt’s counterexample strategy fails, not in light of the conditions for moral responsibility per se, but in view of the conditions for action. Specifically, it is claimed, a piece of behavior counts as an action only if it is within the agent’s power to avoid performing it. In so far as (...)
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  5. Carl Knight (2011). Inequality, Avoidability, and Healthcare. Iyyun 60:72-88.score: 16.0
    This review article of Shlomi Segall's Health, Luck, and Justice (Princeton University Press, 2010) addresses three issues: first, Segall’s claim that luck egalitarianism, properly construed, does not object to brute luck equality; second, Segall’s claim that brute luck is properly construed as the outcome of actions that it would have been unreasonable to expect the agent to avoid; and third, Segall’s account of healthcare and criticism of rival views. On the first two issues, a more conventional form of luck egalitarianism (...)
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  6. Charlotte Katzoff (1996). Avoidability and Libertarianism. Faith and Philosophy 13 (3):415-421.score: 16.0
    Recently, Widerker has attacked Fischer’s contention that one could use Frankfurt-type counterexamples to the principle of alternative possibilities to show that even from a libertarian viewpoint an agent might be morally responsible for a decision that he could not have avoided. Fischer has responded by: (a) arguing that Widerker’s criticism presupposes the falsity of Molinism and (b) presenting a version of libertarianism which avoids Widerker’s criticism. Here we argue that: (i) Fischer’s first response is unconvincing and undermines Molinism itself; (ii) (...)
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  7. Michael Otsuka (1998). Incompatibilism and the Avoidability of Blame. Ethics 108 (4):685-701.score: 15.0
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  8. John Gardner & François Tanguay-Renaud (2011). Desert and Avoidability in Self-Defense. Ethics 122 (1):111-134.score: 15.0
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  9. Charles Leslie Stevenson (1938). Ethical Judgments and Avoidability. Mind 47 (185):45-57.score: 15.0
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  10. Robert Audi (1978). Avoidability and Possible Worlds. Philosophical Studies 33 (4):413 - 421.score: 15.0
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  11. William T. Fontaine (1951). Avoidability and the Contrary-to-Fact Conditional in C. L. Stevenson and C. I. Lewis. Journal of Philosophy 48 (25):783-788.score: 15.0
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  12. Seth Shabo (2012). Agency Without Avoidability. Canadian Journal of Philosophy 41 (4):505-522.score: 15.0
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  13. Martin Marchman Andersen (2012). Reasonable Avoidability, Responsibility and Lifestyle Diseases. Ethical Perspectives 19.score: 15.0
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  14. Harry H. Bash (1964). Determinism and Avoidability in Sociohistorical Analysis. Ethics 74 (3):186-200.score: 15.0
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  15. B. J. Diggs (1969). Review: William T. Fontaine, Avoidability and the Contrary-to-Fact Conditional in C. L. Stevenson and C. I. Lewis. [REVIEW] Journal of Symbolic Logic 34 (3):500-500.score: 15.0
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  16. Alfred Mele (2005). Dennett on Freedom. Metaphilosophy 36 (4):414-426.score: 9.0
    This article is my contribution to an author-meets-critics session on Daniel Dennett’s Freedom Evolves (Viking, 2003) at the 2004 meetings of the American Philosophical Association – Pacific Division. Dennett criticizes a view I defend in Autonomous Agents (Oxford University Press, 1995) about the importance of agents’ histories for autonomy, freedom, and moral responsibility and defends a competing view. Our disagreement on this issue is the major focus of this article. Additional topics are manipulation, avoidance, and avoidability.
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  17. Greg Bamford (1989). Popper, Refutation and 'Avoidance' of Refutation. Dissertation, The University of Queenslandscore: 8.0
    Popper's account of refutation is the linchpin of his famous view that the method of science is the method of conjecture and refutation. This thesis critically examines his account of refutation, and in particular the practice he deprecates as avoiding a refutation. I try to explain how he comes to hold the views that he does about these matters; how he seeks to make them plausible; how he has influenced others to accept his mistakes, and how some of the ideas (...)
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  18. Rob van Someren Greve (2013). Objective Consequentialism and Avoidable Imperfections. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 16 (3):481-492.score: 8.0
    There are two distinct views on how to formulate an objective consequentialist account of the deontic status of actions, actualism and possibilism. On an actualist account, what matters to the deontic status of actions is only the value of the outcome an action would have, if performed. By contrast, a possibilist account also takes into account the value of the outcomes that an action could have. These two views come apart in their deontic verdicts when an agent is imperfect in (...)
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  19. Ezio Di Nucci (forthcoming). Avoiding and Alternate Possibilities. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice:1-7.score: 8.0
    Greg Janzen has recently criticised my defence of Frankfurt’s counterexample to the Principle of Alternate Possibilities by arguing that Jones avoids killing Smith in the counterfactual scenario. Janzen’s argument consists in introducing a new thought-experiment which is supposed to be analogous to Frankfurt’s and where the agent is supposed to avoid A-ing. Here I argue that Janzen’s argument fails on two counts, because his new scenario is not analogous to Frankfurt’s and because the agent in his new scenario does not (...)
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  20. John A. Lambie & Kevin L. Baker (2003). Intentional Avoidance and Social Understanding in Repressers and Nonrepressors: Two Functions for Emotion Experience? Consciousness and Emotion 4 (1):17-42.score: 8.0
    Two putative functions of emotion experience ? its roles in intentional action and in social understanding ? were investigated using a group of individuals (repressors) known to have impaired anxiety experience. Repressors, low-anxious, high-anxious, and defensive high-anxious individuals were asked to give a public presentation, and then given the opportunity to avoid the presentation. Repressors were the group most likely to avoid giving the presentation, but were the least likely to give an emotional explanation for their avoidance. By contrast, they (...)
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  21. Grahame R. Dowling (2013). The Curious Case of Corporate Tax Avoidance: Is It Socially Irresponsible? Journal of Business Ethics:1-12.score: 8.0
    In contrast to many aspects of the social responsibility of business, CSR scholarship has been largely silent on the issue of the payment of corporate tax. This is curious because such tax payments are often considered a fundamental and easily measured example of a company’s citizenship behavior. However, because the payment of corporate tax can often be legally avoided, this activity represents a boundary condition for CSR. If the law and CSR suggest that a company should pay its fair share (...)
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  22. John Martin Fischer (1995). Libertarianism and Avoid Ability. Faith and Philosophy 12 (1):119-125.score: 8.0
    In previous work, I have claimed that the Frankfurt-style counterexamples to the Principle of Alternative Possibilities work even in a world in which the actual sequence proceeds in a manner congenial to the libertarian. In “Libertarian Freedom and the Avoidability of Decisions,” Widerker criticizes this claim. Here I cast some doubt upon the criticism. Widerker’s critique depends on the falsity of a view held by Molina (and others) about the possibility of non-deterministic grounds for “would-conditionals.” Apart from this point, (...)
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  23. Gregory A. Miller Jeffrey M. Spielberg, Wendy Heller (2013). Hierarchical Brain Networks Active in Approach and Avoidance Goal Pursuit. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 8.0
    Effective approach/avoidance goal pursuit is critical for attaining long-term health and well-being. Research on the neural correlates of key goal pursuit processes (e.g., motivation) has long been of interest, with lateralization in prefrontal cortex being a particularly fruitful target of investigation. However, this literature has often been limited by a lack of spatial specificity and has not delineated the precise aspects of approach/avoidance motivation involved. Additionally, the relationships among brain regions (i.e., network connectivity) vital to goal pursuit remain largely unexplored. (...)
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  24. Israel Liberzon Rebecca K. Sripada, Sarah N. Garfinkel (2013). Avoidant Symptoms in PTSD Predict Fear Circuit Activation During Multimodal Fear Extinction. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 8.0
    Convergent evidence suggests that individuals with PTSD exhibit exaggerated avoidance behaviors as well as abnormalities in Pavlonian fear conditioning. However, the link between the two features of this disorder is not well understood. In order to probe the brain basis of aberrant extinction learning in PTSD, we administered a multimodal classical fear conditioning/extinction paradigm that incorporated affectively relevant information from two sensory channels (visual and tactile) while participants underwent fMRI scanning. The sample consisted of fifteen OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD. In (...)
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  25. Tatjana Aue, Marie-Eve Hoeppli, Camille Piguet, Virginie Sterpenich & Patrik Vuilleumier (2013). Visual Avoidance in Phobia: Particularities in Neural Activity, Autonomic Responding, and Cognitive Risk Evaluations. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 8.0
    We investigated the neural mechanisms and the autonomic and cognitive responses associated with visual avoidance behavior in spider phobia. Spider phobic and control participants imagined visiting different forest locations with the possibility of encountering spiders, snakes, or birds (neutral reference category). In each experimental trial, participants saw a picture of a forest location followed by a picture of a spider, snake, or bird, and then rated their personal risk of encountering these animals in this context, as well as their fear. (...)
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  26. Eni S. Becker Mike Rinck, Sibel Telli, Isabel L. Kampmann, Marcella L. Woud, Merel Kerstholt, Sarai te Velthuis, Matthias Wittkowski (2013). Training Approach-Avoidance of Smiling Faces Affects Emotional Vulnerability in Socially Anxious Individuals. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7.score: 8.0
    Previous research revealed an automatic behavioral bias in high socially anxious individuals (HSAs): Although their explicit evaluations of smiling faces are positive, they show automatic avoidance of these faces. This is reflected by faster pushing than pulling of smiling faces in an Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT; Heuer, Rinck, & Becker, 2007). The current study addressed the causal role of this avoidance bias for social anxiety. To this end, we used the AAT to train HSAs, either to approach smiling faces or to (...)
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  27. Zara M. Bergström, Max Velmans, Jan de Fockert & Alan Richardson-Klavehn (2007). ERP Evidence for Successful Voluntary Avoidance of Conscious Recollection. Brain Research 1151:119-133.score: 7.0
  28. M. R. D'Amato, Donald Keller & Gerald Biederman (1965). Discriminated Avoidance Learning as a Function of Parameters of Discontinuous Shock. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70 (6):543.score: 7.0
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  29. M. G. King (1972). Inhibition, Reacquisition, and Extinction of Approach in Rats Following Frustrative Nonreward and Approach-Avoidance Conflict. Journal of Experimental Psychology 92 (3):360.score: 7.0
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  30. K. E. Moyer & Richard H. Lindley (1962). Supplementary Report: Effects of Instructions on Extinction and Recovery of a Conditioned Avoidance Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 64 (1):95.score: 7.0
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  31. Arthur L. Brody (1957). Statistical Learning Theory Applied to an Instrumental Avoidance Situation. Journal of Experimental Psychology 54 (4):240.score: 7.0
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  32. Robert J. Innes (1969). Escape and Avoidance as Responses Learned to a Specific Conflict-Produced Drive. Journal of Experimental Psychology 80 (1):78.score: 7.0
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  33. H. D. Kimmel & R. Baxter (1964). Avoidance Conditioning of the GSR. Journal of Experimental Psychology 68 (5):482.score: 7.0
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  34. Fred A. Masterson & Mary Crawford (1982). The Defense Motivation System: A Theory of Avoidance Behavior. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 5 (4):661.score: 7.0
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  35. Carl van Walraven, Alison Jennings & Alan J. Forster (2012). A Meta‐Analysis of Hospital 30‐Day Avoidable Readmission Rates. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice 18 (6):1211-1218.score: 7.0
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  36. Raymond W. Drake & Philip A. Meyer (1972). Immediate Generalized, and Enduring Effectiveness of Punishment and Response Prevention of Human Avoidance Responding. Journal of Experimental Psychology 96 (1):110.score: 7.0
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  37. J. K. Dua & M. J. Dobson (1974). Role of Olfactory Cues in Acquisition and Extinction of Avoidance. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103 (3):461.score: 7.0
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  38. Neal E. Grossen, David J. Kostansek & Robert C. Bolles (1969). Effects of Appetitive Discriminative Stimuli on Avoidance Behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology 81 (2):340.score: 7.0
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  39. Howard S. Hoffman & Morton Fleshler (1963). Discrimination and Stimulus Generalization of Approach, of Avoidance, and of Approach and Avoidance During Conflict. Journal of Experimental Psychology 65 (3):280.score: 7.0
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  40. F. W. Irwin & M. G. Preston (1937). Avoidance of Repetition of Judgments Across Sense Modalities. Journal of Experimental Psychology 21 (5):511.score: 7.0
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  41. H. D. Kimmel, H. S. Sternthal & H. Strub (1966). Two Replications of Avoidance Conditioning of the GSR. Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 (1):151.score: 7.0
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  42. Seymour Levine (1966). UCS Intensity and Avoidance Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 71 (1):163.score: 7.0
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  43. Frank A. Logan (1951). A Comparison of Avoidance and Nonavoidance Eyelid Conditionings. Journal of Experimental Psychology 42 (6):390.score: 7.0
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  44. Dominic W. Massaro & John W. Moore (1967). Differential Classical and Avoidance Eyelid Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 75 (2):151.score: 7.0
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  45. Neal E. Miller & Edward J. Murray (1952). Displacement and Conflict; Learnable Drive as a Basis for the Steeper Gradient of Avoidance Than of Approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (3):227.score: 7.0
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  46. Neal E. Miller & Doris Kraeling (1952). Displacement: Greater Generalization of Approach Than Avoidance in a Generalized Approach-Avoidance Conflict. Journal of Experimental Psychology 43 (3):217.score: 7.0
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  47. K. E. Moyer & James H. Korn (1964). Effect of UCS Intensity on the Acquisition and Extinction of an Avoidance Response. Journal of Experimental Psychology 67 (4):352.score: 7.0
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  48. J. V. Murphy & R. E. Miller (1956). Spaced and Massed Practice with a Methodological Consideration of Avoidance Conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 52 (2):77.score: 7.0
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  49. Marvin Schwartz (1958). Conditioned-Stimulus Variables in Avoidance Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 55 (4):347.score: 7.0
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