Search results for 'Belnap Nuel' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. N. Belnap, Nuel Belnap Under Carnap's Lamp: Flat Pre-Semantics.score: 1260.0
    “Flat pre-semantics” lets each parameter of truth (etc.) be considered separately and equally, and without worrying about grammatical complications. This allows one to become a little clearer on a variety of philosophical-logical points, such as the usefulness of Carnapian tolerance and the deep relativity of truth. A more definite result of thinking in terms of flat pre-semantics lies in the articulation of some instructive ways of categorizing operations on meanings in purely logical terms in relation to various parameters of (...)
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  2. Nuel Belnap (2006). Presentence, Revision, Truth, and Paradox. [REVIEW] Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 73 (3):705–712.score: 360.0
    Tim Maudiin’s Truth and Paradox (Maudlin 2004, cited here as T&P), a book that is richly endowed with interesting analyses and original theses, chooses to ignore both the prosentential theory of truth from Grover, Camp and Belnap 1975 and the revision theory in its book form, Gupta and Belnap 1993 (The Revision Theory of Truth, henceforth RTT).1 There is no discussion of either theory, nor even any mention of them in the list of references. I offer a pair (...)
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  3. Nuel Belnap (2008). Funny Business in Branching Space-Times: Infinite Modal Correlations. Synthese 164 (1):141 - 159.score: 360.0
    The theory of branching space-times is designed as a rigorous framework for modelling indeterminism in a relativistically sound way. In that framework there is room for "funny business", i.e., modal correlations such as occur through quantummechanical entanglement. This paper extends previous work by Belnap on notions of "funny business". We provide two generalized definitions of "funny business". Combinatorial funny business can be characterized as "absence of prima facie consistent scenarios", while explanatory funny business characterizes situations in which no localized (...)
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  4. Thomas Müller, Nuel Belnap & Kohei Kishida (2008). Funny Business in Branching Space-Times: Infinite Modal Correlations. Synthese 164 (1):141 - 159.score: 360.0
    The theory of branching space-times is designed as a rigorous framework for modelling indeterminism in a relativistically sound way. In that framework there is room for “funny business”, i.e., modal correlations such as occur through quantum-mechanical entanglement. This paper extends previous work by Belnap on notions of “funny business”. We provide two generalized definitions of “funny business”. Combinatorial funny business can be characterized as “absence of prima facie consistent scenarios”, while explanatory funny business characterizes situations in which no localized (...)
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  5. Nuel Belnap & Thomas Müller (2013). BH-CIFOL: Case-Intensional First Order Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic (2-3):1-32.score: 360.0
    This paper follows Part I of our essay on case-intensional first-order logic (CIFOL; Belnap and Müller (2013)). We introduce a framework of branching histories to take account of indeterminism. Our system BH-CIFOL adds structure to the cases, which in Part I formed just a set: a case in BH-CIFOL is a moment/history pair, specifying both an element of a partial ordering of moments and one of the total courses of events (extending all the way into the future) that that (...)
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  6. Nuel Belnap (2003). No-Common-Cause EPR-Like Funny Business in Branching Space-Times. Philosophical Studies 114 (3):199 - 221.score: 360.0
    There is no EPR-like funny business if (contrary to apparent fact)our world is as indeterministic as you wish, but is free from theEPR-like quantum mechanical phenomena such as is sometimes described interms of superluminal causation or correlation between distant events.The theory of branching space-times can be used to sharpen thetheoretical dichotomy between EPR-like funny business and noEPR-like funny business. Belnap (2002) offered two analyses of thedichotomy, and proved them equivalent. This essay adds two more, bothconnected with Reichenbachs principle of (...)
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  7. Tomasz Placek, Nuel Belnap & Kohei Kishida (2013). On Topological Issues of Indeterminism. Erkenntnis:1-34.score: 360.0
    Indeterminism, understood as a notion that an event may be continued in a few alternative ways, invokes the question what a region of chanciness looks like. We concern ourselves with its topological and spatiotemporal aspects, abstracting from the nature or mechanism of chancy processes. We first argue that the question arises in Montague-Lewis-Earman conceptualization of indeterminism as well as in the branching tradition of Prior, Thomason and Belnap. As the resources of the former school are not rich enough to (...)
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  8. Nuel Belnap, Concrete Transitions.score: 360.0
    Following von Wright, ``transitions'' are needed for understanding agency. I indicate how von Wright's account of transitions should be adapted to take account of objective indeterminism, using the idea of branching space-time. The essential point is the need to locate transitions not merely in space-time, but concretely amid the indeterministic, causally structured possibilities of our (only) world. (This is a ``postprint'' of Belnap 1999, as cited in the paper. The page numbers do not, of course, match those of the (...)
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  9. Nuel Belnap (1977). How a Computer Should Think. In G. Ryle (ed.), Contemporary Aspects of Philosophy. Oriel Press Ltd..score: 300.0
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  10. Nuel Belnap, Branching Histories Approach to Indeterminism and Free Will.score: 300.0
    An informal sketch is offered of some chief ideas of the (formal) ``branching histories'' theory of objective possibility, free will and indeterminism. Reference is made to ``branching time'' and to ``branching space-times,'' with emphasis on a theme that they share: Objective possibilities are in Our World, organized by the relation of causal order.
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  11. Nuel Belnap (1992). Branching Space-Time. Synthese 92 (3):385 - 434.score: 300.0
    Branching space-time is a simple blend of relativity and indeterminism. Postulates and definitions rigorously describe the causal order relation between possible point events. The key postulate is a version of everything has a causal origin; key defined terms include history and choice point. Some elementary but helpful facts are proved. Application is made to the status of causal contemporaries of indeterministic events, to how splitting of histories happens, to indeterminism without choice, and to Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen distant correlations.
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  12. Michael Perloff & Nuel Belnap (2011). Future Contingents and the Battle Tomorrow. Review of Metaphysics 64 (3):581-602.score: 300.0
    Using Aristotle's well-known sea battle as our example, we offer a precise, intelligible analysis of future contingent assertions in the presence of indeterminism. After explaining our view of the problem, we present a picture of indeterminism in the context of a tree ofbranching histories. There follows a brief description ofthe semantic bases for our double-time-reference theory of future contingents. We then set out our account. Before concluding, we discuss some ramifications of, and alternatives to, a double-time-reference approach to the problem (...)
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  13. Nuel Belnap (2007). Propensities and Probabilities. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part B 38 (3):593-625.score: 300.0
    Popper’s introduction of ‘‘propensity’’ was intended to provide a solid conceptual foundation for objective single-case probabilities. By considering the partly opposed contributions of Humphreys and Miller and Salmon, it is argued that when properly understood, propensities can in fact be understood as objective single-case causal probabilities of transitions between concrete events. The chief claim is that propensities are well-explicated by describing how they fit into the existing formal theory of branching space-times, which is simultaneously indeterministic and causal. Several problematic examples, (...)
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  14. Nuel Belnap & Mitchell Green (1994). Indeterminism and the Thin Red Line. Philosophical Perspectives 8:365 - 388.score: 300.0
  15. Nuel Belnap, From Newtonian Determinism to Branching-Space-Time Indeterminism.score: 300.0
    Logik, Begriffe, Prinzipien des Handelns (Logic, Concepts, Principles of Action). Thomas Müller/ Albert Newen (eds.), mentis Verlag GmbII, 2007, pp. 13–31.
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  16. Nuel D. Belnap (1982). Display Logic. Journal of Philosophical Logic 11 (4):375-417.score: 300.0
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  17. Nuel Belnap (2009). Truth Values, Neither-True-nor-False, and Supervaluations. Studia Logica 91 (3):305 - 334.score: 300.0
    The first section (§1) of this essay defends reliance on truth values against those who, on nominalistic grounds, would uniformly substitute a truth predicate. I rehearse some practical, Carnapian advantages of working with truth values in logic. In the second section (§2), after introducing the key idea of auxiliary parameters (§2.1), I look at several cases in which logics involve, as part of their semantics, an extra auxiliary parameter to which truth is relativized, a parameter that caters to special kinds (...)
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  18. Nuel D. Belnap (2001). Facing the Future: Agents and Choices in Our Indeterminist World. Oxford University Press on Demand.score: 300.0
    Here is an important new theory of human action, a theory that assumes actions are founded on choices made by agents who face an open future.
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  19. John F. Horty & Nuel Belnap (1995). The Deliberative Stit: A Study of Action, Omission, Ability, and Obligation. [REVIEW] Journal of Philosophical Logic 24 (6):583 - 644.score: 300.0
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  20. Nuel Belnap (1962). Tonk, Plonk and Plink. Analysis 22 (6):130-134.score: 300.0
  21. Dorothy L. Grover, Joseph L. Kamp & Nuel D. Belnap (1975). A Prosentential Theory of Truth. Philosophical Studies 27 (1):73--125.score: 300.0
  22. Nuel Belnap (1993). On Rigorous Definitions. Philosophical Studies 72 (2-3):115 - 146.score: 300.0
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  23. Nuel Belnap & Michael Perloff (1988). Seeing to It That: A Canonical Form for Agentives. Theoria 54 (3):175-199.score: 300.0
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  24. Nuel Belnap, Agents in Branching Space-Times.score: 300.0
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  25. Nuel D. Belnap & Gerald J. Massey (1990). Semantic Holism. Studia Logica 49 (1):67-82.score: 300.0
    A bivalent valuation is snt iff sound (standard PC inference rules take truths only into truths) and non-trivial (not all wffs are assigned the same truth value). Such a valuation is normal iff classically correct for each connective. Carnap knew that there were non-normal snt valuations of PC, and that the gap they revealed between syntax and semantics could be jumped as follows. Let VAL snt be the set of snt valuations, and VAL nrm be the set of normal ones. (...)
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  26. Nuel Belnap (2005). A Theory of Causation: Causae Causantes (Originating Causes) as Inus Conditions in Branching Space-Times. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 56 (2):221-253.score: 300.0
    permits a sound and rigorously definable notion of ‘originating cause’ or causa causans—a type of transition event—of an outcome event. Mackie has famously suggested that causes form a family of ‘inus’ conditions, where an inus condition is ‘an insufficient but non-redundant part of an unnecessary but sufficient condition’. In this essay the needed concepts of BST theory are developed in detail, and it is then proved that the causae causantes of a given outcome event have exactly the structure of a (...)
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  27. Nuel Belnap & László E. Szabó (1996). Branching Space-Time Analysis of the GHZ Theorem. Foundations of Physics 26 (8):989-1002.score: 300.0
    Greenberger. Horne. Shimony, and Zeilinger gave a new version of the Bell theorem without using inequalities (probabilities). Mermin summarized it concisely; but Bohm and Hiley criticized Mermin's proof from contextualists' point of view. Using the branching space-time language, in this paper a proof will be given that is free of these difficulties. At the same time we will also clarify the limits of the validity of the theorem when it is taken as a proof that quantum mechanics is not compatible (...)
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  28. Nuel Belnap, Notes on The.score: 300.0
    Permission is hereby granted until the end of December, 2009 to make single copies of this document as desired, and to make multiple copies for use by teachers or students in any course offered by any school.
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  29. Matthew Weiner & Nuel Belnap (2006). How Causal Probabilities Might Fit Into Our Objectively Indeterministic World. Synthese 149 (1):1--36.score: 300.0
    We suggest a rigorous theory of how objective single-case transition probabilities fit into our world. The theory combines indeterminism and relativity in the “branching space–times” pattern, and relies on the existing theory of causae causantes (originating causes). Its fundamental suggestion is that (at least in simple cases) the probabilities of all transitions can be computed from the basic probabilities attributed individually to their originating causes. The theory explains when and how one can reasonably infer from the probabilities of one “chance (...)
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  30. Nuel Belnap, Two Moves Take Newtonian Determinism to Branching Space-Times.score: 300.0
    “Branching space-times” (BST) is intended as a representation of objective, event-based indeterminism. As such, BST exhibits both a spatio-temporal aspect and an indeterministic “modal” aspect of alternative possible historical courses of events. An essential feature of BST is that it can also represent spatial or space-like relationships as part of its (more or less) relativistic theory of spatio-temporal relations; this ability is essential for the representation of local (in contrast with “global”) indeterminism. This essay indicates how BST might be seen (...)
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  31. Nuel D. Belnap (1982). Gupta's Rule of Revision Theory of Truth. Journal of Philosophical Logic 11 (1):103-116.score: 300.0
  32. Anil Gupta & Nuel Belnap (1987). A Note on Extension, Intension, and Truth. Journal of Philosophy 84 (3):168-174.score: 300.0
  33. Nuel Belnap (1991). Backwards and Forwards in the Modal Logic of Agency. Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 51 (4):777-807.score: 300.0
  34. Nuel Belnap, Some Non-Classical Logics Seen From a Variety of Perspectives.score: 300.0
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  35. Nuel Belnap & Michael Perloff (1992). The Way of the Agent. Studia Logica 51 (3-4):463 - 484.score: 300.0
    The conditional,if an agent did something, then the agent could have done otherwise, is analyzed usingstit theory, which is a logic of seeing to it that based on agents making choices in the context of branching time. The truth of the conditional is found to be a subtle matter that depends on how it is interpreted (e.g., on what otherwise refers to, and on the difference between could and might) and also on whether or not there are busy choosers that (...)
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  36. A. Gupta & N. Belnap (1993). The Revision Theory of Truth. Mit Press.score: 300.0
    In this rigorous investigation into the logic of truth Anil Gupta and Nuel Belnap explain how the concept of truth works in both ordinary and pathological ...
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  37. Nuel Belnap (2012). Newtonian Determinism to Branching Space-Times Indeterminism in Two Moves. Synthese 188 (1):5-21.score: 300.0
    “Branching space-times” (BST) is intended as a representation of objective, event-based indeterminism. As such, BST exhibits both a spatio-temporal aspect and an indeterministic “modal” aspect of alternative possible historical courses of events. An essential feature of BST is that it can also represent spatial or space-like relationships as part of its (more or less) relativistic theory of spatio-temporal relations; this ability is essential for the representation of local (in contrast with “global”) indeterminism. This essay indicates how BST might be seen (...)
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  38. Nuel Belnap (2005). Under Carnap's Lamp: Flat Pre-Semantics. Studia Logica 80 (1):1 - 28.score: 300.0
    “Flat pre-semantics” lets each parameter of truth (etc.) be considered sepa-rately and equally, and without worrying about grammatical complications. This allows one to become a little clearer on a variety of philosophical-logical points, such as the use fulness of Carnapian tolerance and the deep relativity of truth. A more definite result of thinking in terms of flat pre-semantics lies in the articulation of some instructive ways of categorizing operations on meanings in purely logical terms in relation to various parame- ters (...)
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  39. Alan Ross Anderson & Nuel D. Belnap (1962). Tautological Entailments. Philosophical Studies 13 (1-2):9 - 24.score: 300.0
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  40. Nuel Belnap, Notes on the Art of Logic.score: 300.0
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  41. Nuel Belnap & Michael Perloff, In the Realm of Agents.score: 300.0
    Stit theory (a logic of seeing-to-it-that) is applied to cases involving many agents. First treated are complex nestings of stits involving distinct agents. The discussion is driven by the logical impossibility of "a sees to it that b sees to it that Q" in the technical sense, even though that seems to make sense in everyday language, Of special utility are the concepts of "forced choice", of the creation of deontic states, and of probabilities, Second, joint agency, both plain and (...)
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  42. Nuel Belnap (1999). Truth by Ascent. Dialectica 53 (3-4):291–306.score: 300.0
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  43. Nuel Belnap (1991). Before Refraining: Concepts for Agency. [REVIEW] Erkenntnis 34 (2):137 - 169.score: 300.0
    A structure is described that can serve as a foundation for a semantics for a modal agentive construction such as sees to it that Q ([ stit: Q]). The primitives are Tree,,Instant, Agent, choice. Eleven simple postulates governing this structure are set forth and motivated. Tree and encode a picture of branching time consisting of moments gathered into maximal chains called histories. Instant imposes a time-like ordering. Agent consists of agents, and choice assigns to each agent and each moment in (...)
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  44. Nuel Belnap (1990). Declaratives Are Not Enough. Philosophical Studies 59 (1):1 - 30.score: 300.0
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  45. Michael A. McRobbie & Nuel D. Belnap (1979). Relevant Analytic Tableaux. Studia Logica 38 (2):187 - 200.score: 300.0
    Tableau formulations are given for the relevance logics E (Entailment), R (Relevant implication) and RM (Mingle). Proofs of equivalence to modus-ponens-based formulations are vialeft-handed Gentzen sequenzen-kalküle. The tableau formulations depend on a detailed analysis of the structure of tableau rules, leading to certain global requirements. Relevance is caught by the requirement that each node must be used; modality is caught by the requirement that only certain rules can cross a barrier. Open problems are discussed.
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  46. Nuel D. Belnap, An Amendment.score: 300.0
    1. Rescher 1964 — henceforth HR — proposes a way of reasoning from a set of hypotheses which may include both some of our beliefs and also hypotheses contradicting those beliefs. The aim of this paper is to point out what I take to be a fault in Rescher’s proposal, and to suggest a modification of it, using a nonclassical logic, which avoids that fault. The paper neither attacks nor defends the broader aspects of Rescher’s proposal, but merely assumes that (...)
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  47. Nuel D. Belnap & Paul Feyerabend (1974). Memorial Minutes. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1974:XI - XIII.score: 300.0
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  48. Nuel D. Belnap & Richmond H. Thomason (1963). A Rule-Completeness Theorem. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 4 (1):39-43.score: 300.0
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  49. Nuel D. Belnap, Anil Gupta & J. Michael Dunn (1980). A Consecutive Calculus for Positive Relevant Implication with Necessity. Journal of Philosophical Logic 9 (4):343-362.score: 300.0
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  50. Nuel D. Belnap (1972). S-P Interrogatives. Journal of Philosophical Logic 1 (3-4):331-346.score: 300.0
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