Search results for 'Biology Experiments' (try it on Scholar)

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  1. Darrell P. Rowbottom (2011). Approximations, Idealizations and 'Experiments' at the Physics-Biology Interface. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (2):145-154.score: 146.0
    This paper, which is based on recent empirical research at the University of Leeds, the University of Edinburgh, and the University of Bristol, presents two difficulties which arise when condensed matter physicists interact with molecular biologists: (1) the former use models which appear to be too coarse-grained, approximate and/or idealized to serve a useful scientific purpose to the latter; and (2) the latter have a rather narrower view of what counts as an experiment, particularly when it comes to computer simulations, (...)
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  2. Marcel Weber, The Crux of Crucial Experiments: Confirmation in Molecular Biology.score: 144.0
    I defend the view that single experiments can provide a sufficient reason for preferring one among a group of hypotheses against the widely held belief that “crucial experiments” are impossible. My argument is based on the examination of a historical case from molecular biology, namely the Meselson-Stahl experiment. “The most beautiful experiment in biology”, as it is known, provided the first experimental evidence for the operation of a semi-conservative mechanism of DNA replication, as predicted by Watson (...)
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  3. Melinda B. Fagan (2011). Social Experiments in Stem Cell Biology. Perspectives on Science 19 (3):235-262.score: 144.0
    Stem cell biology is driven by experiment. Its major achievements are striking experimental productions: "immortal" human cell lines from spare embryos (Thomson et al. 1998); embryo-like cells from "reprogrammed" adult skin cells (Takahashi and Yamanaka 2006); muscle, blood and nerve tissue generated from stem cells in culture (Lanza et al. 2009, and references therein). Well-confirmed theories are not so prominent, though stem cell biologists do propose and test hypotheses at a profligate rate. 1 This paper aims to characterize the (...)
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  4. Henning Schmidgen (2006). The Uncertainty of Philosophical Experiments. Rezension Von: Marcel Weber," The Philosophy of Experimental Biology", Cambrigde: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Biological Theory 1 (4):434-435.score: 122.0
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  5. Henning Schmidgen (2006). The Uncertainty of Philosophical Experiments: Philosophy of Experimental Biology Marcel Weber Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 2005 (358 Pp; $75.00 Hbk; ISBN 0521829453). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 1 (4):434-435.score: 122.0
  6. Melinda Bonnie Fagan (2013). Human Experiments: Waves and Rifts in Synthetic Biology. [REVIEW] Metascience 22 (2):371-374.score: 120.0
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  7. Lisa Marie Meffert (1999). How Speciation Experiments Relate to Conservation Biology. Bioscience 49 (9):701.score: 120.0
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  8. David Wÿss Rudge (1999). Taking the Peppered Moth with a Grain of Salt. Biology and Philosophy 14 (1):9-37.score: 90.0
    H. B. D. Kettlewell's (1955, 1956) classic field experiments on industrial melanism in polluted and unpolluted settings using the peppered moth, Biston betularia, are routinely cited as establishing that the melanic (dark) form of the moth rose in frequency downwind of industrial centers because of the cryptic advantage dark coloration provides against visual predators in soot-darkened environments. This paper critiques three common myths surrounding these investigations: (1) that Kettlewell used a model that identified crypsis as the only selective force (...)
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  9. Soraya de Chadarevian (2006). Mice and the Reactor: The “Genetics Experiment” in 1950s Britain. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (4):707-735.score: 70.0
    The postwar investments by several governments into the development of atomic energy for military and peaceful uses fuelled the fears not only of the exposure to acute doses of radiation as could be expected from nuclear accidents or atomic warfare but also of the long-term effects of low-dose exposure to radiation. Following similar studies pursued under the aegis of the Manhattan Project in the United States, the “genetics experiment” discussed by scientists and government officials in Britain soon after the war, (...)
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  10. Scott Atran (1998). Folk Biology and the Anthropology of Science: Cognitive Universals and Cultural Particulars. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):547-569.score: 66.0
    This essay in the is about how cognition constrains culture in producing science. The example is folk biology, whose cultural recurrence issues from the very same domain-specific cognitive universals that provide the historical backbone of systematic biology. Humans everywhere think about plants and animals in highly structured ways. People have similar folk-biological taxonomies composed of essence-based, species-like groups and the ranking of species into lower- and higher-order groups. Such taxonomies are not as arbitrary in structure and content, nor (...)
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  11. Simon Beck (2004). Our Identity, Responsibility and Biology. Philosophical Papers:3-14.score: 66.0
    Eric Olson argues in The Human Animal that thought-experiments involving body-swapping do not in the end offer any support to psychological continuity theories, nor do they pose any threat to his Biological View. I argue that he is mistaken in at least the second claim.
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  12. Tudor Baetu (2012). Filling in the Mechanistic Details: Two-Variable Experiments as Tests for Constitutive Relevance. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):337-353.score: 66.0
    This paper provides an account of the experimental conditions required for establishing whether correlating or causally relevant factors are constitutive components of a mechanism connecting input (start) and output (finish) conditions. I argue that two-variable experiments, where both the initial conditions and a component postulated by the mechanism are simultaneously manipulated on an independent basis, are usually required in order to differentiate between correlating or causally relevant factors and constitutively relevant ones. Based on a typical research project molecular (...), a flowchart model detailing typical stages in the formulation and testing of hypotheses about mechanistic components is also developed. (shrink)
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  13. Fred C. Boogerd, Frank J. Bruggeman & Robert C. Richardson (2013). Mechanistic Explanations and Models in Molecular Systems Biology. Foundations of Science 18 (4):725-744.score: 66.0
    Mechanistic models in molecular systems biology are generally mathematical models of the action of networks of biochemical reactions, involving metabolism, signal transduction, and/or gene expression. They can be either simulated numerically or analyzed analytically. Systems biology integrates quantitative molecular data acquisition with mathematical models to design new experiments, discriminate between alternative mechanisms and explain the molecular basis of cellular properties. At the heart of this approach are mechanistic models of molecular networks. We focus on the articulation and (...)
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  14. Joel B. Hagen (1999). Retelling Experiments: H.B.D. Kettlewell's Studies of Industrial Melanism in Peppered Moths. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 14 (1):39-54.score: 64.0
    H. B. D. Kettlewell's field experiments on industrial melanism in the peppered moth, Biston betularia, have become the best known demonstration of natural selection in <span class='Hi'>action</span>. I argue that textbook accounts routinely portray this research as an example of controlled experimentation, even though this is historically misleading. I examine how idealized accounts of Kettlewell's research have been used by professional biologists and biology teachers. I also respond to some criticisms of David Rudge to my earlier discussions of (...)
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  15. Liz Stillwaggon Swan (2009). Synthesizing Insight: Artificial Life as Thought Experimentation in Biology. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):687-701.score: 60.0
    What is artificial life? Much has been said about this interesting collection of efforts to artificially simulate and synthesize lifelike behavior and processes, yet we are far from having a robust philosophical understanding of just what Alifers are doing and why it ought to interest philosophers of science, and philosophers of biology in particular. In this paper, I first provide three introductory examples from the particular subset of artificial life I focus on, known as ‘soft Alife’ (s-Alife), and follow (...)
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  16. Melinda Fagan (2012). Waddington Redux: Models and Explanation in Stem Cell and Systems Biology. Biology and Philosophy 27 (2):179-213.score: 60.0
    Stem cell biology and systems biology are two prominent new approaches to studying cell development. In stem cell biology, the predominant method is experimental manipulation of concrete cells and tissues. Systems biology, in contrast, emphasizes mathematical modeling of cellular systems. For scientists and philosophers interested in development, an important question arises: how should the two approaches relate? This essay proposes an answer, using the model of Waddington’s landscape to triangulate between stem cell and systems approaches. This (...)
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  17. Edoardo Datteri & Guglielmo Tamburrini (2007). Biorobotic Experiments for the Discovery of Biological Mechanisms. Philosophy of Science 74 (3):409-430.score: 60.0
    Robots are being extensively used for the purpose of discovering and testing empirical hypotheses about biological sensorimotor mechanisms. We examine here methodological problems that have to be addressed in order to design and perform “good” experiments with these machine models. These problems notably concern the mapping of biological mechanism descriptions into robotic mechanism descriptions; the distinction between theoretically unconstrained “implementation details” and robotic features that carry a modeling weight; the role of preliminary calibration experiments; the monitoring of experimental (...)
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  18. Jacob Stegenga (2009). Philosophy of Experimental Biology. Erkenntnis 71 (3):431-436.score: 60.0
    Philosophers have committed sins while studying science, it is said – philosophy of science focused on physics to the detriment of biology, reconstructed idealizations of scientific episodes rather than attending to historical details, and focused on theories and concepts to the detriment of experiments. Recent generations of philosophers of science have tried to atone for these sins, and by the 1980s the exculpation was in full swing. Marcel Weber’s Philosophy of Experimental Biology is a zenith mea culpa (...)
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  19. Christina Matta (2010). Spontaneous Generation and Disease Causation: Anton de Bary's Experiments with Phytophthora Infestans and Late Blight of Potato. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 43 (3):459 - 491.score: 60.0
    Anton de Bary is best known for his elucidation of the life cycle of Phytopthora infestans, the causal organism of late blight of potato and the crop losses that caused famine in nineteenth-century Europe. But while practitioner histories often claim this accomplishment as a founding moment of modern plant pathology, closer examination of de Bary's experiments and his published work suggest that his primary motiviation for pursing this research was based in developmental biology, not agriculture. De Bary shied (...)
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  20. Giyoo Hatano (1998). Informal Biology is a Core Domain, but its Construction Needs Experience. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):575-575.score: 60.0
    Although humans are endowed with domain-specific constraints for acquiring informal biology, its construction requires considerable experience with living things and their cultural representations. Less experienced adults may not know what constitutes generic species, and young children may rely on personification rather than category-based inference. Atran's postulate of the living-kind module that promptly produces universal folk taxonomy does not seem tenable.
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  21. William D. Lotspeich (1965). How Scientists Find Out. Boston, Little, Brown.score: 60.0
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  22. Marcel Weber (forthcoming). Experimental Modeling in Biology: In Vivo Representation and Stand-Ins As Modeling Strategies. Philosophy of Science.score: 56.0
    Experimental modeling in biology involves the use of living organisms (not necessarily so-called "model organisms") in order to model or simulate biological processes. I argue here that experimental modeling is a bona fide form of scientific modeling that plays an epistemic role that is distinct from that of ordinary biological experiments. What distinguishes them from ordinary experiments is that they use what I call "in vivo representations" where one kind of causal process is used to stand in (...)
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  23. Marcel Weber (2009). The Crux of Crucial Experiments: Duhem's Problems and Inference to the Best Explanation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (1):19-49.score: 54.0
    Going back at least to Duhem, there is a tradition of thinking that crucial experiments are impossible in science. I analyse Duhem's arguments and show that they are based on the excessively strong assumption that only deductive reasoning is permissible in experimental science. This opens the possibility that some principle of inductive inference could provide a sufficient reason for preferring one among a group of hypotheses on the basis of an appropriately controlled experiment. To be sure, there are analogues (...)
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  24. Bijoy Mukherjee (2012). Experiments and Research Programmes. Revisiting Vitalism/Non-Vitalism Debate in Early Twentieth Century. ARGUMENT 2 (1):171-197.score: 54.0
    Debates in the philosophy of science typically take place around issues such as realism and theory change. Recently, the debate has been reformulated to bring in the role of experiments in the context of theory change. As regards realism, Ian Hacking’s contribution has been to introduce ‘intervention’ as the basis of realism. He also proposed, following Imre Lakatos, to replace the issue of truth with progress and rationality. In this context we examine the case of the vitalism — reductionism (...)
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  25. L. R. Franklin (2005). Exploratory Experiments. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):888-899.score: 54.0
    Philosophers of experiment have acknowledged that experiments are often more than mere hypothesis-tests, once thought to be an experiment's exclusive calling. Drawing on examples from contemporary biology, I make an additional amendment to our understanding of experiment by examining the way that `wide' instrumentation can, for reasons of efficiency, lead scientists away from traditional hypothesis-directed methods of experimentation and towards exploratory methods.
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  26. James Maffie (1997). “Just-so” Stories About “Inner Cognitive Africa”: Some Doubts About Sorensen's Evolutionary Epistemology of Thought Experiments. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 12 (2):207-224.score: 54.0
    Roy Sorensen advances an evolutionary explanation of our capacity for thought experiments which doubles as a naturalized epistemological justification. I argue Sorensens explanation fails to satisfy key elements of environmental-selectionist explanations and so fails to carry epistemic force. I then argue that even if Sorensen succeeds in showing the adaptive utility of our capacity, he still fails to establish its reliability and hence epistemic utility. I conclude Sorensens account comes to little more than a just-so story.
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  27. Melinda Fagan, Experimental Standards: Evaluating Success in Stem Cell Biology.score: 54.0
    This paper aims to bring the epistemic dimensions of stem cell experiments out of the background, and show that they can be critically evaluated. After introducing some basic concepts of stem cell biology, I set out the current “gold standard” for experimental success in that field (§2). I then trace the origin of this standard to a 1988 controversy over blood stem cells (§3). Understanding the outcome of this controversy requires attention to the details of experimental techniques, the (...)
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  28. Hsiang-Ke Chao, Szu-Ting Chen & Roberta L. Millstein (2013). Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics. Springer.score: 54.0
    This volume addresses fundamental issues in the philosophy of science in the context of two most intriguing fields: biology and economics. Written by authorities and experts in the philosophy of biology and economics, Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics provides a structured study of the concepts of mechanism and causality in these disciplines and draws careful juxtapositions between philosophical apparatus and scientific practice. By exploring the issues that are most salient to the contemporary philosophies of (...) and economics and by presenting comparative analyses, the book serves as a platform not only for gaining mutual understanding between scientists and philosophers of the life sciences and those of the social sciences, but also for sharing interdisciplinary research that combines both philosophical concepts in both fields. -/- The book begins by defining the concepts of mechanism and causality in biology and economics, respectively. The second and third parts investigate philosophical perspectives of various causal and mechanistic issues in scientific practice in the two fields. These two sections include chapters on causal issues in the theory of evolution; experiments and scientific discovery; representation of causal relations and mechanism by models in economics. The concluding section presents interdisciplinary studies of various topics concerning extrapolation of life sciences and social sciences, including chapters on the philosophical investigation of conjoining biological and economic analyses with, respectively, demography, medicine and sociology. (shrink)
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  29. Wim J. van der Steen & Vincent K. Y. Ho (2006). Diets and Circadian Rhythms: Challenges From Biology for Medicine. Acta Biotheoretica 54 (4).score: 54.0
    Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and gastrointestinal disorders such as stomach ulcers are often treated with drugs. NSAIDs, a common treatment in rheumatoid arthritis, may cause stomach ulcers which call for additional medications, notably antacids in the sense of drugs that suppress acid secretion by the stomach. Infection with Helicobacter pylori also plays a role in the ulcers. The infection is typically treated with antibiotics added to antacids. Considering NSAIDs and antacids, we suspect that overmedication is common to the (...)
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  30. Michael Lynch & Kathleen Jordan (1995). Instructed Actions in, of and as Molecular Biology. Human Studies 18 (2-3):227 - 244.score: 54.0
    A recurrent theme in ethnomethodological research is that of instructed actions. Contrary to the classic traditions in the social and cognitive sciences, which attribute logical priority or causal primacy to instructions, rules, and structures of action, ethnomethodologists investigate the situated production of actions which enable such formulations to stand as adequate accounts. Consequently, a recitation of formal structures can not count as an adequate sociological description, when no account is given of the local production ofwhat those structures describe. The natural (...)
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  31. Melinda Bonnie Fagan (2013). Philosophy of Stem Cell Biology – an Introduction. Philosophy Compass 8 (12):1147-1158.score: 54.0
    This review surveys three central issues in philosophy of stem cell biology: the nature of stem cells, stem cell experiments, and explanations of stem cell capacities. First, I argue that the fundamental question ‘what is a stem cell?’ has no single substantive answer. Instead, the core idea is explicated via an abstract model, which accounts for many features of stem cell experiments. The second part of this essay examines several of these features: uncertainty, model organisms, and manipulability. (...)
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  32. Heiner Fangerau & Irmgard Müller (2007). Scientific Exchange: Jacques Loeb (1859–1924) and Emil Godlewski (1875–1944) as Representatives of a Transatlantic Developmental Biology. [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (3):608-617.score: 54.0
    The German–American physiologist Jacques Loeb (1859–1924) and the Polish embryologist Emil Godlewski, jr. (1875–1944) contributed many valuable works to the body of developmental biology. Jacques Loeb was world famous at the beginning of the twentieth century for his development and demonstration of artificial parthenogenesis in 1899 and his experiments on regeneration. He served as a role model for the younger Polish experimenter Emil Godlewski, who began his career as a researcher like Loeb at the Zoological Station in Naples. (...)
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  33. Kenneth F. Schaffner (1994). Interactions Among Theory, Experiment, and Technology in Molecular Biology. PSA: Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association 1994:192 - 205.score: 54.0
    This article examines how a molecular "solution" to an important biological problem-how is antibody diversity generated? was obtained in the 1970s. After the primarily biological clonal selection theory (CST) was accepted by 1967, immunologists developed several different contrasting theories to complete the SCST. To choose among these theories, immunology had to turn to the new molecular biology, first to nucleic acid hybridization and then to recombinant DNA technology. The research programs of Tonegawa and Leder that led to the "solution" (...)
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  34. Edmond A. Murphy (1982). The Analysis and Interpretation of Experiments: Some Philosophical Issues. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 7 (4):307-326.score: 54.0
    The epistemology and ontology of experimentation are discussed in depth with special reference to biology and medicine. Two types of experiments are distinguished: exploratory (or "blazing") and consolidating. They Have objectives and canons that are strikingly different. A contrast is drawn between the literalism of the most pragmatic scientists and the formalism of most statisticians. The terms and notions of the one may have imperfect correspondence with those of the other, or perhaps none at all. The dangers are (...)
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  35. M. Jeuken (1983). Thinking About Mind and Matter From Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 32 (2).score: 54.0
    In biology, man is an object of research; therefore the question might be asked whether inspirations can go from biological data to the reflections on the mind-matter relation in man. The social aspect of man, as treated by sociobiology, is left out of consideration. The knowledge that man is mind, or has a mind, is no result of biological research. It is a datum from philosophy. The biologist, however, is living in a culture which knows about the mental character (...)
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  36. D. M. Yeager (2003). From Biology to Social Experience to Morality. Tradition and Discovery 30 (3):31-39.score: 54.0
    Placing Goodenough and Deacon’s “From Biology to Consciousness to Morality” against the background of the ethical naturalism of seventeenth- and eighteenth-century British moral theory, Yeager highlights the contribution the authors make to the moral sense tradition as well as indicating the limitations of such accounts of moral agency, judgment, and conduct. Yeager also identifies two strands of the essay that seem to open toward a more comprehensive account than the authors actually give. The first concerns the “interplay between self-interest (...)
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  37. David Wÿss Rudge (1998). A Bayesian Analysis of Strategies in Evolutionary Biology. Perspectives on Science 6 (4):341-360.score: 54.0
    : Most work done in philosophy of experiment has focused on experiments taken from the domain of physics. The present essay tests whether Allan Franklin's (1984, 1986, 1989, 1990) philosophy of experiment developed in the context of high energy physics can be extended to include examples from evolutionary biology, such as H. B. D. Kettlewell's (1955, 1956, 1958) famous studies of industrial melanism in the peppered moth, Biston betularia. The analysis demonstrates that many of the techniques used by (...)
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  38. John Lemos (2004). Psychological Hedonism, Evolutionary Biology, and the Experience Machine. Philosophy of the Social Sciences 34 (4):506-526.score: 48.0
    In the second half of their recent, critically acclaimed book Unto Others: The Evolution and Psychology of Unselfish Behavior , Elliott Sober and David Sloan Wilson discuss psychological hedonism. This is the view that avoiding our own pain and increasing our own pleasure are the only ultimate motives people have. They argue that none of the traditional philosophical arguments against this view are good, and they go on to present theirownevolutionary biological argument against it. Interestingly, the first half of their (...)
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  39. Edoardo Datteri (2009). Simulation Experiments in Bionics: A Regulative Methodological Perspective. Biology and Philosophy 24 (3):301-324.score: 48.0
    Bionic technologies connecting biological nervous systems to computer or robotic devices for therapeutic purposes have been recently claimed to provide novel experimental tools for the investigation of biological mechanisms. This claim is examined here by means of a methodological analysis of bionics-supported experimental inquiries on adaptive sensory-motor behaviours. Two broad classes of bionic systems (regarded here as hybrid simulations of the target biological system) are identified, which differ from each other according to whether a component of the biological target system (...)
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  40. Cheryl A. Logan (2001). "[A]Re Norway Rats... Things?": Diversity Versus Generality in the Use of Albino Rats in Experiments on Development and Sexuality. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 34 (2):287 - 314.score: 48.0
    In America by the 1930s, albino rats had become a kind of generic standard in research on physiology and behavior that de-emphasized diversity across species. However, prior to about 1915, the early work of many of the pioneer rat researchers in America and in central Europe reflected a strong interest in species differences and a deep regard for diversity. These scientists sought broad, often medical, generality, but their quest for generality using a standard animal did not entail a de-emphasis of (...)
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  41. Arline T. Geronimus, Margaret T. Hicken, Jay A. Pearson, Sarah J. Seashols, Kelly L. Brown & Tracey Dawson Cruz (2010). Do US Black Women Experience Stress-Related Accelerated Biological Aging? Human Nature 21 (1):19-38.score: 48.0
    We hypothesize that black women experience accelerated biological aging in response to repeated or prolonged adaptation to subjective and objective stressors. Drawing on stress physiology and ethnographic, social science, and public health literature, we lay out the rationale for this hypothesis. We also perform a first population-based test of its plausibility, focusing on telomere length, a biomeasure of aging that may be shortened by stressors. Analyzing data from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), we estimate that at (...)
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  42. Jack Wilson (1999). Biological Individuality: The Identity and Persistence of Living Entities. Cambridge University Press.score: 46.0
    What makes a biological entity an individual? Jack Wilson shows that past philosophers have failed to explicate the conditions an entity must satisfy to be a living individual. He explores the reason for this failure and explains why we should limit ourselves to examples involving real organisms rather than thought experiments. This book explores and resolves paradoxes that arise when one applies past notions of individuality to biological examples beyond the conventional range, and presents a new analysis of identity (...)
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  43. Elisabeth A. Lloyd (1999). Evolutionary Psychology: The Burdens or Proof. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 14 (2):211-33.score: 42.0
    I discuss two types of evidential problems with the most widely touted experiments in evolutionary psychology, those performed by Leda Cosmides and interpreted by Cosmides and John Tooby. First, and despite Cosmides and Tooby's claims to the contrary, these experiments don't fulfil the standards of evidence of evolutionary biology. Second Cosmides and Tooby claim to have performed a crucial experiment, and to have eliminated rival approaches. Though they claim that their results are consistent with their theory but (...)
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  44. Michael R. Dietrich (1996). Monte Carlo Experiments and the Defense of Diffusion Models in Molecular Population Genetics. Biology and Philosophy 11 (3):339-356.score: 42.0
    In the 1960s molecular population geneticists used Monte Carlo experiments to evaluate particular diffusion equation models. In this paper I examine the nature of this comparative evaluation and argue for three claims: first, Monte Carlo experiments are genuine experiments: second, Monte Carlo experiments can provide an important meansfor evaluating the adequacy of highly idealized theoretical models; and, third, the evaluation of the computational adequacy of a diffusion model with Monte Carlo experiments is significantlydifferent from the (...)
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  45. Tobias Cheung (2013). Limits of Life and Death: Legallois's Decapitation Experiments. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 46 (2):283-313.score: 42.0
    In Expériences sur le principe de la vie (Chez D’Hautel, Paris, 1812), Jean César Legallois, a French physician and physiologist, explored the basic regulatory framework of vital processes of warm-blooded animals. He decapitated rabbits and cut off their limbs in order to search for a seat of life that is located in the spinal cord. Through ligatures and artificial pulmonary insufflations, he kept the trunks of rabbits alive for some minutes. Legallois thus criticized models of organic order in which the (...)
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  46. Maurizio Esposito (2013). Weismann Versus Morgan Revisited: Clashing Interpretations on Animal Regeneration. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 46 (3):511-541.score: 42.0
    This paper has three principal aims: first, through a detailed analysis of the hypotheses and assumptions underlying Weismann’s and Morgan’s disagreement on the nature of animal regeneration, it seeks to readdress the imbalance in coverage of their discussion, providing, at the same time, a fascinating case-study for those interested in general issues related to controversies in science. Second, contrary to Morgan’s beliefs according to which Weismann employed a speculative and unempirical method of scientific investigation, the article shows that Weismann performed (...)
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  47. Miles MacLeod & Nancy J. Nersessian (2013). Coupling Simulation and Experiment: The Bimodal Strategy in Integrative Systems Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (4):572-584.score: 42.0
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  48. Lisa Onaga (2010). Toyama Kametaro and Vernon Kellogg: Silkworm Inheritance Experiments in Japan, Siam, and the United States, 1900-1912. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 43 (2):215 - 264.score: 42.0
    Japanese agricultural scientist Toyama Kametaro's report about the Mendelian inheritance of silkworm cocoon color in Studies on the Hybridology of Insects (1906) spurred changes in Japanese silk production and thrust Toyama and his work into a scholarly exchange with American entomologist Vernon Kellogg. Toyama's work, based on research conducted in Japan and Siam, came under international scrutiny at a time when analyses of inheritance flourished after the "rediscovery" of Mendel's laws of heredity in 1900. The hybrid silkworm studies in Asia (...)
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  49. Federico Di Trocchio (1991). Mendel's Experiments: A Reinterpretation. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 24 (3):485-519.score: 42.0
    My conclusion is that Mendel deliberately, though without any real falsification, tried to suggest to his audience and readers an unlikely and substantially wrong reconstruction of the first and most important phase of his research. In my book I offer many reasons for this strange and surprising behavior,53 but the main argument rests on the fact of linkage. Mendelian genetics cannot account for linkage because it was based on the idea of applying probability theory to the problem of species evolution. (...)
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  50. Bruce Greyson (1997). Biological Aspects of Near-Death Experiences. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 42 (1):14-32.score: 42.0
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