76 found
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  1. Bernard J. Baars (1988). A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press.
    Conscious experience is one of the most difficult and thorny problems in psychological science. Its study has been neglected for many years, either because it was thought to be too difficult, or because the relevant evidence was thought to be poor. Bernard Baars suggests a way to specify empirical constraints on a theory of consciousness by contrasting well-established conscious phenomena - such as stimulus representations known to be attended, perceptual, and informative - with closely comparable unconscious ones - such as (...)
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  2. Bernard J. Baars (2002). The Conscious Access Hypothesis: Origins and Recent Evidence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (1):47-52.
  3.  59
    Bernard J. Baars (1997). In the Theater of Consciousness: The Workspace of the Mind. Oxford University Press.
    The study of conscious experience has seen remarkable strides in the last ten years, reflecting important technological breakthroughs and the enormous efforts of researchers in disciplines as varied as neuroscience, cognitive science, and philosophy. Although still embroiled in debate, scientists are now beginning to find common ground in their understanding of consciousness, which may pave the way for a unified explanation of how and why we experience and understand the world around us. Written by eminent psychologist Bernard J. Baars, Inside (...)
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  4. Anil K. Seth, Bernard J. Baars & D. B. Edelman (2005). Criteria for Consciousness in Humans and Other Mammals. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):119-39.
    The standard behavioral index for human consciousness is the ability to report events with accuracy. While this method is routinely used for scientific and medical applications in humans, it is not easy to generalize to other species. Brain evidence may lend itself more easily to comparative testing. Human consciousness involves widespread, relatively fast low-amplitude interactions in the thalamocortical core of the brain, driven by current tasks and conditions. These features have also been found in other mammals, which suggests that consciousness (...)
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  5. Bernard J. Baars & Stan Franklin (2003). How Conscious Experience and Working Memory Interact. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 7 (4):166-172.
  6. Bernard J. Baars, Thomas Zoega Ramsoy & Steven Laureys (2003). Brain, Conscious Experience, and the Observing Self. Trends in Neurosciences 26 (12):671-5.
    Conscious perception, like the sight of a coffee cup, seems to involve the brain identifying a stimulus. But conscious input activates more brain regions than are needed to identify coffee cups and faces. It spreads beyond sensory cortex to frontoparietal association areas, which do not serve stimulus identification as such. What is the role of those regions? Parietal cortex support the ‘first person perspective’ on the visual world, unconsciously framing the visual object stream. Some prefrontal areas select and interpret conscious (...)
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  7. Bernard J. Baars (2006). Global Workspace Theory of Consciousness: Toward a Cognitive Neuroscience of Human Experience? In Steven Laureys (ed.), Boundaries of Consciousness. Elsevier
  8. Anil K. Seth & Bernard J. Baars (2005). Neural Darwinism and Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):140-168.
    Neural Darwinism (ND) is a large scale selectionist theory of brain development and function that has been hypothesized to relate to consciousness. According to ND, consciousness is entailed by reentrant interactions among neuronal populations in the thalamocortical system (the ‘dynamic core’). These interactions, which permit high-order discriminations among possible core states, confer selective advantages on organisms possessing them by linking current perceptual events to a past history of value-dependent learning. Here, we assess the consistency of ND with 16 widely recognized (...)
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  9. D. B. Edelman, Bernard J. Baars & Anil K. Seth (2005). Identifying Hallmarks of Consciousness in Non-Mammalian Species. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):169-87.
    Most early studies of consciousness have focused on human subjects. This is understandable, given that humans are capable of reporting accurately the events they experience through language or by way of other kinds of voluntary response. As researchers turn their attention to other animals, “accurate report” methodologies become increasingly difficult to apply. Alternative strategies for amassing evidence for consciousness in non-human species include searching for evolutionary homologies in anatomical substrates and measurement of physiological correlates of conscious states. In addition, creative (...)
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  10.  80
    Bernard J. Baars & Stan Franklin (2009). Consciousness is Computational: The Lida Model of Global Workspace Theory. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (1):23-32.
  11.  4
    Bernard J. Baars & James Newman (1994). A Neurobiological Interpretation of Global Workspace Theory. In Antti Revonsuo & Matti Kamppinen (eds.), Consciousness in Philosophy and Cognitive Neuroscience. Lawrence Erlbaum 211--226.
  12.  5
    Bernard J. Baars (1987). Biological Implications of a Global Workspace Theory of Consciousness: Evidence, Theory, and Some Phylogenetic Speculations. In G. Greenberg & E. Tobach (eds.), Cognition, Language, and Consciousness: Integrative Levels. Lawrence Erlbaum 209--236.
  13.  21
    Bernard J. Baars & Katharine McGovern (1993). Does Philosophy Help or Hinder Scientific Work on Consciousness? Consciousness and Cognition 2 (1):18-27.
  14. Bernard J. Baars (1997). In the Theatre of Consciousness: Global Workspace Theory, a Rigorous Scientific Theory of Consciousness. Journal of Consciousness Studies 4 (4):292-309.
    Can we make progress exploring consciousness? Or is it forever beyond human reach? In science we never know the ultimate outcome of the journey. We can only take whatever steps our current knowledge affords. This paper explores today's evidence from the viewpoint of Global Workspace theory. First, we ask what kind of evidence has the most direct bearing on the question. The answer given here is ‘contrastive analysis’ -- a set of paired comparisons between similar conscious and unconscious processes. This (...)
     
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  15.  9
    Bernard J. Baars (1983). Conscious Contents Provide the Nervous System with Coherent, Global Information. In Richard J. Davidson, Gary E. Schwartz & D. H. Shapiro (eds.), Consciousness and Self-Regulation. Plenum 41--79.
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  16.  41
    Bernard J. Baars (2003). How Brain Reveals Mind: Neural Studies Support the Fundamental Role of Conscious Experience. Journal of Consciousness Studies 10 (9-10):100-114.
    In the last decade, careful studies of the living brain have opened the way for human consciousness to return to the heights it held before the behavioristic coup of 1913. This is illustrated by seven cases: the discovery of widespread brain activation during conscious perception; high levels of regional brain metabolism in the resting state of consciousness, dropping drastically in unconscious states; the brain correlates of inner speech; visual imagery; fringe consciousness; executive functions of the self; and volition. Other papers (...)
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  17.  72
    Murray Shanahan & Bernard J. Baars (2005). Applying Global Workspace Theory to the Frame Problem. Cognition 98 (2):157-176.
  18. Katherine McGovern & Bernard J. Baars (2007). Cognitive Theories of Consciousness. In Philip David Zelazo, Morris Moscovitch & Evan Thompson (eds.), The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness. Cambridge 177--205.
  19. Bernard J. Baars (1997). Some Essential Differences Between Consciousness and Attention, Perception, and Working Memory. Consciousness and Cognition 6 (2-3):363-371.
    When “divided attention” methods were discovered in the 1950s their implications for conscious experience were not widely appreciated. Yet when people process competing streams of sensory input they show both selective processesandclear contrasts between conscious and unconscious events. This paper suggests that the term “attention” may be best applied to theselection and maintenanceof conscious contents and distinguished from consciousness itself. This is consistent with common usage. The operational criteria for selective attention, defined in this way, are entirely different from those (...)
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  20. Bernard J. Baars, J. B. Newman & John G. Taylor (1998). Neuronal Mechanisms of Consciousness: A Relational Global Workspace Approach. In Stuart R. Hameroff, Alfred W. Kaszniak & A.C. Scott (eds.), Toward a Science of Consciousness II. MIT Press 269-278.
    This paper explores a remarkable convergence of ideas and evidence, previously presented in separate places by its authors. That convergence has now become so persuasive that we believe we are working within substantially the same broad framework. Taylor's mathematical papers on neuronal systems involved in consciousness dovetail well with work by Newman and Baars on the thalamocortical system, suggesting a brain mechanism much like the global workspace architecture developed by Baars (see references below). This architecture is relational, in the sense (...)
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  21.  13
    Bernard J. Baars (1995). Surprisingly Small Subcortical Structures Are Needed for the State of Waking Consciousness, While Cortical Projection Areas Seem to Provide Perceptual Contents of Consciousness. Consciousness and Cognition 4 (2):159-62.
  22. Bernard J. Baars (2005). Subjective Experience is Probably Not Limited to Humans: The Evidence From Neurobiology and Behavior. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):7-21.
    In humans, conscious perception and cognition depends upon the thalamocortical complex, which supports perception, explicit cognition, memory, language, planning, and strategic control. When parts of the T-C system are damaged or stimulated, corresponding effects are found on conscious contents and state, as assessed by reliable reports. In contrast, large regions like cerebellum and basal ganglia can be damaged without affecting conscious cognition directly. Functional brain recordings also show robust activity differences in cortex between experimentally matched conscious and unconscious events. This (...)
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  23.  28
    Stan Franklin, Sidney D'Mello, Bernard J. Baars & Uma Ramamurthy (2009). Evolutionary Pressures for Perceptual Stability and Self as Guides to Machine Consciousness. International Journal of Machine Consciousness 1 (1):99-110.
  24.  11
    Bernard J. Baars & J. B. Newman (eds.) (2001). Essential Sources in the Scientific Study of Consciousness. MIT Press.
    Current thinking and research on consciousness and the brain.
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  25.  63
    Bernard J. Baars (1998). Metaphors of Consciousness and Attention in the Brain. Trends in Neurosciences 21:58-62.
  26.  3
    Bernard J. Baars (1991). A Curious Coincidence? Consciousness as an Object of Scientific Scrutiny Fits Our Personal Experience Remarkably Well. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14 (4):669-670.
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  27. Bernard J. Baars, Why It Must Be Consciousness - for Real!
    1.1 Bilateral damage to the thalamus abolishes waking consciousness. The critical site of this damage is believed to be a relatively small cluster of neurons, about the size of a pencil eraser on either side of the brain's midline, called the Intra-Laminar Nuclei (ILN) because they are located inside the white layers (laminae) that divide the two thalami into their major groupings of nuclei. The fact that bilateral damage to the ILNs abolishes consciousness is very unusual. There is no other (...)
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  28. Bernard J. Baars (2001). There Are No Known Differences in Brain Mechanisms of Consciousness Between Humans and Other Mammals. Animal Welfare Supplement 10:31- 40.
  29.  34
    J. B. Newman, Bernard J. Baars & S. Cho (1997). A Neural Global Workspace Model for Conscious Attention. Neural Networks 10:1195-1206.
  30.  55
    Bernard J. Baars & Steven Laureys (2005). One, Not Two, Neural Correlates of Consciousness. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 9 (6):269.
  31.  83
    Bernard J. Baars, Uma Ramamurthy & Stan Franklin (2007). How Deliberate, Spontaneous, and Unwanted Memories Emerge in a Computational Model of Consciousness. In John H. Mace (ed.), Involuntary Memory. New Perspectives in Cognitive Psychology. Blackwell Publishing 177-207.
  32. Bernard J. Baars (2007). The Global Workspace Theory of Consciousness. In Max Velmans & Susan Schneider (eds.), The Blackwell Companion to Consciousness. Blackwell 236--246.
  33.  18
    Bernard J. Baars (2003). Working Memory Requires Conscious Processes, Not Vice Versa: A Global Workspace Account. In Naoyuki Osaka (ed.), Neural Basis of Consciousness. John Benjamins 49--11.
  34. Bernard J. Baars (1994). A Thoroughly Empirical Approach to Consciousness. Psyche 1 (6).
    When are psychologists entitled to call a certain theoretical construct "consciousness?" Over the past few decades cognitive psychologists have reintroduced almost the entire conceptual vocabulary of common sense psychology, but now in a way that is tied explicitly to reliable empirical observations, and to compelling and increasingly adequate theoretical models. Nevertheless, until the past few years most cognitive psychologists and neuroscientists avoided dealing with consciousness. Today there is an increasing willingness to do so. But is "consciousness" different from other theoretical (...)
     
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  35.  3
    Bernard J. Baars (1993). Putting the Focus on the Fringe: Three Empirical Cases. Journal of Consciousness Studies 2 (2):126-36.
    After suggesting an operational definition for fringe experiences—as opposed to clearly conscious and clearly unconscious phenomena—we examine three empirical cases: The tip-of-the-tongue experience, the fringe experience of "wrongness," and the case of conscious focus on abstract, hard-to-image conscious contents. In each case, Mangan′s four major claims are explored in some detail. Most tasks seem to involve a combination of conscious experiences, complex unconscious representations, and multiple fringe experiences. The chief disagreement from this analysis involves vague experiences that are generally believed (...)
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  36.  16
    Ralph J. Greenspan & Bernard J. Baars (2005). Consciousness Eclipsed: Jacques Loeb, Ivan P. Pavlov, and the Rise of Reductionistic Biology After 1900. Consciousness and Cognition 14 (1):219-230.
    The life sciences in the 20th century were guided to a large extent by a reductionist program seeking to explain biological phenomena in terms of physics and chemistry. Two scientists who figured prominently in the establishment and dissemination of this program were Jacques Loeb in biology and Ivan P. Pavlov in psychological behaviorism. While neither succeeded in accounting for higher mental functions in physical-chemical terms, both adopted positions that reduced the problem of consciousness to the level of reflexes and associations. (...)
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  37.  5
    Bernard J. Baars (1993). How Does a Serial, Integrated and Very Limited Stream of Consciousness Emerge From a Nervous System That is Mostly Unconscious, Distributed, Parallel and of Enormous Capacity? In G. R. Bock & James L. Marsh (eds.), Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Consciousness. Ciba Foundation Symposium 174 174--282.
  38.  74
    Bernard J. Baars (2000). Conscious Emotional Feelings--Beyond the Four Taboos: An Introductory Comment. Consciousness and Emotion 1 (1):11-14.
  39.  8
    Bernard J. Baars (1993). Why Volition is a Foundation Issue for Psychology. Consciousness and Cognition 2 (4):281-309.
    Since the advent of behaviorism the question of volition or "will" has been largely neglected. We consider evidence indicating that two identical behaviors may be quite distinct with respect to volition: For instance, with practice the details of predictable actions become less and less voluntary, even if the behavior itself does not visibly change. Likewise, people can voluntarily imitate involuntary slips they have just made. Such examples suggest that the concept of volition applies not to visible behavior per se, but (...)
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  40.  12
    Anil K. Seth, David B. Edelman & Bernard J. Baars (2004). Let's Not Forget About Sensory Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 27 (4):601-602.
    The metacognitive stance of Smith et al. risks ignoring sensory consciousness. Although Smith et al. rightly caution against the tendency to preserve the uniqueness of the human mind at all costs, their reasoned stance is undermined by a selective association of consciousness with high-level cognitive operations. Neurobiological evidence may offer a more general, and hence more inclusive, basis for the systematic study of animal consciousness.
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  41. Bernard J. Baars (1998). Attention, Self, and Conscious Self-Monitoring. In A Cognitive Theory of Consciousness. Cambridge University Press
    ?In everday language, the word ?attention? implies control of access to consciousness, and we adopt this usage here. Attention itself can be either voluntary or automatic. This can be readily modeled in the theory. Further, a contrastive analysis of spontaneously self?attributed vs. self?alien experiences suggests that ?self? can be interpreted as the more enduring, higher levels of the dominant context hierarchy, which create continuity over the changing flow of events. Since context is by definition unconscious in GW theory, self in (...)
     
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  42.  90
    Bernard J. Baars (1996). Understanding Subjectivity: Global Workspace Theory and the Resurrection of the Observing Self. Journal of Consciousness Studies 3 (3):211-17.
    The world of our experience consists at all times of two parts, an objective and a subjective part . . . The objective part is the sum total of whatsoever at any given time we may be thinking of, the subjective part is the inner 'state' in which the thinking comes to pass.
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  43.  11
    Bernard J. Baars (1995). Evidence That Phenomenal Consciousness is the Same as Access Consciousness. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 18 (2):249.
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  44.  19
    Bernard J. Baars (2001). The Brain Basis of a "Consciousness Monitor": Scientific and Medical Significance. Consciousness and Cognition 10 (2):159-164.
    Surgical patients under anesthesia can wake up unpredictably and be exposed to intense, traumatic pain. Current medical techniques cannot maintain depth of anesthesia at a perfectly stable and safe level; the depth of unconsciousness may change from moment to moment. Without an effective consciousness monitor anesthesiologists may not be able to adjust dosages in time to protect patients from pain. An estimated 40,000 to 200,000 midoperative awakenings may occur in the United States annually. E. R. John and coauthors present the (...)
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  45.  88
    Bernard J. Baars (1995). Can Physics Provide a Theory of Consciousness? Psyche 2 (8).
  46.  9
    Bernard J. Baars (2002). Behaviorism Redux? Trends in Cognitive Sciences 6 (6):268-269.
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  47.  29
    Bernard J. Baars (1992). Experimental Slips and Human Error: Exploring the Architecture of Volition. Plenum Press.
    This work makes three valuable contributions to the study of human slips and errors.
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  48.  7
    Bernard J. Baars (2003). The Global Brainweb: An Update on Global Workspace Theory. Science and Consciousness Review 2.
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  49.  64
    Bernard J. Baars (2009). Is Feeling Pain Just Mindreading? Our Mind-Brain Constructs Realistic Knowledge of Ourselves. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 32 (2):139-140.
    Carruthers claims that (target article,). This may be true in many cases. But like other constructivist claims, it fails to explain occasions when constructed knowledge is accurate, like a well-supported scientific theory. People can know their surrounding world and to some extent themselves. Accurate self-knowledge is firmly established for both somatosensory and social pain.
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  50. Bernard J. Baars (1999). Attention Vs Consciousness in the Visual Brain: Differences in Conception, Phenomenology, Behavior, Neuroanatomy, and Physiology. Journal of General Psychology 126:224-33.
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