Upon nitriding ferritic iron-based Fe?Cr?Al alloys, containing a total of 1.50 at. % (Cr?+?Al) alloying elements with varying Cr/Al atomic ratio (0.21?2.00), excess nitrogen uptake occurred, i.e. more nitrogen was incorporated in the specimens than compatible with only inner nitride formation and equilibrium nitrogen solubility of the unstrained ferrite matrix. The amount of excess nitrogen increased with decreasing Cr/Al atomic ratio. The microstructure of the nitrided zone was investigated by X-ray diffraction, electron probe microanalysis, transmission electron microscopy and electron energy (...) loss spectroscopy. Metastable, fine platelet-type, mixed Cr1? x Al x N nitride precipitates developed in the nitrided zone for all of the investigated specimens. The degree of coherency of the nitride precipitates with the surrounding ferrite matrix is discussed in view of the anisotropy of the misfit. Analysis of nitrogen-absorption isotherms, recorded after subsequent pre- and de-nitriding treatments, allowed quantitative differentiation of different types of nitrogen taken up. The amounts of the different types of excess nitrogen as function of the Cr/Al atomic ratio are discussed in terms of the nitride/matrix misfit and the different chemical affinities of Cr and Al for N. The strikingly different nitriding behaviors of Fe?Cr?Al and Fe?Cr?Ti alloys could be explained on this basis. (shrink)
One of the main challenges of quasicrystal science is to elucidate how the quasiperiodic order can extend so far, i.e. up to several centimetres according to the size of the single grains of various alloys routinely grown nowadays [M. Boudard, E. Bourgeat-Lami, M. de Boissieu, et al., Phil. Mag. Lett. 71 11 (1995); Y. Yokoyama, R. Note, A. Kimura, et al., Mater. Trans. JIM 38 943 (1997); A. Langsdorf, and W. Assmus, J. Cryst. Growth 192 152 (1998)]. Noticing that most (...) of the present knowledge on the growth of quasicrystal grains has been collected after their cooling at room temperature, we have carried out the first in situ and real time observation of this peculiar process, which has clearly disclosed both the shape of the growing interface and its defective state. Therefore we have studied the solidification of an AlPdMn alloy giving quasicrystal grains by synchrotron X-ray imaging, combining thereby radiography and X-ray topography techniques. Radiography allowed us to clearly evidence a facetted growth proceeding by lateral motion of ledges at the solid?melt interface and controlled by the interface kinetics, rather than by local heat flow as was widely thought. Thus, a realistic estimate of the kinetic coefficient was deduced from the solid?melt interface undercooling, which indicates that quasicrystal growth is more comparable with the growth of both semiconductors and oxides than with that of pure metals. X-ray topographs, recorded simultaneously with radiographs, revealed that a lot of strain and defects are generated in the quasicrystal grains during their growth, which could be related to the growth process itself and very informative on the origin of the stability of the quasicrystal lattice. (shrink)
This contribution discusses the United Kingdom (UK) government’s regulatory activities related to nanotechnological development. The central question is what other prudent public regulation can learn from the UK government’s regulatory strategy, its regulatory attitude and its large variety of regulatory measures. Other public regulators can learn from the interactive and integrative UK regulatory approach. They can also draw lessons from the critique on the UK government’s regulatory attitude and its problems to cope with specific nanotechnological challenges. These lessons are based (...) on an evaluation of the UK government’s regulatory activities from the viewpoint of prudent regulation. The notion of responsive regulation, which provides basic ideas for the evaluation methodology, refers to a view on prudence that focuses on moral constitutional values. Interestingly, a similar view on prudence has been discussed in nanoethics. (shrink)
Introduction -- Undermining the hermeneutics of suspicion -- The historical emergence of psychological man -- The "religious" therapeutics -- Rieff on Jung's "language of faith" -- Rieff and the hermeneutics of suspicion -- An alternative hermeneutic -- Applying this hermeneutic to depth psychology -- Concluding remarks -- The historical sources of Jung's psychology -- The young metaphysician -- Tempering metaphysical inclinations with a pragmatic standpoint -- The resurgence of metaphysics in Jung's psychology -- Jung's subjectivist argument -- The influence of (...) vitalism -- Individuation and the prospective method -- From the prospective method to a metaphysics of archetypes -- Jung and the Paracelsian theory of knowledge -- The persistence of metaphysical questions -- Hermeneutics and Jung's psychology -- The re-discovery of the psychogenic -- Towards a more adequate understanding of the psychogenic -- The methodological problems facing depth psychology -- The symbolic life -- The "realism of the East" -- The symbol of the self -- The "two kinds of thinking" -- "The transcendent function" -- From signs to symbols -- The practice of the transcendent function -- Definitions from psychological types (1921) -- The symbolic attitude -- Transcendent presence -- Alignment with the self -- Projective psychology and divine transcendence -- The relevance of the dispute between Jung and Buber -- The still point -- The beyond -- Contemporary psychoanalysis and the still point -- Ogden on potential space. (shrink)
Introduction, by H. J. Cargas.--St. Paul and Teilhard de Chardin, by J. H. Adams.--Teilhard and Dante, by M. Gable.--Tennyson and Teilhard, by E. R. August.--Teilhard, neo-Marxism, existentialism, by M. Barthelemy-Madaule.--Whitman, Teilhard, and Jung, by R. Benoit.--C. G. Jung and Teilhard de Chardin, by N. Braybrooke.--Camus and Teilhard, by P. Rosazza.--Bonhoeffer and Teilhard, by C. M. Hegarty.--Voices of convergence: Teilhard, McLuhan, and Brown, by D. J. Leary.
Este trabalho tem por objetivo retomar obra de 1990, intitulada Riobaldo Rosa, a vereda junguiana do Grande sertão, a fim de evidenciar a hipótese de que o romance de João Guimarães Rosa, Grande sertão: veredas comporta uma interpretação junguiana. Essa hipótese visa a demonstrar que a "viagem" de R..