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  1. Bernard J. Baars (forthcoming). Recovering Consciousness: A Timeline. Science and Consciousness Review.
     
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  2. Bernard J. Baars (2013). A Scientific Approach to Silent Consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology 4.
    A scientific approach to silent consciousness.
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  3. Bernard J. Baars (2013). Multiple Sources of Conscious Odor Integration and Propagation in Olfactory Cortex. Frontiers in Psychology 4:930.
    Multiple sources of conscious odor integration and propagation in olfactory cortex.
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  4. Gerald M. Edelman, Joseph A. Gally & Bernard J. Baars (2011). Biology of Consciousness. Frontiers in Psychology 2.
    The Dynamic Core and Global Workspace hypotheses were independently put forward to provide mechanistic and biologically plausible accounts of how brains generate conscious mental content. The Dynamic Core proposes that reentrant neural activity in the thalamocortical system gives rise to conscious experience. Global Workspace reconciles the limited capacity of momentary conscious content with the vast repertoire of long term memory. In this paper we show the close relationship between the two hypotheses. This relationship allows for a strictly biological account of (...)
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  5. Bernard J. Baars (2009). Is Feeling Pain Just Mindreading? Our Mind-Brain Constructs Realistic Knowledge of Ourselves. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):139-140.
    Carruthers claims that (target article,). This may be true in many cases. But like other constructivist claims, it fails to explain occasions when constructed knowledge is accurate, like a well-supported scientific theory. People can know their surrounding world and to some extent themselves. Accurate self-knowledge is firmly established for both somatosensory and social pain.
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  6. Bernard J. Baars & Stan Franklin (2009). Consciousness is Computational: The Lida Model of Global Workspace Theory. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (01):23-32.
  7. Stan Franklin, Sidney D'Mello, Bernard J. Baars & Uma Ramamurthy (2009). Evolutionary Pressures for Perceptual Stability and Self as Guides to Machine Consciousness. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (01):99-110.
  8. Bernard J. Baars (2008). Conscious Contents Provide Coherent, Global Information. In Hans Liljenström & Peter Århem (eds.), Consciousness Transitions: Phylogenetic, Ontogenetic, and Physiological Aspects. Elsevier.
     
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  9. Bernard J. Baars (2007). The Global Workspace Theory of Consciousness. In Max Velmans & Susan Schneider (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Blackwell. 236--246.
  10. Bernard J. Baars, Uma Ramamurthy & Stan Franklin (2007). How Deliberate, Spontaneous, and Unwanted Memories Emerge in a Computational Model of Consciousness. In John H. Mace (ed.), Involuntary Memory. New Perspectives in Cognitive Psychology. Blackwell Publishing. 177-207.
  11. Katherine McGovern & Bernard J. Baars (2007). Cognitive Theories of Consciousness. In Philip David Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch & Evan Thompson (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Cambridge. 177--205.
  12. Bernard J. Baars (2006). Conscious Cognition and Blackboard Architectures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 29 (1):70-71.
    van der Velde & de Kamps make a case for neural blackboard architectures to address four questions raised by human language. Unfortunately, they neglect a sizable literature relating blackboard architectures to other fundamental cognitive questions, specifically consciousness and voluntary control. Called “global workspace theory,” this literature integrates a large body of brain and behavioral evidence to come to converging conclusions.
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  13. Bernard J. Baars (2006). Global Workspace Theory of Consciousness: Toward a Cognitive Neuroscience of Human Experience? In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier.
  14. Bernard J. Baars (2005). Subjective Experience is Probably Not Limited to Humans: The Evidence From Neurobiology and Behavior. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):7-21.
  15. Bernard J. Baars & Steven Laureys (2005). One, Not Two, Neural Correlates of Consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (6):269.
  16. D. B. Edelman, Bernard J. Baars & Anil K. Seth (2005). Identifying Hallmarks of Consciousness in Non-Mammalian Species. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):169-87.
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  17. Ralph J. Greenspan & Bernard J. Baars (2005). Consciousness Eclipsed: Jacques Loeb, Ivan P. Pavlov, and the Rise of Reductionistic Biology After 1900. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):219-230.
  18. Anil K. Seth & Bernard J. Baars (2005). Neural Darwinism and Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):140-168.
    Neural Darwinism (ND) is a large scale selectionist theory of brain development and function that has been hypothesized to relate to consciousness. According to ND, consciousness is entailed by reentrant interactions among neuronal populations in the thalamocortical system (the ‘dynamic core’). These interactions, which permit high-order discriminations among possible core states, confer selective advantages on organisms possessing them by linking current perceptual events to a past history of value-dependent learning. Here, we assess the consistency of ND with 16 widely recognized (...)
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  19. Anil K. Seth, Bernard J. Baars & D. B. Edelman (2005). Criteria for Consciousness in Humans and Other Mammals. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):119-39.
    The standard behavioral index for human consciousness is the ability to report events with accuracy. While this method is routinely used for scientific and medical applications in humans, it is not easy to generalize to other species. Brain evidence may lend itself more easily to comparative testing. Human consciousness involves widespread, relatively fast low-amplitude interactions in the thalamocortical core of the brain, driven by current tasks and conditions. These features have also been found in other mammals, which suggests that consciousness (...)
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  20. Murray Shanahan & Bernard J. Baars (2005). Applying Global Workspace Theory to the Frame Problem. Cognition 98 (2):157-176.
  21. Bernard J. Baars (2004). Peer Commentary on Are There Neural Correlates of Consciousness: A Stew of Confusion. Journal of Consciousness Studies 11 (1):29-31.
  22. Anil K. Seth, David B. Edelman & Bernard J. Baars (2004). Let's Not Forget About Sensory Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):601-602.
    The metacognitive stance of Smith et al. (2003) risks ignoring sensory consciousness. Although Smith et al. rightly caution against the tendency to preserve the uniqueness of the human mind at all costs, their reasoned stance is undermined by a selective association of consciousness with high-level cognitive operations. Neurobiological evidence may offer a more general, and hence more inclusive, basis for the systematic study of animal consciousness.
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  23. Bernard J. Baars (2003). How Brain Reveals Mind: Neural Studies Support the Fundamental Role of Conscious Experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (9-10):100-114.
  24. Bernard J. Baars (2003). The Global Brainweb: An Update on Global Workspace Theory. Science and Consciousness Review 2.
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  25. Bernard J. Baars (2003). Working Memory Requires Conscious Processes, Not Vice Versa: A Global Workspace Account. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins. 49--11.
  26. Bernard J. Baars & Stan Franklin (2003). How Conscious Experience and Working Memory Interact. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):166-172.
  27. Bernard J. Baars, Thomas Zoega Ramsoy & Steven Laureys (2003). Brain, Conscious Experience, and the Observing Self. Trends in Neurosciences 26 (12):671-5.
    Conscious perception, like the sight of a coffee cup, seems to involve the brain identifying a stimulus. But conscious input activates more brain regions than are needed to identify coffee cups and faces. It spreads beyond sensory cortex to frontoparietal association areas, which do not serve stimulus identification as such. What is the role of those regions? Parietal cortex support the ‘first person perspective’ on the visual world, unconsciously framing the visual object stream. Some prefrontal areas select and interpret conscious (...)
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  28. Bernard J. Baars (2002). Behaviorism Redux? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (6):268-269.
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  29. Bernard J. Baars (2002). The Conscious Access Hypothesis: Origins and Recent Evidence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (1):47-52.
  30. Bernard J. Baars (2001). A Biocognitive Approach to the Conscious Core of Immediate Memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 24 (1):115-116.
    The limited capacity of immediate memory “rides” on the even more limited capacity of consciousness, which reflects the dynamic activity of the thalamocortical core of the brain. Recent views of the conscious narrow-capacity component of the brain are explored with reference to global workspace theory (Baars 1988; 1993; 1998). The radical limits of immediate memory must be explained in terms of biocognitive brain architecture.
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  31. Bernard J. Baars (2001). How Could Brain Imaging Not Tell Us About Consciousness? Journal Of Consciousness Studies 8 (3):24-29.
  32. Bernard J. Baars (2001). There Are No Known Differences in Brain Mechanisms of Consciousness Between Humans and Other Mammals. Animal Welfare Supplement 10:31- 40.
  33. Bernard J. Baars (2001). The Brain Basis of a "Consciousness Monitor": Scientific and Medical Significance. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (2):159-164.
    Surgical patients under anesthesia can wake up unpredictably and be exposed to intense, traumatic pain. Current medical techniques cannot maintain depth of anesthesia at a perfectly stable and safe level; the depth of unconsciousness may change from moment to moment. Without an effective consciousness monitor anesthesiologists may not be able to adjust dosages in time to protect patients from pain. An estimated 40,000 to 200,000 midoperative awakenings may occur in the United States annually. E. R. John and coauthors present the (...)
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  34. Bernard J. Baars & J. B. Newman (eds.) (2001). Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness. MIT Press.
    Current thinking and research on consciousness and the brain.
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  35. Bernard J. Baars (2000). Conscious Emotional Feelings--Beyond the Four Taboos: An Introductory Comment. Consciousness and Emotion 1 (1):11-14.
  36. Bernard J. Baars & Katharine A. McGovern (2000). Consciousness Cannot Be Limited to Sensory Qualities: Some Empirical Counterexamples. Neuro-Psychoanalysis 2 (1):11-13.
  37. Bernard J. Baars (1999). Attention Vs Consciousness in the Visual Brain: Differences in Conception, Phenomenology, Behavior, Neuroanatomy, and Physiology. Journal of General Psychology 126:224-33.
  38. Bernard J. Baars (1999). Since Then He has Held Research Positions at the University of California at San Diego, State University of New York, the University of California at San Francisco, and the Wright Institute, Where He has Worked Since 1986. He is Founding President of the Association for Scientific Study of Consciousness and is Founding Co-Editor of Con. In Robert L. Solso (ed.), Mind and Brain Sciences in the 21st Century. Cambridge: Mit Press. 325.
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  39. Bernard J. Baars (1998). Attention, Self, and Conscious Self-Monitoring. In A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press.
    ?In everday language, the word ?attention? implies control of access to consciousness, and we adopt this usage here. Attention itself can be either voluntary or automatic. This can be readily modeled in the theory. Further, a contrastive analysis of spontaneously self?attributed vs. self?alien experiences suggests that ?self? can be interpreted as the more enduring, higher levels of the dominant context hierarchy, which create continuity over the changing flow of events. Since context is by definition unconscious in GW theory, self in (...)
     
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  40. Bernard J. Baars (1998). Metaphors of Consciousness and Attention in the Brain. Trends in Neurosciences 21:58-62.
  41. Bernard J. Baars (1998). The Neural Basis of Conscious Experience. In A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press.
     
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  42. Bernard J. Baars, J. B. Newman & John G. Taylor (1998). Neuronal Mechanisms of Consciousness: A Relational Global Workspace Approach. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A.C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press. 269-278.
    This paper explores a remarkable convergence of ideas and evidence, previously presented in separate places by its authors. That convergence has now become so persuasive that we believe we are working within substantially the same broad framework. Taylor's mathematical papers on neuronal systems involved in consciousness dovetail well with work by Newman and Baars on the thalamocortical system, suggesting a brain mechanism much like the global workspace architecture developed by Baars (see references below). This architecture is relational, in the sense (...)
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  43. Bernard J. Baars (1997). In the Theater of Consciousness: The Workspace of the Mind. Oxford University Press.
    The study of conscious experience has seen remarkable strides in the last ten years, reflecting important technological breakthroughs and the enormous efforts of researchers in disciplines as varied as neuroscience, cognitive science, and philosophy. Although still embroiled in debate, scientists are now beginning to find common ground in their understanding of consciousness, which may pave the way for a unified explanation of how and why we experience and understand the world around us. Written by eminent psychologist Bernard J. Baars, Inside (...)
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  44. Bernard J. Baars (1997). In the Theatre of Consciousness: Global Workspace Theory, a Rigorous Scientific Theory of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 4 (4):292-309.
     
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  45. Bernard J. Baars (1997). Spatial Brain Coherence During the Establishment of a Conscious Event. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (1):1-2.
  46. Bernard J. Baars (1997). Some Essential Differences Between Consciousness and Attention, Perception, and Working Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):363-371.
  47. Bernard J. Baars, Why It Must Be Consciousness - for Real!
    1.1 Bilateral damage to the thalamus abolishes waking consciousness. The critical site of this damage is believed to be a relatively small cluster of neurons, about the size of a pencil eraser on either side of the brain's midline, called the Intra-Laminar Nuclei (ILN) because they are located inside the white layers (laminae) that divide the two thalami into their major groupings of nuclei. The fact that bilateral damage to the ILNs abolishes consciousness is very unusual. There is no other (...)
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  48. Bernard J. Baars, M. R. Fehling, M. LaPolla & Katharine A. McGovern (1997). Consciousness Creates Access: Conscious Goal Images Recruit Unconscious Action Routines, but Goal Competition Serves to "Liberate" Such Routines, Causing Predictable Slips. In Jonathan D. Cohen & Jonathan W. Schooler (eds.), Scientific Approaches to Consciousness. Lawrence Erlbaum.
  49. J. B. Newman, Bernard J. Baars & S. Cho (1997). A Neural Global Workspace Model for Conscious Attention. Neural Networks 10:1195-1206.
  50. Bernard J. Baars (1996). Understanding Subjectivity: Global Workspace Theory and the Resurrection of the Observing Self. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (3):211-17.
    The world of our experience consists at all times of two parts, an objective and a subjective part . . . The objective part is the sum total of whatsoever at any given time we may be thinking of, the subjective part is the inner 'state' in which the thinking comes to pass.
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