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  1. Bernard Baars, What We Really Know About Consciousness.
    Behaviorism died very slowly in American psychology. Willing to admit only stimuli and responses, narrowly defined, as the contents of its science, it was too limited to be useful in understanding higher organisms. But it seemed for decades to be the only way to eliminate subjectivism and to make psychology scientific. Cracks in behaviorist orthodoxy began to appear 40 years ago, though physiological psychologists never felt themselves bound by its restrictions. By the 1960s psychologists were openly espousing a new 'cognitive' (...)
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  2. Bernard Baars, Chapter Two.
    "It seems that the human mind has first to construct forms independently before we can find them in things ... Knowledge cannot spring from experience alone, but only from a comparison of the inventions of the intellect with observed fact.".
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  3. Bernard Baars, Glossary and Guide to Theoretical Claims.
    absorbed state. (7.7) Empirically, a state like fantasy, selective attention, absent-minded day-dreaming and probably hypnosis, in which conscious experience is unusually resistant to distraction. Theoretically, a case in which access to the Global Workspace (GW) is controlled by a coherent context hierarchy , giving little opportunity for outside information to compete for conscious access (4.32). See als ideomotor theory, access, and options context.
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  4. Bernard Baars, Notices ~ Updates ~ Commentaries.
    Notice #1 (UIU Special Distribution & Readers List) - 1992-97 Notice #2 (Santa Fe Institute letter confirming rcpt of UIU) - 1992 Notice #3 URGENT Machavellian "Gene-Control" (Nov,1998) GLOBAL POPULATION and the NITROGEN CYCLE - The financial environment cannot sustain without the partnership of a healthy biosphere. Revered Images Some lessons are too valuable to be so casually misplaced..
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  5. Bernard Baars, Part IV. Goals and Voluntary Control.
    So far we have considered what it means for something to be conscious. In this section we place these considerations in a larger framework, exploring the uses of consciousness. Thus we move away from a consideration of separate conscious events îï to a concern with conscious îaccessï, îproblem-solvingï and îcontrolï. Chapter 6 describes the commonly observed "triad" of conscious problem assignment, unconscious computation of routine problems, and conscious display of solutions and subgoals. This triadic pattern is observable in many psychological (...)
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  6. Bernard J. Baars (forthcoming). Recovering Consciousness: A Timeline. Science and Consciousness Review.
     
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  7. Bernard J. Baars (2013). A Scientific Approach to Silent Consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    A scientific approach to silent consciousness.
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  8. Bernard J. Baars (2013). Multiple Sources of Conscious Odor Integration and Propagation in Olfactory Cortex. Frontiers in Psychology 4:930.
    Multiple sources of conscious odor integration and propagation in olfactory cortex.
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  9. Melanie Boly, Anil K. Seth, Melanie Wilke, Paul Ingmundson, Bernard Baars, Steven Laureys, David Edelman & Naotsugu Tsuchiya (2013). Consciousness in Humans and Non-Human Animals: Recent Advances and Future Directions. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    This joint article reflects the authors’ personal views regarding noteworthy advances in the neuroscience of consciousness in the last ten years, and suggests what we feel may be promising future directions. It is based on a small conference at the Samoset Resort in Rockport, Maine, USA, in July of 2012, organized by the Mind Science Foundation of San Antonio, Texas. Here, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of subjectivity in humans and other animals, including empirical, applied, technical and conceptual (...)
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  10. Gerald M. Edelman, Joseph A. Gally & Bernard J. Baars (2011). Biology of Consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology 2.
    The Dynamic Core and Global Workspace hypotheses were independently put forward to provide mechanistic and biologically plausible accounts of how brains generate conscious mental content. The Dynamic Core proposes that reentrant neural activity in the thalamocortical system gives rise to conscious experience. Global Workspace reconciles the limited capacity of momentary conscious content with the vast repertoire of long term memory. In this paper we show the close relationship between the two hypotheses. This relationship allows for a strictly biological account of (...)
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  11. Henri Montandon & Bernard Baars (2011). Shut Up and Calculate! International Journal of Machine Consciousness 3 (02):367-374.
  12. Bernard J. Baars (2009). Is Feeling Pain Just Mindreading? Our Mind-Brain Constructs Realistic Knowledge of Ourselves. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):139-140.
    Carruthers claims that (target article,). This may be true in many cases. But like other constructivist claims, it fails to explain occasions when constructed knowledge is accurate, like a well-supported scientific theory. People can know their surrounding world and to some extent themselves. Accurate self-knowledge is firmly established for both somatosensory and social pain.
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  13. Bernard J. Baars & Stan Franklin (2009). Consciousness is Computational: The Lida Model of Global Workspace Theory. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (01):23-32.
  14. Stan Franklin, Sidney D'Mello, Bernard J. Baars & Uma Ramamurthy (2009). Evolutionary Pressures for Perceptual Stability and Self as Guides to Machine Consciousness. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (01):99-110.
  15. Bernard Baars (2008). Velasquez and the Postmodern Circle of Mirrors. Journal of Consciousness Studies 15 (9):35-39.
    I agree with Uzi Awret that Diego Velasquez's seminal painting, Las Meninas, is an expression of self-consciousness in many different ways. But my first response was to the feeling tone Velasquez evokes in his work, which felt dark and rather grim to me. I think this painting may be a meditation on the mortification of the flesh, a theme that was surely familiar to Velasquez. It is a contemplation of human vanity. Self-consciousness is not just a cognitive act. The so-called (...)
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  16. Bernard J. Baars (2008). Conscious Contents Provide Coherent, Global Information. In Hans Liljenström & Peter Århem (eds.), Consciousness Transitions: Phylogenetic, Ontogenetic, and Physiological Aspects. Elsevier.
     
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  17. Bernard J. Baars (2007). The Global Workspace Theory of Consciousness. In Max Velmans & Susan Schneider (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Blackwell. 236--246.
  18. Bernard J. Baars, Uma Ramamurthy & Stan Franklin (2007). How Deliberate, Spontaneous, and Unwanted Memories Emerge in a Computational Model of Consciousness. In John H. Mace (ed.), Involuntary Memory. New Perspectives in Cognitive Psychology. Blackwell Publishing. 177-207.
  19. Katherine McGovern & Bernard J. Baars (2007). Cognitive Theories of Consciousness. In Philip David Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch & Evan Thompson (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Cambridge. 177--205.
  20. Murray Shanahan & Bernard Baars (2007). Global Workspace Theory Emerges Unscathed. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 30 (5-6):524-525.
    Our aim in this reply is to defend Global Workspace theory (GWT) from the challenge of Block's article. We argue that Block's article relies on an outdated and imprecise concept of access, and perpetuates a common misunderstanding of GWT that conflates the global workspace with working memory. In the light of the relevant clarifications, Block's conclusion turns out to be unwarranted, and the basic tenets of GWT emerge unscathed.
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  21. Bernard J. Baars (2006). Conscious Cognition and Blackboard Architectures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (1):70-71.
    van der Velde & de Kamps make a case for neural blackboard architectures to address four questions raised by human language. Unfortunately, they neglect a sizable literature relating blackboard architectures to other fundamental cognitive questions, specifically consciousness and voluntary control. Called “global workspace theory,” this literature integrates a large body of brain and behavioral evidence to come to converging conclusions.
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  22. Bernard J. Baars (2006). Global Workspace Theory of Consciousness: Toward a Cognitive Neuroscience of Human Experience? In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.
  23. Bernard J. Baars (2005). Subjective Experience is Probably Not Limited to Humans: The Evidence From Neurobiology and Behavior. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):7-21.
  24. Bernard J. Baars & Steven Laureys (2005). One, Not Two, Neural Correlates of Consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (6):269.
  25. D. B. Edelman, Bernard J. Baars & Anil K. Seth (2005). Identifying Hallmarks of Consciousness in Non-Mammalian Species. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):169-87.
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  26. Ralph J. Greenspan & Bernard J. Baars (2005). Consciousness Eclipsed: Jacques Loeb, Ivan P. Pavlov, and the Rise of Reductionistic Biology After 1900. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):219-230.
  27. Anil K. Seth & Bernard J. Baars (2005). Neural Darwinism and Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):140-168.
    Neural Darwinism (ND) is a large scale selectionist theory of brain development and function that has been hypothesized to relate to consciousness. According to ND, consciousness is entailed by reentrant interactions among neuronal populations in the thalamocortical system (the ‘dynamic core’). These interactions, which permit high-order discriminations among possible core states, confer selective advantages on organisms possessing them by linking current perceptual events to a past history of value-dependent learning. Here, we assess the consistency of ND with 16 widely recognized (...)
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  28. Anil K. Seth, Bernard J. Baars & D. B. Edelman (2005). Criteria for Consciousness in Humans and Other Mammals. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):119-39.
    The standard behavioral index for human consciousness is the ability to report events with accuracy. While this method is routinely used for scientific and medical applications in humans, it is not easy to generalize to other species. Brain evidence may lend itself more easily to comparative testing. Human consciousness involves widespread, relatively fast low-amplitude interactions in the thalamocortical core of the brain, driven by current tasks and conditions. These features have also been found in other mammals, which suggests that consciousness (...)
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  29. Murray Shanahan & Bernard J. Baars (2005). Applying Global Workspace Theory to the Frame Problem. Cognition 98 (2):157-176.
  30. Bernard J. Baars (2004). Peer Commentary on Are There Neural Correlates of Consciousness: A Stew of Confusion. Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (1):29-31.
  31. Anil K. Seth, David B. Edelman & Bernard J. Baars (2004). Let's Not Forget About Sensory Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):601-602.
    The metacognitive stance of Smith et al. (2003) risks ignoring sensory consciousness. Although Smith et al. rightly caution against the tendency to preserve the uniqueness of the human mind at all costs, their reasoned stance is undermined by a selective association of consciousness with high-level cognitive operations. Neurobiological evidence may offer a more general, and hence more inclusive, basis for the systematic study of animal consciousness.
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  32. Bernard Baars (2003). The Double Life of BF Skinner: Inner Conflict, Dissociation and the Scientific Taboo Against Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (1):5-25.
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  33. Bernard J. Baars (2003). How Brain Reveals Mind: Neural Studies Support the Fundamental Role of Conscious Experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (9-10):100-114.
  34. Bernard J. Baars (2003). The Global Brainweb: An Update on Global Workspace Theory. Science and Consciousness Review 2.
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  35. Bernard J. Baars (2003). Working Memory Requires Conscious Processes, Not Vice Versa: A Global Workspace Account. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins. 49--11.
  36. Bernard J. Baars & Stan Franklin (2003). How Conscious Experience and Working Memory Interact. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):166-172.
  37. Bernard J. Baars, Thomas Zoega Ramsoy & Steven Laureys (2003). Brain, Conscious Experience, and the Observing Self. Trends in Neurosciences 26 (12):671-5.
    Conscious perception, like the sight of a coffee cup, seems to involve the brain identifying a stimulus. But conscious input activates more brain regions than are needed to identify coffee cups and faces. It spreads beyond sensory cortex to frontoparietal association areas, which do not serve stimulus identification as such. What is the role of those regions? Parietal cortex support the ‘first person perspective’ on the visual world, unconsciously framing the visual object stream. Some prefrontal areas select and interpret conscious (...)
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  38. Bernard J. Baars (2002). Behaviorism Redux? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (6):268-269.
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  39. Bernard J. Baars (2002). The Conscious Access Hypothesis: Origins and Recent Evidence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (1):47-52.
  40. Bernard J. Baars (2001). A Biocognitive Approach to the Conscious Core of Immediate Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):115-116.
    The limited capacity of immediate memory “rides” on the even more limited capacity of consciousness, which reflects the dynamic activity of the thalamocortical core of the brain. Recent views of the conscious narrow-capacity component of the brain are explored with reference to global workspace theory (Baars 1988; 1993; 1998). The radical limits of immediate memory must be explained in terms of biocognitive brain architecture.
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  41. Bernard J. Baars (2001). How Could Brain Imaging Not Tell Us About Consciousness? Journal of Consciousness Studies 8 (3):24-29.
  42. Bernard J. Baars (2001). There Are No Known Differences in Brain Mechanisms of Consciousness Between Humans and Other Mammals. Animal Welfare Supplement 10:31- 40.
  43. Bernard J. Baars (2001). The Brain Basis of a "Consciousness Monitor": Scientific and Medical Significance. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (2):159-164.
    Surgical patients under anesthesia can wake up unpredictably and be exposed to intense, traumatic pain. Current medical techniques cannot maintain depth of anesthesia at a perfectly stable and safe level; the depth of unconsciousness may change from moment to moment. Without an effective consciousness monitor anesthesiologists may not be able to adjust dosages in time to protect patients from pain. An estimated 40,000 to 200,000 midoperative awakenings may occur in the United States annually. E. R. John and coauthors present the (...)
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  44. Bernard J. Baars & J. B. Newman (eds.) (2001). Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness. MIT Press.
    Current thinking and research on consciousness and the brain.
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  45. Bernard J. Baars (2000). Conscious Emotional Feelings--Beyond the Four Taboos: An Introductory Comment. Consciousness and Emotion 1 (1):11-14.
  46. Bernard J. Baars & Katharine A. McGovern (2000). Consciousness Cannot Be Limited to Sensory Qualities: Some Empirical Counterexamples. Neuro-Psychoanalysis 2 (1):11-13.
  47. Bernard J. Baars (1999). Attention Vs Consciousness in the Visual Brain: Differences in Conception, Phenomenology, Behavior, Neuroanatomy, and Physiology. Journal of General Psychology 126:224-33.
  48. Bernard J. Baars (1999). Since Then He has Held Research Positions at the University of California at San Diego, State University of New York, the University of California at San Francisco, and the Wright Institute, Where He has Worked Since 1986. He is Founding President of the Association for Scientific Study of Consciousness and is Founding Co-Editor of Con. In Robert L. Solso (ed.), Mind and Brain Sciences in the 21st Century. Cambridge: Mit Press. 325.
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  49. Bernard J. Baars (1998). Attention, Self, and Conscious Self-Monitoring. In A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press.
    ?In everday language, the word ?attention? implies control of access to consciousness, and we adopt this usage here. Attention itself can be either voluntary or automatic. This can be readily modeled in the theory. Further, a contrastive analysis of spontaneously self?attributed vs. self?alien experiences suggests that ?self? can be interpreted as the more enduring, higher levels of the dominant context hierarchy, which create continuity over the changing flow of events. Since context is by definition unconscious in GW theory, self in (...)
     
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  50. Bernard J. Baars (1998). Metaphors of Consciousness and Attention in the Brain. Trends in Neurosciences 21:58-62.
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