102 found
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  1.  18
    Kristian Sandberg, Bert Timmermans, Morten Overgaard & Axel Cleeremans (2010). Measuring Consciousness: Is One Measure Better Than the Other? Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1069-1078.
    What is the best way of assessing the extent to which people are aware of a stimulus? Here, using a masked visual identification task, we compared three measures of subjective awareness: The Perceptual Awareness Scale , through which participants are asked to rate the clarity of their visual experience; confidence ratings , through which participants express their confidence in their identification decisions, and Post-decision wagering , in which participants place a monetary wager on their decisions. We conducted detailed explorations of (...)
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  2.  88
    Anil K. Seth, Zoltan Dienes, Axel Cleeremans, Morten Overgaard & Luiz Pessoa (2008). Measuring Consciousness: Relating Behavioural and Neurophysiological Approaches. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 12 (8):314-321.
  3. Axel Cleeremans, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Maud Boyer (1998). Implicit Learning: News From the Front. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (10):406-416.
    69 Thompson-Schill, S.L. _et al. _(1997) Role of left inferior prefrontal cortex 59 Buckner, R.L. _et al. _(1996) Functional anatomic studies of memory in retrieval of semantic knowledge: a re-evaluation _Proc. Natl. Acad._ retrieval for auditory words and pictures _J. Neurosci. _16, 6219–6235 _Sci. U. S. A. _94, 14792–14797 60 Buckner, R.L. _et al. _(1995) Functional anatomical studies of explicit and 70 Baddeley, A. (1992) Working memory: the interface between memory implicit memory retrieval tasks _J. Neurosci. _15, 12–29 and cognition (...)
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  4. Arnaud Destrebecqz & Axel Cleeremans (2001). Can Sequence Learning Be Implicit? New Evidence with the Process Dissociation Procedure. Psychonomic Bulletin and Review 8 (2):343-350.
    Running head: Implicit sequence learning ABSTRACT Can we learn without awareness? Although this issue has been extensively explored through studies of implicit learning, there is currently no agreement about the extent to which knowledge can be acquired and projected onto performance in an unconscious way. The controversy, like that surrounding implicit memory, seems to be at least in part attributable to unquestioned acceptance of the unrealistic assumption that tasks are process-pure, that is, that a given task exclusively involves either (...)
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  5.  4
    Remigiusz Szczepanowski, Jakub Traczyk, Michał Wierzchoń & Axel Cleeremans (2013). The Perception of Visual Emotion: Comparing Different Measures of Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (1):212-220.
    Here, we explore the sensitivity of different awareness scales in revealing conscious reports on visual emotion perception. Participants were exposed to a backward masking task involving fearful faces and asked to rate their conscious awareness in perceiving emotion in facial expression using three different subjective measures: confidence ratings , with the conventional taxonomy of certainty, the perceptual awareness scale , through which participants categorize “raw” visual experience, and post-decision wagering , which involves economic categorization. Our results show that the CR (...)
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  6.  23
    Michał Wierzchoń, Dariusz Asanowicz, Borysław Paulewicz & Axel Cleeremans (2012). Subjective Measures of Consciousness in Artificial Grammar Learning Task. Consciousness and Cognition 21 (3):1141-1153.
    Consciousness can be measured in various ways, but different measures often yield different conclusions about the extent to which awareness relates to performance. Here, we compare five different subjective measures of awareness in the context of an artificial grammar learning task. Participants expressed their subjective awareness of rules using one of five different scales: confidence ratings , post-decision wagering , feeling of warmth , rule awareness , and continuous scale . All scales were equally sensitive to conscious knowledge. PDW, however, (...)
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  7. Axel Cleeremans & Luis Jimenez (2002). Implicit Learning and Consciousness: A Graded, Dynamic Perspective. In Robert M. French & Axel Cleeremans (eds.), Implicit Learning and Consciousness: An Empirical. Psychology Press
    While the study of implicit learning is nothing new, the field as a whole has come to embody — over the last decade or so — ongoing questioning about three of the most fundamental debates in the cognitive sciences: The nature of consciousness, the nature of mental representation (in particular the difficult issue of abstraction), and the role of experience in shaping the cognitive system. Our main goal in this chapter is to offer a framework that attempts to integrate current (...)
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  8.  17
    Axel Cleeremans & David Servan-Schreiber, Finite State Automata and Simple Recurrent Networks.
    We explore a network architecture introduced by Elman (1988) for predicting successive elements of a sequence. The network uses the pattern of activation over a set of hidden units from time-step 25-1, together with element t, to predict element t + 1. When the network is trained with strings from a particular finite-state grammar, it can learn to be a perfect finite-state recognizer for the grammar. When the network has a minimal number of hidden units, patterns on the hidden units (...)
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  9.  20
    Antoine Pasquali, Bert Timmermans & Axel Cleeremans (2010). Know Thyself: Metacognitive Networks and Measures of Consciousness. Cognition 117 (2):182-190.
  10.  25
    Bert Windey, Wim Gevers & Axel Cleeremans (2013). Subjective Visibility Depends on Level of Processing. Cognition 129 (2):404-409.
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  11.  3
    Bert Windey & Axel Cleeremans (2015). Consciousness as a Graded and an All-or-None Phenomenon: A Conceptual Analysis. Consciousness and Cognition 35:185-191.
  12.  52
    Axel Cleeremans (2008). Consciousness: The Radical Plasticity Thesis. In Rahul Banerjee & B. K. Chakrabarti (eds.), Models of Brain and Mind: Physical, Computational, and Psychological Approaches. Elsevier
    In this chapter, I sketch a conceptual framework which takes it as a starting point that conscious and unconscious cognition are rooted in the same set of interacting learning mechanisms and representational systems. On this view, the extent to which a representation is conscious depends in a graded manner on properties such as its stability in time or its strength. Crucially, these properties are accrued as a result of learning, which is in turn viewed as a mandatory process that always (...)
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  13.  68
    Axel Cleeremans (2014). Connecting Conscious and Unconscious Processing. Cognitive Science 38 (6):1286-1315.
    Consciousness remains a mystery—“a phenomenon that people do not know how to think about—yet” (Dennett, , p. 21). Here, I consider how the connectionist perspective on information processing may help us progress toward the goal of understanding the computational principles through which conscious and unconscious processing differ. I begin by delineating the conceptual challenges associated with classical approaches to cognition insofar as understanding unconscious information processing is concerned, and to highlight several contrasting computational principles that are constitutive of the connectionist (...)
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  14.  58
    Axel Cleeremans (1993). Mechanisms of Implicit Learning: Connectionist Models of Sequence Processing. MIT Press.
    What do people learn when they do not know that they are learning? Until recently, all of the work in the area of implicit learning focused on empirical questions and methods. In this book, Axel Cleeremans explores unintentional learning from an information-processing perspective. He introduces a theoretical framework that unifies existing data and models on implicit learning, along with a detailed computational model of human performance in sequence-learning situations.
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  15.  65
    Michał Wierzchoń, Borysław Paulewicz, Dariusz Asanowicz, Bert Timmermans & Axel Cleeremans (2014). Different Subjective Awareness Measures Demonstrate the Influence of Visual Identification on Perceptual Awareness Ratings. Consciousness and Cognition 27:109-120.
  16.  19
    Astrid Vermeiren & Axel Cleeremans, The Validity of D9 Measures.
    Subliminal perception occurs when prime stimuli that participants claim not to be aware of nevertheless influence subsequent processing of a target. This claim, however, critically depends on correct methods to assess prime awareness. Typically, d9 (‘‘d prime’’) tasks administered after a priming task are used to establish that people are unable to discriminate between different primes. Here, we show that such d9 tasks are influenced by the nature of the target, by attentional factors, and by the delay between stimulus presentation (...)
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  17.  42
    Axel Cleeremans & Zoltán Dienes (2008). Computational Models of Implicit Learning. In Ron Sun (ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Computational Psychology. Cambridge University Press 396--421.
  18. Axel Cleeremans (2006). Computational Correlates of Consciousness. In Steven Laureys (ed.), The Boundaries of Consciousness: Neurobiology and Neuropathology: Progress in Brain Research. Elsevier
    Over the past few years numerous proposals have appeared that attempt to characterize consciousness in terms of what could be called its computational correlates: Principles of information processing with which to characterize the differences between conscious and unconscious processing. Proposed computational correlates include architectural specialization (such as the involvement of specific regions of the brain in conscious processing), properties of representations (such as their stability in time or their strength), and properties of specific processes (such as resonance, (...)
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  19.  39
    Morten Overgaard, Bert Timmermans, Kristian Sandberg & Axel Cleeremans (2010). Optimizing Subjective Measures of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (2):682-684.
    Dienes and Seth (2010) conclude that confidence ratings and post-decision wagering are two comparable and recommendable measures of conscious experience. In a recently submitted paper, we have however found that both methods are problematic and seem less suited to measure consciousness than a direct introspective measure. Here, we discuss the methodology and conclusions put forward by Dienes and Seth, and why we think the two experiments end up with so different recommendations.
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  20. Axel Cleeremans (1997). Principles for Implicit Learning. In Dianne C. Berry (ed.), How Implicit is Implicit Learning? Oxford University Press
    Complete URL to this document: http://srsc.ulb.ac.be/axcWWW/93-Principles.html.
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  21.  67
    Arnaud Destrebecqz, Philippe Peigneux, Steven Laureys, Christian Degueldre, Guy Del Fiore, Joel Aerts, Andre Luxen, Martia Van Der Linden, Axel Cleeremans & Pierre Maquet (2005). The Neural Correlates of Implicit and Explicit Sequence Learning: Interacting Networks Revealed by the Process Dissociation Procedure. Learning and Memory 12 (5):480-490.
    In cognitive neuroscience, dissociating the brain networks that ing—has thus become one of the best empirical situations subtend conscious and nonconscious memories constitutes a through which to study the mechanisms of implicit learning, very complex issue, both conceptually and methodologically.
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  22.  71
    Tiago V. Maia & Axel Cleeremans (2005). Consciousness: Converging Insights From Connectionist Modeling and Neuroscience. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (8):397-404.
  23. Anthony P. Atkinson, Michael S. C. Thomas & Axel Cleeremans (2000). Consciousness: Mapping the Theoretical Landscape. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 4 (10):372-382.
    What makes us conscious? Many theories that attempt to answer this question have appeared recently in the context of widespread interest about consciousness in the cognitive neurosciences. Most of these proposals are formulated in terms of the information processing conducted by the brain. In this overview, we survey and contrast these models. We first delineate several notions of consciousness, addressing what it is that the various models are attempting to explain. Next, we describe a conceptual landscape that addresses how the (...)
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  24. Axel Cleeremans (1998). Implicit Learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 2 (10):406-416.
    Implicit learning is the process through which we become sensitive to certain regularities in the environment (1) in the absence of intention to learn about those regularities (2) in the absence of awareness that one is learning, and (3) in such a way that the resulting knowledge is difficult to express.
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  25.  7
    Anna Anzulewicz, Dariusz Asanowicz, Bert Windey, Borysław Paulewicz, Michał Wierzchoń & Axel Cleeremans (2015). Does Level of Processing Affect the Transition From Unconscious to Conscious Perception? Consciousness and Cognition 36:1-11.
  26.  57
    Axel Cleeremans (2006). Conscious and Unconscious Cognition: A Graded, Dynamic Perspective. International Journal of Psychology.
    Consider the following three situations: learning to perform a complex skill such as gymastics (a stunning demonstration of which participants to ICP 2004 experienced during the opening ceremony), learning a complex game such as the ancient Chinese game of Weichi (more widely known as Go), or learning natural language. What these situations have in common, beyond the sheer complexity of the required skills, is the fact that most of what we learn about each appears to proceed in a manner that (...)
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  27.  83
    Pierre Maquet, Steven Laureys, Philippe Peigneux, Sonia Fuchs, Christophe Petiau, Christophe Phillips, Joel Aerts, Guy Del Fiore, Christian Degueldre, Thierry Meulemans, Andre Luxen, Georges Franck, Martial Van Der Linden, Carlyle Smith & Axel Cleeremans (2000). Experience-Dependent Changes in Cerebral Activation During Human Rem Sleep. Nature Neuroscience 3 (8):831-36.
    Pierre Maquet1,2,6, Steven Laureys1,2, Philippe Peigneux1,2,3, Sonia Fuchs1, Christophe Petiau1, Christophe Phillips1,6, Joel Aerts1, Guy Del Fiore1, Christian Degueldre1, Thierry Meulemans3, André Luxen1, Georges Franck1,2, Martial Van Der Linden3, Carlyle Smith4 and Axel Cleeremans5.
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  28.  5
    Kristian Sandberg, Bo Martin Bibby, Bert Timmermans, Axel Cleeremans & Morten Overgaard (2011). Measuring Consciousness: Task Accuracy and Awareness as Sigmoid Functions of Stimulus Duration. Consciousness and Cognition 20 (4):1659-1675.
    When consciousness is examined using subjective ratings, the extent to which processing is conscious or unconscious is often estimated by calculating task performance at the subjective threshold or by calculating the correlation between accuracy and awareness. However, both these methods have certain limitations. In the present article, we propose describing task accuracy and awareness as functions of stimulus intensity as suggested by Koch and Preuschoff . The estimated lag between the curves describes how much stimulus intensity must increase for awareness (...)
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  29.  54
    Vincian Gaillard, Muriel Vandenberghe, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Axel Cleeremans (2006). First and Third-Person Approaches in Implicit Learning Research. Consciousness and Cognition 15 (4):709-722.
    How do we find out whether someone is conscious of some information or not? A simple answer is “We just ask them”! However, things are not so simple. Here, we review recent developments in the use of subjective and objective methods in implicit learning research and discuss the highly complex methodological problems that their use raises in the domain.
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  30. Axel Cleeremans (forthcoming). Attention and Awareness in Sequence Learning. Proceedings of the Fiftheenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society:227-232.
    referred to as implicit learning (Reber, 1989). Implicit learning contrasts with explicit learning (exhibited for.
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  31. Luis Jimenez, Castor Mendez & Axel Cleeremans (1996). Comparing Direct and Indirect Measures of Sequence Learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology 22 (4):948-969.
    Comparing the relative sensitivity of direct and indirect measures of learning is proposed as the best way to provide evidence for unconscious learning when both conceptual and operative definitions of awareness are lacking. This approach was first proposed by Reingold & Merikle (1988) in the context of subliminal perception. In this paper, we apply it to a choice reaction time task in which the material is generated based on a probabilistic finite-state grammar (Cleeremans, 1993). We show (1) that participants progressively (...)
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  32.  29
    Anne Atas, Astrid Vermeiren & Axel Cleeremans (2013). Repeating a Strongly Masked Stimulus Increases Priming and Awareness. Consciousness and Cognition 22 (4):1422-1430.
  33.  75
    Axel Cleeremans & Tiago V. Maia (2005). Consciousness: Converging Insights From Connectionist Modeling and Neuroscience. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (8):397-404.
    Over the past decade, many findings in cognitive about the contents of consciousness: we will not address neuroscience have resulted in the view that selective what might be called the ‘enabling factors’ for conscious- attention, working memory and cognitive control ness (e.g. appropriate neuromodulation from the brain- stem, etc.). involve competition between widely distributed rep-.
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  34.  36
    Axel Cleeremans & L. JimC)nez (1998). Implicit Sequence Learning: The Truth is in the Details. In Michael A. Stadler & Peter A. Frensch (eds.), Handbook of Implicit Learning. Newbury Park, CA: Sage
    Over the past decade, sequence learning has gradually become a central paradigm through which to study implicit learning. In this chapter, we start by briefly summarizing the results obtained with different variants of the sequence learning paradigm. We distinguish three subparadigms in terms of whether the stimulus material is generated either by following a fixed and repeating sequence (e.g., Nissen & Bullemer, 1987), by relying on a complex set of rules from which one can produce several alternative deterministic sequences (e.g., (...)
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  35.  36
    Cedric Laloyaux, Christel Devue, Stephane Doyen, Elodie David & Axel Cleeremans (2008). Undetected Changes in Visible Stimuli Influence Subsequent Decisions. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):646-656.
    Change blindness—our inability to detect changes in a stimulus—occurs even when the change takes place gradually, without any disruption (Simons et al., 2000). Such gradual changes are more difficult to detect than changes that involve a disruption. Using this method, David et al. (in press) recently showed substantial blindness to changes that involve facial expressions of emotion. In this experiment, we show that people who failed to detect any change in the displays were (1) nevertheless influenced by the changing information (...)
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  36.  66
    Axel Cleeremans (2006). Time, Action, and Consciousness. Human Movement Science.
    Time plays a central role in consciousness, at different levels and in different aspects of information processing. Subliminal perception experiments demonstrate that stimuli presented too briefly to enter conscious awareness are nevertheless processed to some extent. Implicit learning, implicit memory, and conditioning studies suggest that the extent to which memory traces are available for verbal report and for cognitive control is likewise dependent on the time available for processing during acquisition. Differences in the time available for processing also determine not (...)
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  37.  8
    Sébastien Pacton, Pierre Perruchet, Michel Fayol & Axel Cleeremans (2001). Implicit Learning Out of the Lab: The Case of Orthographic Regularities. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 130 (3):401.
  38.  21
    Bert Timmermans, Kristian Sandberg, Axel Cleeremans & Morten Overgaard (2010). Partial Awareness Distinguishes Between Measuring Conscious Perception and Conscious Content: Reply to Dienes and Seth. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (4):1081-1083.
    In their comment on Sandberg, Timmermans, Overgaard, and Cleeremans , Dienes and Seth argue that increased sensitivity of the Perceptual Awareness Scale is a consequence of the scale being less exclusive rather than more exhaustive. According to Dienes and Seth, this is because PAS may measure some conscious content, though not necessarily relevant conscious content, “If one saw a square but was only aware of seeing a flash of something, then one has not consciously seen a square.” In this reply, (...)
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  39. Jean-Christophe Sarrazin, Axel Cleeremans & Patrick Haggard (2008). How Do We Know What We Are Doing?: Time, Intention and Awareness of Action. Consciousness and Cognition 17 (3):602-615.
    Time is a fundamental dimension of consciousness. Many studies of the “sense of agency” have investigated whether we attribute actions to ourselves based on a conscious experience of intention occurring prior to action, or based on a reconstruction after the action itself has occurred. Here, we ask the same question about a lower level aspect of action experience, namely awareness of the detailed spatial form of a simple movement. Subjects reached for a target, which unpredictably jumped to the side on (...)
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  40.  10
    Bruno Berberian & Axel Cleeremans (2010). Endogenous Versus Exogenous Change: Change Detection, Self and Agency. Consciousness and Cognition 19 (1):198-214.
    The goal of this study is to characterize observers’ abilities to discriminate between endogenous and exogenous changes. To do so, we developed a new experimental paradigm. On each trial, participants were shown a dot pattern on the screen. Next, the pattern disappeared and participants were to reproduce it. Changes were surreptuously introduced in the stimulus, either by presenting participants anew with the dot pattern they had themselves produced on the previous trial or by presenting participants with a slightly different dot (...)
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  41.  78
    Axel Cleeremans & John Haynes (1999). Correlating Consciousness: A Vew From Empirical Science. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 3 (209):387-420.
    Research on consciousness is currently enjoying a spectacular revival of interest in the cognitive sciences. From an empirical point of view, the NCC program — the search for the “Neural Correlates of Consciousness” — holds the promise of establishing correlations between physiological and phenomenal states in a way that directly resembles G. T. Fechner´s (1860) so-called “inner psychophysics”. Should the NCC program be entirely successful, we would thus be able to predict phenomenal states based on physiological states. we would be (...)
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  42. Axel Cleeremans, Computational Explorations in Cognitive Neuroscience: Understanding the Mind by Simulating the Brain.
    The goal of computational cognitive neuroscience is to understand how the brain embodies the mind by using biologically based computational models comprised of networks of neuronlike units. This text, based on a course taught by Randall O'Reilly and Yuko Munakata over the past several years, provides an in-depth introduction to the main ideas in the field. The neural units in the simulations use equations based directly on the ion channels that govern the behavior of real neurons and the neural networks (...)
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  43.  18
    Axel Cleeremans, Dick J. Bierman.
    In this paper we explore the extent to which implicit learning is subtended by somatic markers, as evidenced by skin conductance measures. On each trial subjects were asked to decide which ‘word’ from a pair of ‘words’ was the ‘correct’ word. Unknown to subjects, each ‘word’ of a pair was constructed using a different set of rules (grammar ‘A’ and grammar ‘B’). A (monetary) reward was given if the subject choose the ‘word’ from grammar ‘A’. Choosing the grammar ‘B’ word (...)
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  44. Axel Cleeremans & Erik Myin (1999). A Short Review of Consciousness in Action by Susan Hurley. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 3:455-458.
    Consider Susan Hurley's depiction of mainstream views of the mind: "The mind is a kind of sandwich, and cognition is the filling" (p. 401). This particular sandwich (with perception as the bottom loaf and action as the top loaf) tastes foul to Hurley, who devotes most of "Consciousness in Action" to a systematic and sometimes extraordinarily detailed critique of what has otherwise been dubbed "classical" models of the mind. This critique then provides the basis for her alternative proposal, in (...)
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  45.  17
    Axel Cleeremans & John-Dylan Haynes (1999). Correlating Consciousness: A View From Empirical Science. Revue Internationale de Philosophie 53 (209):387-420.
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  46.  88
    Axel Cleeremans (ed.) (2003). The Unity of Consciousness: Binding, Integration, and Dissociation. Oxford University Press.
    Consciousness has many elements, from sensory experiences such as vision and bodily sensation, to nonsensory aspects such as memory and thought. All are presented as experiences of a single subject, and all seem to be contained within a unified field of experience. This unity raises many questions: How do diverse systems in the brain co-operate to produce a unified experience? Are there conditions under which this unity breaks down? Is conscious experience really unified at all? Such questions are addressed (...)
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  47.  76
    Arnaud Destrebecqz, Philippe Peigneux, Steven Laureys, Christian Degueldre, Guy Del Fiore, Joel Aerts, Andre Luxen, Martial van der Linden, Axel Cleeremans & Pierre Maquet (2003). Cerebral Correlates of Explicit Sequence Learning. Cognitive Brain Research 16 (3):391-398.
    Using positron emission tomography (PET) and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measurements, we investigated the cerebral correlates of consciousness in a sequence learning task through a novel application of the Process Dissociation Procedure, a behavioral paradigm that makes it possible to separately assess conscious and unconscious contributions to performance. Results show that the metabolic response in the anterior cingulate / mesial prefrontal cortex (ACC / MPFC) is exclusively and specifically correlated with the explicit component of performance during recollection of a (...)
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  48. Axel Cleeremans (1998). The Other Hard Problem: How to Bridge the Gap Between Subsymbolic and Symbolic Cognition. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (1):22-23.
    The constructivist notion that features are purely functional is incompatible with the classical computational metaphor of mind. I suggest that the discontent expressed by Schyns, Goldstone and Thibaut about fixed-features theories of categorization reflects the growing impact of connectionism, and show how their perspective is similar to recent research on implicit learning, consciousness, and development. A hard problem remains, however: How to bridge the gap between subsymbolic and symbolic cognition.
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  49.  98
    Maud Boyer, Arnaud Destrebecqz & Axel Cleeremans, The Serial Reaction Task: Learning Without Knowing, or Knowing Without Learning?
    Maud Boyer Arnaud Destrebecqz Axel Cleeremans.
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  50.  47
    Muriel Vandenberghe, Nicolas Schmidt, Patrick Fery & Axel Cleeremans (2006). Can Amnesic Patients Learn Without Awareness? New Evidence Comparing Deterministic and Probabilistic Sequence Learning. Neuropsychologia 44 (10):1629-1641.
    Can associative learning take place without awareness? We explore this issue in a sequence learning paradigm with amnesic and control participants, who were simply asked to react to one of four possible stimuli on each trial. Unknown to them, successive stimuli occurred in a sequence. We manipulated the extent to which stimuli followed the sequence in a deterministic manner (noiseless condition) or only probabilistically so (noisy condition). Through this paradigm, we aimed at addressing two central issues: first, we asked whether (...)
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