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  1. Benjamin Freedman (forthcoming). A Response to Burtchaell: I: The Ethics of Using Human Fetal Tissue. Irb.
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  2. Benjamin Freedman (forthcoming). Cohort-Specific Consent: An Honest Approach to Phase 1 Clinical Cancer Studies. Irb.
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  3. Benjamin Freedman (forthcoming). Scientific Value and Validity as Ethical Requirements for Research: A Proposed Explication. Irb.
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  4. Darryl Macer, Roger A. Balk, Benjamin Freedman & Marie-Claude Goulet (forthcoming). Case Studies: New Creations? Hastings Center Report.
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  5. Benjamin Freedman (2000). The Roles and Responsibilities of the Ethics Consultant: A Retrospective Analysis of Cases. University Publishing.
  6. Stanley H. Shapiro, Charles Weijer & Benjamin Freedman, Reporting the Study Populations of Clinical Trials. Clear Transmission or Static on the Line?
    In contrast to attempts that have been made to measure the clarity of reporting of the methods of clinical trials in journal articles, we report here an attempt to measure the accuracy of methods reporting. We focus in this article on eligibility criteria as a test case for the reporting of clinical trial methods. We examined the reporting of eligibility criteria in the protocol, methods paper (if applicable), journal article, and Clinical Alert for articles appearing in print between January 1988 (...)
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  7. Benjamin Freedman (1999). Duty and Healing: Foundations of a Jewish Bioethic. Routledge.
    Duty and Healing positions ethical issues commonly encountered in clinical situations within Jewish law. The concept of duty is significant in exploring bioethical issues, and this book presents an authentic and non-parochial Jewish approach to bioethics, while it includes critiques of both current secular and Jewish literatures. Among the issues the book explores are the role of family in medical decision-making, the question of informed consent as a personal religious duty, and the responsibilities of caretakers. The exploration of contemporary ethical (...)
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  8. Kathleen C. Glass, Charles Weijer, Denis Cournoyer, Trudo Lemmens, Roberta M. Palmour, Stanley H. Shapiro & Benjamin Freedman, Structuring the Review of Human Genetics Protocols Part-III: Gene Therapy Studies.
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  9. Kathleen Cranley Glass, Charles Weijer, Denis Cournoyer, Trudo Lemmens, Roberta M. Palmour, Stanley H. Shapiro & Benjamin Freedman (1999). Structuring the Review of Human Genetics Protocols. Irb 21.
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  10. Abraham Fuks, Charles Weijer, Benjamin Freedman, Stanley Shapiro, Myriam Skrutkowska & Amina Riaz, A Study in Contrasts: Eligibility Criteria in a Twenty-Year Sample of NSABP and POG Clinical Trials.
    We studied changes in eligibility criteria--the largest impediment to patient accrual--in two samples of clinical trials. Trials from the NSABP (National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Program) and POG (Pediatric Oncology Group) were analyzed. After eliminating duplications, the criteria in each protocol were enumerated and classified according to a novel schema. NSABP trials contained significantly more criteria than POG trials, and added precision criteria (making study populations homogeneous) at a faster rate than POG studies. The difference between NSABP studies (explanatory (...)
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  11. Myrian Skrutkowski, Charles Weijer, Stan Shapiro, Abraham Fuks, Adrian Langleben & Benjamin Freedman (1998). Monitoring Informed Consent in an Oncology Study Posing Serious Risk to Subjects. Irb 20 (6):1-6.
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  12. Charles Weijer, Benjamin Freedman, Stanley Shapiro, Abraham Fuks, Myriam Skrutkowska & Maria Sigurjonsdottir, Assessing the Interpretation of Criteria for Clinical Trial Eligibility: A Survey of Oncology Investigators.
    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether eligibility criteria that exclude the elderly, persons with psychiatric disease, and persons with substance abuse problems from participation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are subjective and hence a source of variability in enrolment decisions and investigator uncertainty. DESIGN: Survey questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: Cancer investigators from the United States and Canada. INTERVENTIONS: Investigators were presented with clinical vignettes from 3 patient categories--eligible, ineligible and uncertain--for each of 5 eligibility criteria--3 subjective and 2 objective--and were asked whether they would (...)
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  13. Benjamin Freedman (1996). Respectful Service and Reverent Obedience: A Jewish View on Making Decisions for Incompetent Parents. Hastings Center Report 26 (4):31-37.
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  14. Benjamin Freedman (1996). Where Are the Heroes of Bioethics? Journal of Clinical Ethics 7 (4):297.
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  15. Benjamin Freedman, Kathleen Cranley Glass & Charles Weijer (1996). Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research II: Ethical, Legal, and Regulatory Myths. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):252-259.
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  16. Benjamin Freedman, Charles Weijer & Kathleen Cranley Glass (1996). Placebo Orthodoxy in Clinical Research I: Empirical and Methodological Myths. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 24 (3):243-251.
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  17. Charles Weijer, Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks, James Robbins, Stanley Shapiro & Myriam Skrutkowska, What Difference Does It Make to Be Treated in a Clinical Trial? A Pilot Study.
    OBJECTIVE: Pilot study to characterize treatment differences between patients treated in clinical trials and those treated in a clinical setting. Previous studies have shown higher survival rates for participants in trials of cancer therapy. This difference is observed even after rates are adjusted for important covariates such as age and stage of disease. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. SETTING: Oncology outpatient department in a tertiary care hospital. PATIENTS: Ninety women 18 to 70 years of age with early-stage breast cancer who were (...)
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  18. Francoise Baylis, Jeanne DesBrisay, Benjamin Freedman, Larry Lowenstein & Susan Sherwin (1994). A Reply to Giles R. Scofield, J.D. HEC Forum 6 (6):371-376.
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  19. Benjamin Freedman (1994). Multicenter Trials and Subject Eligibility: Should Local IRBs Play a Role? Irb 16 (1-2):1.
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  20. Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks & Charles Weijer (1993). In Loco Parentis: Minimal Risk as an Ethical Threshold for Research Upon Children. Hastings Center Report 23 (2):13-19.
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  21. Benjamin Freedman, Charles Weijer & Eugene Bereza (1993). Case Notes and Charting of Bioethical Case Consultations. HEC Forum 5 (3):176-195.
    In summary, the usual elements of a typical health care ethics consultation note might reasonably accommodate the needs and expectations of relevant parties, and would therefore include: 1. identification of the relevant ethical issues, questions, or dilemmas; 2. reference to any relevant facts--medical, nursing, social, psychological, spiritual, legal, political, etc.; 3. a prioritized list of recommendations to improve coordinated care; 4. a clear and concise articulation of relevant arguments, wtih specific reference to the list of recommendations as well as to (...)
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  22. Benjamin Freedman (1992). A Response to a Purported Ethical Difficulty with Randomized Clinical Trials Involving Cancer Patients. Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (3):231.
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  23. Benjamin Freedman (1992). The Slippery-Slope Argument Reconstructed: Response to van der Burg. Journal of Clinical Ethics 3 (4):293-297.
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  24. Benjamin Freedman, Abraham Fuks & Charles Weijer, Demarcating Research and Treatment: A Systematic Approach for the Analysis of the Ethics of Clinical Research.
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  25. Benjamin Freedman & Charles Weijer, [Demarcating Research and Treatment Interventions: A Case Illustration]: Commentary.
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  26. Benjamin Freedman (1991). Violating Confidentiality to Warn of a Risk of HIV Infection: Ethical Work in Progress. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 12 (4).
    The old literature on whether medical confidentiality may be breached to warn a spouse of a risk of contracting syphilis from his/her partner — a deep and rich literature — has become relevant once again in the context of HIV infection and AIDS. This paper examines the reasoning and method employed in: the Catholic approach centered around the patient's (property) right to the secret; a (generic) model of justice, utilizing minimal principles of non-aggression and restitution; and an approach involving the (...)
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  27. Benjamin Freedman (1990). The Titration of Death: A New Sin. Journal of Clinical Ethics 1 (4):275.
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  28. Benjamin Freedman & Kathleen Cranley Glass (1990). Weiss V. Solomon: A Case Study in Institutional Responsibility for Clinical Research. Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics 18 (4):395-403.
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  29. Benjamin Freedman (1989). Nonvalidated Therapies and HIV Disease. Hastings Center Report 19 (3):14-20.
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  30. Benjamin Freedman (1988). Health Professions, Codes, and the Right to Refuse to Treat HIV‐Infectious Patients. Hastings Center Report 18 (2):20-25.
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  31. Benjamin Freedman (1987). The Ethics of Using Human Fetal Tissue--A Response to Burtchaell: I. Irb 10 (6):1-4.
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  32. Benjamin Freedman (1986). Jonathan Glover, What Sort of People Should There Be? Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 6 (3):106-108.
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  33. Benjamin Freedman (1985). Review. [REVIEW] Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 6 (3).
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  34. Michael D. Bayles & Benjamin Freedman (1984). Canada: The Mandarin Bureaucracy. Hastings Center Report 14 (6):17-18.
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  35. Benjamin Freedman (1984). Ruth Macklin, Man, Mind and Morality: The Ethics of Behavior Control Reviewed By. Philosophy in Review 4 (1):26-29.
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  36. Benjamin Freedman (1983). The Eyes of Beholders: Roles and the Distribution of Scarce Medical Resources. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 4 (1).
    A common difficulty with the application of theories of justice to the allocation of medical resources is the assumption that one perspective is primary, whether that privileged perspective be that of the practitioner, on the one hand, or policy analyst on the other. By a discussion of three theories — those of Ramsey, Childress, and Joseph Fletcher — I attempt to show that these perspectives must be treated as related. As a result, values and ethics expressed in micro-allocation should be (...)
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  37. Benjamin Freedman (1982). Medical Ethics and Moral Philosophy. Hastings Center Report 12 (6):44-44.
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  38. Benjamin Freedman (1981). One Philosopher's Experience on an Ethics Committee. Hastings Center Report 11 (2):20-22.
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  39. Benjamin Freedman (1981). The Entity-Restriction of Rights: Notes on a Fashion in Ethics. Metaphilosophy 12 (2):159–168.
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  40. Benjamin Freedman (1981). What Really Makes Professional Morality Different: Response to Martin. Ethics 91 (4):626-630.
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  41. Benjamin Freedman (1980). Leviticus and DNA: A Very Old Look at a Very New Problem. Journal of Religious Ethics 8 (1):105 - 113.
    This paper is an attempt to achieve a moral understanding of recombinant DNA technology through an examination of the Biblical ban on the cross-breeding of species, as that ban was understood by traditional Jewish commentators. By paying close attention to the concept of natural law which some of those commentators employed in this connection, a nuanced response to the modern moral problem can be developed, which is immune to the standard arguments employed against those who rely upon natural law.
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  42. Benjamin Freedman (1978). A Meta-Ethics for Professional Morality. Ethics 89 (1):1-19.
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  43. Benjamin Freedman (1978). Five Red Herrings and an Issue: Response to McCormick. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 3 (3):222-225.
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  44. Benjamin Freedman (1978). On the Rights of the Voiceless. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 3 (3):196-210.
  45. Benjamin Freedman (1977). The Case for Medical Care, Inefficient or Not. Hastings Center Report 7 (2):31-39.
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  46. R. B. Schiffer & Benjamin Freedman (1977). The Last Bed in the ICU. Hastings Center Report 7 (6):21-22.
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  47. Benjamin Freedman (1975). A Moral Theory of Informed Consent. Hastings Center Report 5 (4):32-39.
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