Search results for 'Biology Experiments' (try it on Scholar)

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  1.  56
    Marco Buzzoni (2015). Causality, Teleology, and Thought Experiments in Biology. Journal for General Philosophy of Science / Zeitschrift für Allgemeine Wissenschaftstheorie 46 (2):279-299.
    Thought experiments de facto play many different roles in biology: economical, ethical, technical and so forth. This paper, however, is interested in whether there are any distinctive features of biological TEs as such. The question may be settled in the affirmative because TEs in biology have a function that is intimately connected with the epistemological and methodological status of biology. Peculiar to TEs in biology is the fact that the reflexive, typically human concept of finality (...)
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  2.  32
    Melinda B. Fagan (2011). Social Experiments in Stem Cell Biology. Perspectives on Science 19 (3):235-262.
    Stem cell biology is driven by experiment. Its major achievements are striking experimental productions: "immortal" human cell lines from spare embryos (Thomson et al. 1998); embryo-like cells from "reprogrammed" adult skin cells (Takahashi and Yamanaka 2006); muscle, blood and nerve tissue generated from stem cells in culture (Lanza et al. 2009, and references therein). Well-confirmed theories are not so prominent, though stem cell biologists do propose and test hypotheses at a profligate rate. 1 This paper aims to characterize the (...)
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  3.  27
    Marcel Weber, The Crux of Crucial Experiments: Confirmation in Molecular Biology.
    I defend the view that single experiments can provide a sufficient reason for preferring one among a group of hypotheses against the widely held belief that “crucial experiments” are impossible. My argument is based on the examination of a historical case from molecular biology, namely the Meselson-Stahl experiment. “The most beautiful experiment in biology”, as it is known, provided the first experimental evidence for the operation of a semi-conservative mechanism of DNA replication, as predicted by Watson (...)
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  4. David Wyss Rudge (1996). A Philosophical Analysis of the Role of Selection Experiments in Evolutionary Biology. Dissertation, University of Pittsburgh
    My dissertation philosophically analyzes experiments in evolutionary biology, an area of science where experimental approaches have tended to supplement, rather than supercede more traditional approaches, such as field observations. I conduct the analysis on the basis of three case studies of famous episodes in the history of selection experiments: H. B. D. Kettlewell's investigations of industrial melanism in the Peppered Moth, Biston betularia; two of Th. Dobzhansky's studies of adaptive radiation in the fruit fly, Drosophila pseudoobscura; and (...)
     
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  5. Darrell P. Rowbottom (2011). Approximations, Idealizations and 'Experiments' at the Physics-Biology Interface. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (2):145-154.
    This paper, which is based on recent empirical research at the University of Leeds, the University of Edinburgh, and the University of Bristol, presents two difficulties which arise when condensed matter physicists interact with molecular biologists: (1) the former use models which appear to be too coarse-grained, approximate and/or idealized to serve a useful scientific purpose to the latter; and (2) the latter have a rather narrower view of what counts as an experiment, particularly when it comes to computer simulations, (...)
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  6.  19
    Darrell P. Rowbottom (2011). Approximations, Idealizations and ‘Experiments’ at the Physics–Biology Interface. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 42 (2):145-154.
    This paper, which is based on recent empirical research at the University of Leeds, the University of Edinburgh, and the University of Bristol, presents two difficulties which arise when condensed matter physicists interact with molecular biologists: the former use models which appear to be too coarse-grained, approximate and/or idealized to serve a useful scientific purpose to the latter; and the latter have a rather narrower view of what counts as an experiment, particularly when it comes to computer simulations, than the (...)
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  7.  26
    Emanuele Ratti (2015). Big Data Biology: Between Eliminative Inferences and Exploratory Experiments. Philosophy of Science 82 (2):198-218.
    Recently, biologists have argued that data - driven biology fosters a new scientific methodology; namely, one that is irreducible to traditional methodologies of molecular biology defined as the discovery strategies elucidated by mechanistic philosophy. Here I show how data - driven studies can be included into the traditional mechanistic approach in two respects. On the one hand, some studies provide eliminative inferential procedures to prioritize and develop mechanistic hypotheses. On the other, different studies play an exploratory role in (...)
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  8.  10
    Melinda Bonnie Fagan (2013). Human Experiments: Waves and Rifts in Synthetic Biology. [REVIEW] Metascience 22 (2):371-374.
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  9.  2
    Henning Schmidgen (2006). The Uncertainty of Philosophical Experiments. Rezension Von: Marcel Weber," The Philosophy of Experimental Biology", Cambrigde: Cambridge University Press, 2005. Biological Theory 1 (4):434-435.
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  10.  1
    Henning Schmidgen (2006). The Uncertainty of Philosophical Experiments: Philosophy of Experimental Biology Marcel Weber Cambridge : Cambridge University Press , 2005 (358 Pp; $75.00 Hbk; ISBN 0521829453). [REVIEW] Biological Theory 1 (4):434-435.
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  11.  8
    David Wÿss Rudge (1999). Taking the Peppered Moth with a Grain of Salt. Biology and Philosophy 14 (1):9-37.
    H. B. D. Kettlewell's (1955, 1956) classic field experiments on industrial melanism in polluted and unpolluted settings using the peppered moth, Biston betularia, are routinely cited as establishing that the melanic (dark) form of the moth rose in frequency downwind of industrial centers because of the cryptic advantage dark coloration provides against visual predators in soot-darkened environments. This paper critiques three common myths surrounding these investigations: (1) that Kettlewell used a model that identified crypsis as the only selective force (...)
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  12.  52
    Liz Stillwaggon Swan (2009). Synthesizing Insight: Artificial Life as Thought Experimentation in Biology. Biology and Philosophy 24 (5):687-701.
    What is artificial life? Much has been said about this interesting collection of efforts to artificially simulate and synthesize lifelike behavior and processes, yet we are far from having a robust philosophical understanding of just what Alifers are doing and why it ought to interest philosophers of science, and philosophers of biology in particular. In this paper, I first provide three introductory examples from the particular subset of artificial life I focus on, known as ‘soft Alife’ (s-Alife), and follow (...)
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  13.  12
    Jacob Stegenga (2009). Philosophy of Experimental Biology. Erkenntnis 71 (3):431-436.
    Philosophers have committed sins while studying science, it is said – philosophy of science focused on physics to the detriment of biology, reconstructed idealizations of scientific episodes rather than attending to historical details, and focused on theories and concepts to the detriment of experiments. Recent generations of philosophers of science have tried to atone for these sins, and by the 1980s the exculpation was in full swing. Marcel Weber’s Philosophy of Experimental Biology is a zenith mea culpa (...)
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  14. Scott Atran (1998). Folk Biology and the Anthropology of Science: Cognitive Universals and Cultural Particulars. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 21 (4):547-569.
    This essay in the is about how cognition constrains culture in producing science. The example is folk biology, whose cultural recurrence issues from the very same domain-specific cognitive universals that provide the historical backbone of systematic biology. Humans everywhere think about plants and animals in highly structured ways. People have similar folk-biological taxonomies composed of essence-based, species-like groups and the ranking of species into lower- and higher-order groups. Such taxonomies are not as arbitrary in structure and content, nor (...)
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  15.  42
    Tudor Baetu (2012). Filling in the Mechanistic Details: Two-Variable Experiments as Tests for Constitutive Relevance. [REVIEW] European Journal for Philosophy of Science 2 (3):337-353.
    This paper provides an account of the experimental conditions required for establishing whether correlating or causally relevant factors are constitutive components of a mechanism connecting input (start) and output (finish) conditions. I argue that two-variable experiments, where both the initial conditions and a component postulated by the mechanism are simultaneously manipulated on an independent basis, are usually required in order to differentiate between correlating or causally relevant factors and constitutively relevant ones. Based on a typical research project molecular (...), a flowchart model detailing typical stages in the formulation and testing of hypotheses about mechanistic components is also developed. (shrink)
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  16.  2
    Emanuele Ratti & Federico Boem (forthcoming). Towards a Notion of Intervention in Big-Data Biology and Molecular Medicine. In Marco Nathan & Giovanni Boniolo (eds.), Foundational Issues in Molecular Medicine. Routledge
    We claim that in contemporary studies in molecular biology and biomedicine, the nature of ‘manipulation’ and ‘intervention’ has changed. Traditionally, molecular biology and molecular studies in medicine are considered experimental sciences, whereas experiments take the form of material manipulation and intervention. On the contrary “big science” projects in biology focus on the practice of data mining of biological databases. We argue that the practice of data mining is a form of intervention although it does not require (...)
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  17. Mirko Ancillotti, Virgil Rerimassie, Stefanie B. Seitz & Walburg Steurer (forthcoming). An Update of Public Perceptions of Synthetic Biology: Still Undecided? NanoEthics:1-17.
    The discourse on the fundamental issues raised by synthetic biology, such as biosafety and biosecurity, intellectual property, environmental consequences and ethical and societal implications, is still open and controversial. This, coupled with the potential and risks the field holds, makes it one of the hottest topics in technology assessment today. How a new technology is perceived by the public influences the manner in which its products and applications will be received. Therefore, it is important to learn how people perceive (...)
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  18.  45
    Melinda Fagan (2012). Waddington Redux: Models and Explanation in Stem Cell and Systems Biology. Biology and Philosophy 27 (2):179-213.
    Stem cell biology and systems biology are two prominent new approaches to studying cell development. In stem cell biology, the predominant method is experimental manipulation of concrete cells and tissues. Systems biology, in contrast, emphasizes mathematical modeling of cellular systems. For scientists and philosophers interested in development, an important question arises: how should the two approaches relate? This essay proposes an answer, using the model of Waddington’s landscape to triangulate between stem cell and systems approaches. This (...)
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  19.  23
    Ray Hilborn & Stephen C. Stearns (1982). On Inference in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology: The Problem of Multiple Causes. Acta Biotheoretica 31 (3):145-164.
    If one investigates a process that has several causes but assumes that it has only one cause, one risks ruling out important causal factors. Three mechanisms account for this mistake: either the significance of the single cause under test is masked by noise contributed by the unsuspected and uncontrolled factors, or the process appears only when two or more causes interact, or the process appears when there are present any of a number of sufficient causes which are not mutally exclusive. (...)
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  20.  5
    Soraya de Chadarevian (2006). Mice and the Reactor: The “Genetics Experiment” in 1950s Britain. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 39 (4):707-735.
    The postwar investments by several governments into the development of atomic energy for military and peaceful uses fuelled the fears not only of the exposure to acute doses of radiation as could be expected from nuclear accidents or atomic warfare but also of the long-term effects of low-dose exposure to radiation. Following similar studies pursued under the aegis of the Manhattan Project in the United States, the “genetics experiment” discussed by scientists and government officials in Britain soon after the war, (...)
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  21.  76
    Joel B. Hagen (1999). Retelling Experiments: H.B.D. Kettlewell's Studies of Industrial Melanism in Peppered Moths. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 14 (1):39-54.
    H. B. D. Kettlewell's field experiments on industrial melanism in the peppered moth, Biston betularia, have become the best known demonstration of natural selection in action. I argue that textbook accounts routinely portray this research as an example of controlled experimentation, even though this is historically misleading. I examine how idealized accounts of Kettlewell's research have been used by professional biologists and biology teachers. I also respond to some criticisms of David Rudge to my earlier discussions of this (...)
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  22.  3
    Christina Matta (2010). Spontaneous Generation and Disease Causation: Anton de Bary's Experiments with Phytophthora Infestans and Late Blight of Potato. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 43 (3):459 - 491.
    Anton de Bary is best known for his elucidation of the life cycle of Phytopthora infestans, the causal organism of late blight of potato and the crop losses that caused famine in nineteenth-century Europe. But while practitioner histories often claim this accomplishment as a founding moment of modern plant pathology, closer examination of de Bary's experiments and his published work suggest that his primary motiviation for pursing this research was based in developmental biology, not agriculture. De Bary shied (...)
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  23. William D. Lotspeich (1965). How Scientists Find Out. Boston, Little, Brown.
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  24. L. R. Franklin (2005). Exploratory Experiments. Philosophy of Science 72 (5):888-899.
    Philosophers of experiment have acknowledged that experiments are often more than mere hypothesis-tests, once thought to be an experiment's exclusive calling. Drawing on examples from contemporary biology, I make an additional amendment to our understanding of experiment by examining the way that `wide' instrumentation can, for reasons of efficiency, lead scientists away from traditional hypothesis-directed methods of experimentation and towards exploratory methods.
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  25. Marcel Weber (2014). Experimental Modeling in Biology: In Vivo Representation and Stand-Ins As Modeling Strategies. Philosophy of Science 81 (5):756-769.
    Experimental modeling in biology involves the use of living organisms (not necessarily so-called "model organisms") in order to model or simulate biological processes. I argue here that experimental modeling is a bona fide form of scientific modeling that plays an epistemic role that is distinct from that of ordinary biological experiments. What distinguishes them from ordinary experiments is that they use what I call "in vivo representations" where one kind of causal process is used to stand in (...)
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  26.  10
    Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers (2013). Basic Science Through Engineering? Synthetic Modeling and the Idea of Biology-Inspired Engineering. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (2):158-169.
    Synthetic biology is often understood in terms of the pursuit for well-characterized biological parts to create synthetic wholes. Accordingly, it has typically been conceived of as an engineering dominated and application oriented field. We argue that the relationship of synthetic biology to engineering is far more nuanced than that and involves a sophisticated epistemic dimension, as shown by the recent practice of synthetic modeling. Synthetic models are engineered genetic networks that are implanted in a natural cell environment. Their (...)
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  27. Marcel Weber (2009). The Crux of Crucial Experiments: Duhem's Problems and Inference to the Best Explanation. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 60 (1):19-49.
    Going back at least to Duhem, there is a tradition of thinking that crucial experiments are impossible in science. I analyse Duhem's arguments and show that they are based on the excessively strong assumption that only deductive reasoning is permissible in experimental science. This opens the possibility that some principle of inductive inference could provide a sufficient reason for preferring one among a group of hypotheses on the basis of an appropriately controlled experiment. To be sure, there are analogues (...)
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  28.  20
    Tarja Knuuttila & Andrea Loettgers, Modeling and Experimenting: The Combinatorial Strategy in Synthetic Biology.
    In which respects do modeling and experimenting resemble or differ from each other? We explore this question through studying in detail the combinatorial strategy in synthetic biology whereby scientists triangulate experimentation on model organisms, mathematical modeling, and synthetic modeling. We argue that this combinatorial strategy is due to the characteristic constraints of the three epistemic activities. Moreover, our case study shows that in some cases materiality clearly matters, in fact it provides the very rationale of synthetic modeling. We will (...)
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  29.  87
    Bijoy Mukherjee (2012). Experiments and Research Programmes. Revisiting Vitalism/Non-Vitalism Debate in Early Twentieth Century. Argument: Biannual Philosophical Journal 2 (1):171-197.
    Debates in the philosophy of science typically take place around issues such as realism and theory change. Recently, the debate has been reformulated to bring in the role of experiments in the context of theory change. As regards realism, Ian Hacking’s contribution has been to introduce ‘intervention’ as the basis of realism. He also proposed, following Imre Lakatos, to replace the issue of truth with progress and rationality. In this context we examine the case of the vitalism — reductionism (...)
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  30.  14
    Angela N. H. Creager (2009). Phosphorus-32 in the Phage Group: Radioisotopes as Historical Tracers of Molecular Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 40 (1):29-42.
    The recent historiography of molecular biology features key technologies, instruments and materials, which offer a different view of the field and its turning points than preceding intellectual and institutional histories. Radioisotopes, in this vein, became essential tools in postwar life science research, including molecular biology, and are here analyzed through their use in experiments on bacteriophage. Isotopes were especially well suited for studying the dynamics of chemical transformation over time, through metabolic pathways or life cycles. Scientists labeled (...)
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  31.  23
    Melinda Bonnie Fagan (2013). Philosophy of Stem Cell Biology – an Introduction. Philosophy Compass 8 (12):1147-1158.
    This review surveys three central issues in philosophy of stem cell biology: the nature of stem cells, stem cell experiments, and explanations of stem cell capacities. First, I argue that the fundamental question ‘what is a stem cell?’ has no single substantive answer. Instead, the core idea is explicated via an abstract model, which accounts for many features of stem cell experiments. The second part of this essay examines several of these features: uncertainty, model organisms, and manipulability. (...)
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  32. James Maffie (1997). “Just-so” Stories About “Inner Cognitive Africa”: Some Doubts About Sorensen's Evolutionary Epistemology of Thought Experiments. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 12 (2):207-224.
    Roy Sorensen advances an evolutionary explanation of our capacity for thought experiments which doubles as a naturalized epistemological justification. I argue Sorensens explanation fails to satisfy key elements of environmental-selectionist explanations and so fails to carry epistemic force. I then argue that even if Sorensen succeeds in showing the adaptive utility of our capacity, he still fails to establish its reliability and hence epistemic utility. I conclude Sorensens account comes to little more than a just-so story.
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  33.  30
    Hsiang-Ke Chao, Szu-Ting Chen & Roberta L. Millstein (2013). Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics. Springer.
    This volume addresses fundamental issues in the philosophy of science in the context of two most intriguing fields: biology and economics. Written by authorities and experts in the philosophy of biology and economics, Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics provides a structured study of the concepts of mechanism and causality in these disciplines and draws careful juxtapositions between philosophical apparatus and scientific practice. By exploring the issues that are most salient to the contemporary philosophies of (...) and economics and by presenting comparative analyses, the book serves as a platform not only for gaining mutual understanding between scientists and philosophers of the life sciences and those of the social sciences, but also for sharing interdisciplinary research that combines both philosophical concepts in both fields. -/- The book begins by defining the concepts of mechanism and causality in biology and economics, respectively. The second and third parts investigate philosophical perspectives of various causal and mechanistic issues in scientific practice in the two fields. These two sections include chapters on causal issues in the theory of evolution; experiments and scientific discovery; representation of causal relations and mechanism by models in economics. The concluding section presents interdisciplinary studies of various topics concerning extrapolation of life sciences and social sciences, including chapters on the philosophical investigation of conjoining biological and economic analyses with, respectively, demography, medicine and sociology. (shrink)
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  34.  1
    Angela Cirigliano, Orlando Cenciarelli, Andrea Malizia, Carlo Bellecci, Pasquale Gaudio, Michele Lioj & Teresa Rinaldi (forthcoming). Biological Dual-Use Research and Synthetic Biology of Yeast. Science and Engineering Ethics:1-10.
    In recent years, the publication of the studies on the transmissibility in mammals of the H5N1 influenza virus and synthetic genomes has triggered heated and concerned debate within the community of scientists on biological dual-use research; these papers have raised the awareness that, in some cases, fundamental research could be directed to harmful experiments, with the purpose of developing a weapon that could be used by a bioterrorist. Here is presented an overview regarding the dual-use concept and its related (...)
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  35.  2
    Gabriele Gramelsberger (2013). The Simulation Approach in Synthetic Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (2):150-157.
    Synthetic biology and systems biology are often highlighted as antagonistic strategies for dealing with the overwhelming complexity of biology . However, a closer view of contemporary engineering methods and of the situation in biology demonstrates that tinkering in the lab is increasingly supported by rational design methods. In other words: Synthetic biology and systems biology are merged by the use of computational techniques. These computational techniques are needed because the intrinsic complexity of biomolecular environments (...)
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  36.  4
    Angela N. H. Creager (2009). Phosphorus-32 in the Phage Group: Radioisotopes as Historical Tracers of Molecular Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 40 (1):29-42.
    The recent historiography of molecular biology features key technologies, instruments and materials, which offer a different view of the field and its turning points than preceding intellectual and institutional histories. Radioisotopes, in this vein, became essential tools in postwar life science research, including molecular biology, and are here analyzed through their use in experiments on bacteriophage. Isotopes were especially well suited for studying the dynamics of chemical transformation over time, through metabolic pathways or life cycles. Scientists labeled (...)
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  37.  44
    Melinda Fagan, Experimental Standards: Evaluating Success in Stem Cell Biology.
    This paper aims to bring the epistemic dimensions of stem cell experiments out of the background, and show that they can be critically evaluated. After introducing some basic concepts of stem cell biology, I set out the current “gold standard” for experimental success in that field (§2). I then trace the origin of this standard to a 1988 controversy over blood stem cells (§3). Understanding the outcome of this controversy requires attention to the details of experimental techniques, the (...)
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  38.  5
    David Wÿss Rudge (1998). A Bayesian Analysis of Strategies in Evolutionary Biology. Perspectives on Science 6 (4):341-360.
    : Most work done in philosophy of experiment has focused on experiments taken from the domain of physics. The present essay tests whether Allan Franklin's (1984, 1986, 1989, 1990) philosophy of experiment developed in the context of high energy physics can be extended to include examples from evolutionary biology, such as H. B. D. Kettlewell's (1955, 1956, 1958) famous studies of industrial melanism in the peppered moth, Biston betularia. The analysis demonstrates that many of the techniques used by (...)
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  39.  15
    Edoardo Datteri (2009). Simulation Experiments in Bionics: A Regulative Methodological Perspective. Biology and Philosophy 24 (3):301-324.
    Bionic technologies connecting biological nervous systems to computer or robotic devices for therapeutic purposes have been recently claimed to provide novel experimental tools for the investigation of biological mechanisms. This claim is examined here by means of a methodological analysis of bionics-supported experimental inquiries on adaptive sensory-motor behaviours. Two broad classes of bionic systems (regarded here as hybrid simulations of the target biological system) are identified, which differ from each other according to whether a component of the biological target system (...)
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  40.  15
    Michael Lynch & Kathleen Jordan (1995). Instructed Actions in, of and as Molecular Biology. Human Studies 18 (2-3):227 - 244.
    A recurrent theme in ethnomethodological research is that of instructed actions. Contrary to the classic traditions in the social and cognitive sciences, which attribute logical priority or causal primacy to instructions, rules, and structures of action, ethnomethodologists investigate the situated production of actions which enable such formulations to stand as adequate accounts. Consequently, a recitation of formal structures can not count as an adequate sociological description, when no account is given of the local production ofwhat those structures describe. The natural (...)
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  41.  6
    Raoul Gervais & Erik Weber (2013). Inferential Explanations in Biology. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 44 (3):356-364.
    Among philosophers of science, there is now a widespread agreement that the DN model of explanation is poorly equipped to account for explanations in biology. Rather than identifying laws, so the consensus goes, researchers explain biological capacities by constructing a model of the underlying mechanism.We think that the dichotomy between DN explanations and mechanistic explanations is misleading. In this article, we argue that there are cases in which biological capacities are explained without constructing a model of the underlying mechanism. (...)
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  42.  16
    Wim J. van der Steen & Vincent K. Y. Ho (2006). Diets and Circadian Rhythms: Challenges From Biology for Medicine. Acta Biotheoretica 54 (4):267-275.
    Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and gastrointestinal disorders such as stomach ulcers are often treated with drugs. NSAIDs, a common treatment in rheumatoid arthritis, may cause stomach ulcers which call for additional medications, notably antacids in the sense of drugs that suppress acid secretion by the stomach. Infection with Helicobacter pylori also plays a role in the ulcers. The infection is typically treated with antibiotics added to antacids. Considering NSAIDs and antacids, we suspect that overmedication is common to the (...)
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  43.  10
    Heiner Fangerau & Irmgard Müller (2007). Scientific Exchange: Jacques Loeb (1859–1924) and Emil Godlewski (1875–1944) as Representatives of a Transatlantic Developmental Biology. [REVIEW] Studies in History and Philosophy of Science Part C 38 (3):608-617.
    The German–American physiologist Jacques Loeb (1859–1924) and the Polish embryologist Emil Godlewski, jr. (1875–1944) contributed many valuable works to the body of developmental biology. Jacques Loeb was world famous at the beginning of the twentieth century for his development and demonstration of artificial parthenogenesis in 1899 and his experiments on regeneration. He served as a role model for the younger Polish experimenter Emil Godlewski, who began his career as a researcher like Loeb at the Zoological Station in Naples. (...)
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  44.  12
    Frank J. Bruggeman (2007). Systems Biology: At Last an Integrative Wet and Dry Biology. Biological Theory 2 (2):183-188.
    The progress of the molecular biosciences has been so enormous that a discipline studying how cellular functioning emerges out of the behaviors of their molecular constituents has become reality. Systems biology studies cells as spatiotemporal networks of interacting molecules using an integrative approach of theory , experimental biology , and quantitative network-wide analytical measurement . Its aim is to understand how molecules jointly bring about life. Systems biology is rapidly discovering principles governing the functioning of molecular networks (...)
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  45.  10
    M. Jeuken (1983). Thinking About Mind and Matter From Biology. Acta Biotheoretica 32 (2):79-92.
    In biology, man is an object of research; therefore the question might be asked whether inspirations can go from biological data to the reflections on the mind-matter relation in man. The social aspect of man, as treated by sociobiology, is left out of consideration. The knowledge that man is mind, or has a mind, is no result of biological research. It is a datum from philosophy. The biologist, however, is living in a culture which knows about the mental character (...)
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  46.  4
    Edmond A. Murphy (1982). The Analysis and Interpretation of Experiments: Some Philosophical Issues. Journal of Medicine and Philosophy 7 (4):307-326.
    The epistemology and ontology of experimentation are discussed in depth with special reference to biology and medicine. Two types of experiments are distinguished: exploratory (or "blazing") and consolidating. They Have objectives and canons that are strikingly different. A contrast is drawn between the literalism of the most pragmatic scientists and the formalism of most statisticians. The terms and notions of the one may have imperfect correspondence with those of the other, or perhaps none at all. The dangers are (...)
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  47. Melinda Bonnie Fagan, Philosophy of Stem Cell Biology- an Introduction.
    This review surveys three central issues in philosophy of stem cell biology: the nature of stem cells, stem cell experiments, and explanations of stem cell capacities. First, I argue that the fundamental question “what is a stem cell?” has no single substantive answer. Instead, the core idea is explicated via an abstract model, which accounts for many features of stem cell experiments. The second part of this essay examines several of these features: uncertainty, model organisms, and manipulability. (...)
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  48. Simon Beck (2004). Our Identity, Responsibility and Biology. Philosophical Papers:3-14.
    Eric Olson argues in The Human Animal that thought-experiments involving body-swapping do not in the end offer any support to psychological continuity theories, nor do they pose any threat to his Biological View. I argue that he is mistaken in at least the second claim.
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  49.  4
    Cheryl A. Logan (2001). "[A]Re Norway Rats... Things?": Diversity Versus Generality in the Use of Albino Rats in Experiments on Development and Sexuality. [REVIEW] Journal of the History of Biology 34 (2):287 - 314.
    In America by the 1930s, albino rats had become a kind of generic standard in research on physiology and behavior that de-emphasized diversity across species. However, prior to about 1915, the early work of many of the pioneer rat researchers in America and in central Europe reflected a strong interest in species differences and a deep regard for diversity. These scientists sought broad, often medical, generality, but their quest for generality using a standard animal did not entail a de-emphasis of (...)
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  50. Elisabeth A. Lloyd (1999). Evolutionary Psychology: The Burdens or Proof. [REVIEW] Biology and Philosophy 14 (2):211-33.
    I discuss two types of evidential problems with the most widely touted experiments in evolutionary psychology, those performed by Leda Cosmides and interpreted by Cosmides and John Tooby. First, and despite Cosmides and Tooby's claims to the contrary, these experiments don't fulfil the standards of evidence of evolutionary biology. Second Cosmides and Tooby claim to have performed a crucial experiment, and to have eliminated rival approaches. Though they claim that their results are consistent with their theory but (...)
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