Search results for 'Bernd Schäfer' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. David Lewis Schaefer (2007). Procedural Versus Substantive Justice: Rawls and Nozick. Social Philosophy and Policy 24 (1):164-186.score: 30.0
    This paper critically assesses the “procedural” accounts of political justice set forth by John Rawls in A Theory of Justice (1971) and Robert Nozick in Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1974). I argue that the areas of agreement between Rawls and Nozick are more significant than their disagreements. Even though Nozick offers trenchant criticisms of Rawls's argument for economic redistribution (the “difference principle”), Nozick's own economic libertarianism is undermined by his “principle of rectification,” which he offers as a possible ground in (...)
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  2. Brian P. Schaefer (2008). Shareholders and Social Responsibility. Journal of Business Ethics 81 (2):297 - 312.score: 30.0
    The article presents an analysis and critique of Milton Friedman’s argument that the social responsibility of business is merely to increase its profits. The analysis uncovers a central claim that Friedman implies, but does not explicitly defend, namely that the shareholders of a corporation have no duty to direct that corporation’s management to exercise social responsibility. An argument against this claim is then advanced by way of a convergence strategy, whereby multiple influential moral approaches are shown to align themselves against (...)
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  3. Peter Schroeder-Heister & Frank Schaefer (1989). Reduction, Representation and Commensurability of Theories. Philosophy of Science 56 (1):130-157.score: 30.0
    Theories in the usual sense, as characterized by a language and a set of theorems in that language ("statement view"), are related to theories in the structuralist sense, in turn characterized by a set of potential models and a subset thereof as models ("non-statement view", J. Sneed, W. Stegmüller). It is shown that reductions of theories in the structuralist sense (that is, functions on structures) give rise to so-called "representations" of theories in the statement sense and vice versa, where representations (...)
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  4. David J. Schaefer & Brenda Dervin (2009). From the Dialogic to the Contemplative: A Conceptual and Empirical Rethinking of Online Communication Outcomes as Verbing Micro-Practices. [REVIEW] Ethics and Information Technology 11 (4):265-278.score: 30.0
    Traditional approaches to studying communication in public spheres draw upon a product or outcome orientation that has prevented researchers from theorizing more specifically about how communication behaviors either inhibit or facilitate dialogic processes. Additionally, researchers typically emphasize consensus as a preferred outcome. Drawing upon a methodology explicitly developed to study communicating using a verb-oriented framework, we analyzed 1,360 postings from online pedagogical discussions. Our analysis focused on verbing micro-practices, the dynamic communicative actions through which participants make and unmake public spheres. (...)
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  5. Alan Wertheimer, Joseph Millum & G. Owen Schaefer (2010). Why Adopt a Maximin Theory of Exploitation? American Journal of Bioethics 10 (6):38-39.score: 30.0
  6. Brian Harvey & Anja Schaefer (2001). Managing Relationships with Environmental Stakeholders: A Study of U.K. Water and Electricity Utilities. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 30 (3):243 - 260.score: 30.0
    In this paper we report a study of the approach of six U.K. water and electricity companies towards managing the relationship with their ''green'' stakeholders. Stakeholders are accorded increasing importance in political discourse and stakeholder theory is emerging as a promising framework for the analysis of corporate social performance.We studied the companies'' general approach towards green stakeholders, their dealings with specific stakeholder groups and whether they emphasised the consultation or the information aspect of stakeholder management. We found that none of (...)
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  7. Taran Patel & Anja Schaefer (2009). Making Sense of the Diversity of Ethical Decision Making in Business: An Illustration of the Indian Context. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 90 (2):171 - 186.score: 30.0
    In this conceptual article, we look at the impact of culture on ethical decision making from a Douglasian Cultural Theory (CT) perspective. We aim to show how CT can be used to explain the diversity and dynamicity of ethical beliefs and behaviours found in every social system, be it a corporation, a nation or even an individual. We introduce CT in the context of ethical decision making and then use it to discuss examples of business ethics in the Indian business (...)
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  8. Lothar Schaefer (2006). A Response to Ervin Laszlo: Quantum and Consciousness. Zygon 41 (3):573-582.score: 30.0
  9. G. Owen Schaefer (2010). Review of James Cameron's Avatar. [REVIEW] American Journal of Bioethics 10 (2):68-69.score: 30.0
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  10. Thomas E. Schaefer (1984). Professionalism: Foundation for Business Ethics. [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 3 (4):269 - 277.score: 30.0
    Professionalism includes the essential contents of other key notions within the field of business ethics. As a term involving the notion of vocation it may be understood as containing a religious content, since vocation refers to a man's most intimate personal decisions, destiny and providence. Professionalism also connotes respect for law and so includes a reference to commercial law as a guide to right conduct. Professionalsim thus lifts the requirements of law to the level of personal commitment.Like an honest act, (...)
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  11. G. Owen Schaefer & Alan Wertheimer (2011). The Right to Withdraw From Research. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal 20 (4):329-352.score: 30.0
    It is universally accepted that participants in biomedical research have the right to withdraw from participation at any time, except, perhaps, when withdrawal would constitute a threat to their health or the health of others. The right to withdraw is encoded in nearly every document on the requirements for ethical conduct of research on humans, including the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations governing all federally-funded research, the Common Rule (45 CFR 46); the Declaration of Helsinki (WMA 2008); the 2002 research (...)
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  12. G. Owen Schaefer, Guy Kahane & Julian Savulescu (2014). Autonomy and Enhancement. Neuroethics 7 (2):123-136.score: 30.0
    Some have objected to human enhancement on the grounds that it violates the autonomy of the enhanced. These objections, however, overlook the interesting possibility that autonomy itself could be enhanced. How, exactly, to enhance autonomy is a difficult problem due to the numerous and diverse accounts of autonomy in the literature. Existing accounts of autonomy enhancement rely on narrow and controversial conceptions of autonomy. However, we identify one feature of autonomy common to many mainstream accounts: reasoning ability. Autonomy can then (...)
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  13. Herwin Schaefer (1971). The Craftsman in an Industrial Society. British Journal of Aesthetics 11 (4):323-326.score: 30.0
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  14. Richard Schaefer (2007). Infallibility and Intentionality: Franz Brentano's Diagnosis of German Catholicism. Journal of the History of Ideas 68 (3):477-499.score: 30.0
  15. [deleted]Feige Bernd (2011). Surpassing the Average ? An Ica-Based Approach to the Electrophysiological Basis of Intra-Subject Variability. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5.score: 30.0
  16. Charles W. Schaefer (1971). Poe's "Eureka:" The Macrocosmic Analogue. Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 29 (3):353-365.score: 30.0
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  17. G. Owen Schaefer & Alan Wertheimer (2011). Reevaluating the Right to Withdraw From Research Without Penalty. American Journal of Bioethics 11 (4):14-16.score: 30.0
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  18. David Lewis Schaefer & Estienne de La Boétie (eds.) (1998). Freedom Over Servitude: Montaigne, La Boétie, and on Voluntary Servitude. Greenwood Press.score: 30.0
    This volume contains five articles by prominent scholars of French literature and political philosophy that examine the relation between Montaigne's Essays, one ...
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  19. Scott Schaefer (1981). The Invention of Gunpowder. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 44:209-211.score: 30.0
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  20. Reiner Schaefer (2011). A Defence of AI-Functionalism Against Brandom's Arguments From Holism and the Frame Problem. Dialogue 50 (04):741-750.score: 30.0
    ABSTRACT: Brandom argues that functionalism must ultimately fail because it will not be able to explain how we can holistically update our beliefs solely in terms of abilities possessed by non-linguistic things. In this paper I respond to this argument by arguing that non-linguistic animals encounter and overcome an analogous sort of holistic updating problem. I will also try to demystify holism and de-intellectualize language use/reasoning.
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  21. G. Owen Schaefer & Julian Savulescu (2014). The Ethics of Producing In Vitro Meat. Journal of Applied Philosophy 31 (1):188-202.score: 30.0
    The prospect of consumable meat produced in a laboratory setting without the need to raise and slaughter animals is both realistic and exciting. Not only could such in vitro meat become popular due to potential cost savings, but it also avoids many of the ethical and environmental problems with traditional meat productions. However, as with any new technology, in vitro meat is likely to face some detractors. We examine in detail three potential objections: 1) in vitro meat is disrespectful, either (...)
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  22. Donovan O. Schaefer (2014). Embodied Disbelief: Poststructural Feminist Atheism. Hypatia 29 (2):371-387.score: 30.0
    “I quite rightly pass for an atheist,” Jacques Derrida announces in Circumfession. Grace Jantzen's suggestion that the poststructuralist critique of modernity can also be trained on atheism helps us make sense of this playfully cryptic statement: although Derrida sympathizes with the “idea” of atheism, he is wary of the modern brand of atheism, with its insistence on rationally arranging—straightening out—religion. In this paper, I will argue that poststructural feminism, with its focus on embodied epistemology, offers a way to re-explain Derrida's (...)
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  23. John Danley, Edward Harrick, Diane Schaefer, Donald Strickland & George Sullivan (1996). Hr's View of Ethics in the Work Place: Are the Barbarians at the Gate? [REVIEW] Journal of Business Ethics 15 (3):273 - 285.score: 30.0
    Based on responses from 1078 human resource (HR) professionals, this study concludes that there is not an ethical crisis in the work place. Seven of 37 situations were rated as serious problems by more than 25% of the respondents. HR reported that their organizations are serious about uncovering and disciplining ethical misconduct, top management has a commitment to ethical business conduct, personal principles are not compromised to conform to company expectations, and performance pressures do not lead to unethical conduct.
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  24. Arthur Gross Schaefer (1997). Introduction. Business Ethics Quarterly 7 (2):1-3.score: 30.0
    This introduction a) presents organized religion as a source of "spiritual goods" and briefly summarizes each of the seventeen tradition-centeredarticles; b) explains why organized religion merits the attention of business ethics; c) categorizes the articles according to rubrics useful for teaching and research; d) further explains the value of these essays to academic researchers, business practitioners, and spiritual seekers.
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  25. Katrin Schaefer, Philipp Mitteroecker, Bernhard Fink & Fred L. Bookstein (2009). Psychomorphospace—From Biology to Perception, and Back: Towards an Integrated Quantification of Facial Form Variation. Biological Theory 4 (1):98-106.score: 30.0
  26. Jame Schaefer (2008). Sacramental Commons: Christian Ecological Ethics. By John Hart. Zygon 43 (4):993-996.score: 30.0
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  27. Richard Schaefer (2013). The Madness of Franz Brentano: Religion, Secularisation and the History of Philosophy. History of European Ideas 39 (4):541-560.score: 30.0
    In recent decades, scholars have shown a distinct new willingness to concede the important place of religion in the life and thought of the philosopher Franz Brentano. However, these studies are still dominated by the presumption that Brentano's life and thought are best understood according to a model of secularisation as a progressive waning of religion. This essay asks whether such a presumption is the best way of understanding the complex interconnections between various elements of his philosophical and religious ideas. (...)
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  28. David Lewis Schaefer (1994). Republics Ancient and Modern (Review). Philosophy and Literature 18 (1):197-198.score: 30.0
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  29. Corrina J. Frye, Hillary S. Schaefer & Andrew L. Alexander, Individual Differences in Amygdala and Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Activity Are Associated with Evaluation Speed and Psychological Well-Being.score: 30.0
    & Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined whether individual differences in amygdala activation in response to negative relative to neutral information are related to differences in the speed with which such information is evaluated, the extent to which such differences are associated with medial prefrontal cortex function, and their relationship with measures of trait anxiety and psychological well-being (PWB). Results indicated that faster judgments of negative relative to neutral information were associated with increased left and right amygdala activation. In (...)
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  30. Martin Kummer & Marcus Schaefer (2007). Cuppability of Simple and Hypersimple Sets. Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic 48 (3):349-369.score: 30.0
    An incomplete degree is cuppable if it can be joined by an incomplete degree to a complete degree. For sets fulfilling some type of simplicity property one can now ask whether these sets are cuppable with respect to a certain type of reducibilities. Several such results are known. In this paper we settle all the remaining cases for the standard notions of simplicity and all the main strong reducibilities.
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  31. Jean Owens Schaefer (1984). A Note on the Iconography of a Medal of Lavinia Fontana. Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 47:232-234.score: 30.0
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  32. Judy Schaefer (2009). Review of Imagine What It's Like: A Literature and Medicine Anthology. [REVIEW] American Journal of Bioethics 9 (4):63-64.score: 30.0
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  33. David Lewis Schaefer (1991). The Discipline of Subjectivity. Review of Metaphysics 44 (4):833-834.score: 30.0
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  34. Rebecca S. Schaefer, Katie Overy & Peter Nelson (2013). Affect and Non-Uniform Characteristics of Predictive Processing in Musical Behaviour. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 36 (3):226-227.score: 30.0
    The important roles of prediction and prior experience are well established in music research and fit well with Clark's concept of unified perception, cognition, and action arising from hierarchical, bidirectional predictive processing. However, in order to fully account for human musical intelligence, Clark needs to further consider the powerful and variable role of affect in relation to prediction error.
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  35. Max Schaefer (2010). Adina Bozga. The Exasperating Gift of Singularity: Husserl, Levinas, Henry. Analecta Hermeneutica 2 (2).score: 30.0
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  36. Alexandre Schaefer, Frédéric Nils, Xavier Sanchez & Pierre Philippot (2010). Assessing the Effectiveness of a Large Database of Emotion-Eliciting Films: A New Tool for Emotion Researchers. Cognition and Emotion 24 (7):1153-1172.score: 30.0
  37. Donovan O. Schaefer (2014). Blessed, Precious Mistakes: Deconstruction, Evolution, and New Atheism in America. International Journal for Philosophy of Religion 76 (1):75-94.score: 30.0
    This paper explores the ways that Daniel C. Dennett’s bestselling 2006 book Breaking the Spell traffics in a set of distinctly American presumptions about the relationship between religion and science. In this Americanized atheism, religion is presumed to be a set of logically organized propositional beliefs–a misbegotten science in need of correction or elimination. I show that a convergent critique, drawing on both evolutionary theory and deconstruction, highlights the limitations of this approach. This convergence highlights the theme of accident in (...)
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  38. David Lewis Schaefer (2000). Early Modern Skepticism and the Origins of Toleration (Review). Philosophy and Literature 24 (1):227-230.score: 30.0
    Through a glass darkly / Joshua Mitchell -- Skepticism, self, and toleration in Montaigne's political thought / Alan Levine -- French free-thinkers in the first decades of the Edict of Nantes / Maryanne Cline Horowitz -- Descartes and the question of toleration / Michael Gillepsie -- Toleration and the skepticism of religion in Spinoza's Tractatus Theologico-Politicus / Steven B. Smith -- Monopolizing faith / Alan Houston -- Skepticism and toleration in Hobbes' political thought / Shirley Letwin -- John Locke and (...)
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  39. Hillary S. Schaefer & Andrew L. Alexander R. Richard J. Davidson, : Gaze Fixation and the Neural Circuitry of Face Processing.score: 30.0
    ai Diminished gaze fixation is one of the core features of autism and has been proposed to be associated with abnormalities in the neural circuitry of affect. We tested this hypothesis in two separate studies using eye tracking while measuring functional brain activity during facial discrimination tasks in individuals with autism and in typically developing individuals. Activation in the fusiform gyrus and amygdala was strongly and positively correlated with the time spent fixating the eyes in the autistic group in both (...)
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  40. Brian Schaefer (2005). Human Rights. Social Theory and Practice 31 (1):27-50.score: 30.0
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  41. Jochen Schaefer (1980). The Case Against Coronary Artery Surgery. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics 1 (2):155-176.score: 30.0
    Coronary by-pass surgery has been performed in hundreds of thousands of patients in the last 15 years with a high standard of technical and surgical perfection. The indications for this kind of surgery, however, are still controversial because in spite of many retrospective and several prospective studies it cannot be proven convincingly that in a given patient this surgical procedure will prolong life or prevent myocardial infarction. The present attempt to analyze the causes for this controversy shows that the main (...)
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  42. Sonja Windhager, Dennis E. Slice, Katrin Schaefer, Elisabeth Oberzaucher, Truls Thorstensen & Karl Grammer (2008). Face to Face. Human Nature 19 (4):331-346.score: 30.0
    Over evolutionary time, humans have developed a selective sensitivity to features in the human face that convey information on sex, age, emotions, and intentions. This ability might not only be applied to our conspecifics nowadays, but also to other living objects (i.e., animals) and even to artificial structures, such as cars. To investigate this possibility, we asked people to report the characteristics, emotions, personality traits, and attitudes they attribute to car fronts, and we used geometric morphometrics (GM) and multivariate statistical (...)
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  43. Zeljko Durdevic & Matthias Schaefer (2013). Dnmt2 Methyltransferases and Immunity: An Ancient Overlooked Connection Between Nucleotide Modification and Host Defense? Bioessays 35 (12):1044-1049.score: 30.0
  44. Henry Schaefer (2004). Ethical Investment of German Non-Profit Organizations - Conceptual Outline and Empirical Results. Business Ethics 13 (4):269-287.score: 30.0
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  45. Linda D. Molm, David R. Schaefer & Jessica L. Collett (2009). Fragile and Resilient Trust: Risk and Uncertainty in Negotiated and Reciprocal Exchange. Sociological Theory 27 (1):1 - 32.score: 30.0
    Both experimental and ethnographic studies show that reciprocal exchanges (in which actors unilaterally provide benefits to each other without formal agreements) produce stronger trust than negotiated exchanges secured by binding agreements. We develop the theoretical role of risk and uncertainty as causal mechanisms that potentially explain these results, and then test their effects in two laboratory experiments that vary risk and uncertainty within negotiated and reciprocal forms of exchange. We increase risk in negotiated exchanges by making agreements nonbinding and decrease (...)
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  46. Thomas Schaefer (1965). El Problema de la Transcendencia En la Metafisica Actual. New Scholasticism 39 (3):400-403.score: 30.0
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  47. [deleted]Rebecca S. Schaefer (2014). Images of Time: Temporal Aspects of Auditory and Movement Imagination. Frontiers in Psychology 5.score: 30.0
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  48. Arthur Gross Schaefer (2001). Introduction. Spiritual Goods 2001:1-15.score: 30.0
    This introduction a) presents organized religion as a source of "spiritual goods" and briefly summarizes each of the seventeen tradition-centeredarticles; b) explains why organized religion merits the attention of business ethics; c) categorizes the articles according to rubrics useful for teaching and research; d) further explains the value of these essays to academic researchers, business practitioners, and spiritual seekers.
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  49. Alexandre Schaefer, Neural Correlates of “Hot” and “Cold” Emotional Processing: A Multilevel Approach to the Functional Anatomy of Emotion.score: 30.0
    The neural correlates of two hypothesized emotional processing modes, i.e., schematic and propositional modes, were investigated with positron emission tomography. Nineteen subjects performed an emotional mental imagery task while mentally repeating sentences linked to the meaning of the imagery script. In the schematic conditions, participants repeated metaphoric sentences, whereas in the propositional conditions, the sentences were explicit questions about specific emotional appraisals of the imagery scenario. Five types of emotional scripts were proposed to the subjects (happiness, anger, affection, sadness, and (...)
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  50. H. Schaefer (1966). Psychosomatic Problems of Vegetative Regulatory Functions. In John C. Eccles (ed.), Brain and Conscious Experience. Springer. 522--547.score: 30.0
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